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Full text of "The Kindergarten-primary magazine"

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SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER, 1908 




INDEX TO CONTENTS 



A Practical Suggestion to Kindergartners 

The Kindergarten Program . : 

The Use and Abuse of Design 

Day By Day With Nature-For the Kinder- 
garten and Primary Grades, 

Plans for Primary Grades, 

The Busy Bee, .... 

Suggestions for the Kindergarten and Pri- 
mary, 

The Doctor's Motor Car 

Municipal Playgrounds In Manhattan, 

Guatemala Schools, - - 

Editorial, - 

Folk and Fairy Stories 

Drawing, Cutting, Folding and Paper Tear- 
ing - 

The Swing 

Miscellaneous .... 





Dr. Jenny B. MerrifitfZ^ — 1- 
Harriette Melissa Mills, 2 

Mae B. Higgons, Ph. B. 10 

Mary A. Proud foot, A. M. 14 

15 
- - - 16 



Bertha Johnston, 
Bertha Johnston, 
Carol Aronovici 



- 18 

- 19 
- 20 

25 

26 

Richard Thomas Wjrche, 27 



LileoA Clajcton, - - 23 
Robert Lewis Stevenson 29 



33 



Volume XXI, No. I. 



$1.00 per Year/15 cents per Copy 



BOSTON 



■ Miss Lacvira. Fisher's 
W TRAINING SCHOOL 
W for K1NDERGARTNERS 

W formal Course, 2 years. 

■ Post-Graduate Course 

J Special Course 

For circulars address 
292 Marlborough St. Boston Mass 



Kindergarten Training 
School 

82 SI. Stephen Street, Boston 

Normal Course, two years 

For Circular* dddrett 

Miss LUCY HARRIS SYrtONDS 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 

FROEBEL SCHOOL OF KINDER- 
GARTEN NORMAL GLASSES 

BOSTON MASS 
Regular Two Years' Course. 
Post Graduate Course. Special Courses 
Sixteenth Year. 

Far Circular. a<tdr»* 

Miss Rust, Pierce Building 
Copley Square 



Springfield Kindergarten 

LTI 

fflVo Y«are" Course. Terms, $100 per year; 
Apply lo 
HATTIE TWICHELL 

SPRINOFIEI.D-LONGMUADOW. MASS. 



BOSTON 




Perry Kindergarten Normal School 

Mrs. ANNIE MOSELEY PERRY 

Principal 
18 Huntington Ave.. Boston. Mass. 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 

134 NEWBURY STREET BOSTON 

Regular Two Years' Course 

Special One Year Course for graduate students 

Students' Home at the Marenholz 

For circular address 

LUCY WHEELOCK 



BOSTON 

The Garland 
Kindergarten Training School 

NORMAL COURSE, 2 YEARS. 
HOME-MAKING COURSE, 1 YEAR. 

IV*. MARGARET J. STANNARD, Principal 

19 Chestnut Street 



Milwaukee State Normal School 
KINDERGARTEN 

Training Department 

Two-years' course for graduates of four- 
years' high Schools. Faculty of twenty- 
five. Special advantages. Tuition free to 
residents of Wisconsin; $4oper year to oth- 
ers. School opens the first Tuesday In Sep- 
tember. Send for catalogue to 
NINA C. VANDEWALKER, Director. 

OAKLAND KINDERGARTEN 

TRAINING CLASS 

State Accredited List, 

Sixteenth year opens Sept. 3. Iy07« 

Address, 

Mist Grace Everett Barnard 

■374 Franklin Street, Oakland, Cal. 



PORT 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

FOR 

KII\DERGARTNERS 

IN AFFILIATION WITH 

THE NEW YORK FROEBEL ' NORMAL 

For circulars, information, etc.. address 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal 
179 West Avenue Bridgeport, Conn. 



TTbeffannfeB.Smitb 

ffroebel Ikinbergarten 

anfcTTramfng Scbool 

Good Kindergarten teachers have 
no trouble in securing well- paying- 
positions. In fact, we have found the 
demand for our graduates greater than 
we can supply. One and two years 
course. For catalogue, address, 

FANNIE A. SMITH. PrindpsL 
Lafayette Street. 
Bridgeport. Conn. 



liss Norton's Training School 

FOR KIHDERGARTNERS 
Portland, Maine 

Two Year's Course 
For circulars address 

16 Dow Street Portland Me. 
Miss Abby N. Norton 



The Repton School 

Tarrytown-on-the-Hudson, New York 

A School for boys from 6 to 16. A school that trains (or manhood. 

Send tor catalogue, which tells of full equipment. 
Splendid building, $100,000. Fine grounds, 100 Acres. 

Tuition, $4.00 to $5.00 for Everything. 

Address HEADMASTER. 



Missionary 



September and October are Mis- 
sionary months with this magazine. 

Every aubscriber who renew* for one year will hu>e the 
privilege of •ending the magazine six month* free to any 
person nbt now receiving it. Thu* you can spread kinder- 
garten literature without expehae to yourself. Select some 
one who can be helped and »end it a*' a gift to a friend. 



Volume XXI. SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER, 1908 Number | 



Tke Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 

MANISTEE, MICHIGAN, and NEW YORK, N. Y. 
THE KINDERGARTEN MAGAZINE COMPANY, Publishers 

Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational Theory 
and Practise from the Kindergarten thru the University 

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE . 

Jenny B. Merrill, Ph. D., Supervisor Kinder- E. Lyell Earle, Ph. D., 

gartens, Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond. Managing Editor 

Mar i RuEF Hofer Daniel Snedden, Ph. D. 

Teachers College Teachers College 

Harrietts M. Mills Walter F. Dearborn, Ph. D. 

New York Froebel Normal University of Wisconsin 

John Hall, A. M. Ernest Farrington, Ph. D. 

University of Cincinnati University of California 

Ernest N. Henderson.Ph. D., Bertha Johnston 

Adelphi College, Brooklyn New York Frcebel Normal 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York. N. Y. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE is published on the first of each month, ex- 
cept JULY and AUGUST, from 278 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 

THE SUBSCRIPTION PRICE is $1. 00 per year, payable in advance. Single copies, 15c. 

POSTAGE IS PREPAID by the publishers for all subscriptions in the United States, Hawaiian 
Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
and Mexico. For Canada add 20c. and for all other countries in the Postal Union add 40c. for postage. 

NOTICE OF EXPIRATION is sent, but it is assumed that a continuance of the subscription is 
desired until notice of discontinuance is received. When sending notice of change of address, 
both the old and new addresses must be given. 

REMITTANCES should be sent by draft, Express Order or Money Order, payable to The 
Kindergarten Magazine Company. If a local check is sent, it must include 10c. exchange. 

Make all remittances for subscriptions and advertising to 
Kindergarten Magazine Co., Manistee, Mich. 

J. H. SHULTS, Business Manager, Manistee, Mich. 
Copyrighted, 190 8, by 'THE KINDERGARTEN MAGAZINE CO. Entered as Second Class Matter 
In the Postofnce at Manistee, Michigan. 



To the Public. 

As per announcement elsewhere I have assumed the business respon- 
sibilities of the magazine, and my purpose is to vouch for its regular ap- 
pearance on the 27th of each school month so long as I shall be connected 
with it in my present capacity. As the April-May and Sept.-Oct. num- 
bers were issued as one, subscribers and advertisers will receive credit for 
two issues or one-fifth of the school year, hence subscriptions that would 
have ended in June will be continued to include the November number, 
and advertising contracts will be extended accordingly. 

As a means of avoiding errors in payments through our agents or oth- 
erwise we shall publish each month a complete list, arranged alphabeti- 
;aSly of all persons credited with any sum whatever on the magazine ac- 
count. Next month's statement will date back to include August. 

Our plan is to publish more kindergarten matter with a little less bul- 
<iness and to spend the entire receipts from the magazine and perhaps 
nore in its publication. It is not undertaken for profit. J. H. SHULTS. 



The Kraus Seminary 
for Kinderge^rtners 

Regular and Extension 

Courses 

MRS. MARIA KSAVS-SOELTE v 

Hotel San Remo Central Park West 

7Sth Street, New York City 



THE ELLIlYiAN SCHOOL 
KINDERGARTEN NORMAL CUSS 

POST GRADUATE CLASSES 

Twenty-Fifth Year 

167 W. 57th street, New York City 

Opposite Carne<r!e Hail 



MISS JENNY HUNTER'S 
Kindergarten Training School 

15 West 127th St., NEW YORK CITY 

Two Years* Course, connecting class and 

Primary Methods. 
Address 

2079 Fifth Ave., New York City 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information Address 
Miss CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal 
Central Park West and 63d st„ New York 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

or THE 

Buffalo Kindergarten Association 



MISS FXLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue BUFFALO, N V 



Affordbj Kindergarten Normal 

School for Day and Resident Pupils 

Re-opens Oct. 7, 1907 

Junior, Senior and Special Classes 
riodel and Practice Kindergartens 

JLAURAM. BEATTY ELSABETH S1LKAN 

Associate Principals 

2218 orth Cl-orlts St., feeltinde, fid. 



BALTIMORE TRAINING SCHOOL 
FOR KINDERGARTNERS 

EMMA GRANT SAULSBURY l„. . 
AMANDA DOUGLAS SAULS8URY f " mc,pa,s 

Normal course, two years, 
Post-Graduate course, one year. 

Address, 516 Park Ave. 

Baltimore, Maryland 



EAST ORANGE, 



NEW JERSEY 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

kindergarten Normal Training School 

September 24. 1907 Two Years' Course. 



n!5S CORA WEBB PEET 

(« Washing!) Str-«t. EAST ORANGE, N. J.' 



874 



Kindergarten Normal Institutions 



1908 



1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON. D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today 
SUSAN PLESSNER P0LL0K, Principal. Teachers' Training Course, two years 

Summer Training Classes atMt. Chatauq.ua— Mountain Z,ake Park- 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 

ADELPHI COLLEGE 

Lxfayitte Avenue, St. James and Clifton Places. BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 

Normal School for Kindergartners 

Two Years' Course. Address Prof. Anna E. Harvey, Supt 



Established 18Q6 



The New York 

Froebel Normal 

KINDERGARTEN and PRIMARY TRAINING 



College Preparatory. Teachers' Academic. Music 

E. LYELL EARL, Ph. D., Principal. 
HARR1TTEE MILLS, Head of Department of Kindergarten Training. 
MARIE RUEP HOFER, Department of Music. 



Eleventh Year opens Wednesday, Sept, 18, 1907 

Write for circulars. Address, 

59 West 96th Street, New York, N. Y. 



THE PHILADELPHIA TRAINING SCHOOL 
FOR KINDERGARTNERS 

R.E.CPCNS OCTOBER. 2. 1906 

lunror Mentor and Sper.al Classes 

Model Kindergarten 

Address MRS M. L. VAN KIRK. Principal 

'333 Pine Street • Philadelphia. Pepna. 



Sis Training School 
for Kindergartners 

under the niiwtinn of Miss Caroline M C" Hart 
will re-open September 2d. l'Ji'7. at IMS VVulnut Street. 
Philadelphia. The wmk will include Junior, senior 
Graduate and Normal Trainers' Courses. Mothers- 
Classes, and a .Model Kindergarten, lor ]>ailtrul&ra. 
address Miss CAROLINE M. ('. IIAKT, 

The Pines, Rtitlcilcr. Pa. 

PITTSBURG AND ALLEGHENY 

KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

Mist HARRIET NISL, Director 



, Sixteenth Year begins October 2, I9GT 
For catalogue address, 

Mrs. WILLIAM McCRACKSN, Secretory 
3489 Fifth Avenue, PITTSBURGH, PAr 



WASHINGTON. D. C. 

The Columbia Kindergarten 
Training School 

*tJ-S California Avenue, corner Connecticut Avenue 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 

NORMAL COURSE 

Principals f | ARA Katharine Lh-i-ikcott 
' ISusan Chadick Barfs 



SUMMER SCHOOL 



OF THE SOUTH 



UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE 

KNOXVILLE 

Seventh Session; Six weeks 
June 23-July 31, 1908 
Best summer school for teachers. 

Reorganized and enlarged to 
the increasing demands of pro- 
gressive teachers. 

Consecutive courses of two, 
three, and four years, with direc- 
tions and outlines for home study 
for those who desire it. 

Courses in Kindergarten, Pri- 
mary Methods, Music, Drawing, 
Manual Training, Nature Study 
and Biology, including Human 
Physiology and Hygiene, Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, Forestry, School 
Gardening, Geography, Geology, 
Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 
English, Literature, the Bible, 
Latin, Greek, German, French, 
Spanish, History, Economics, So- 
ciology, Psychology, Education. 

From 60 to 75 public lectures, 
readings and music recitals of the 
highest type. 

No charge except registration 
fee of $10. 

Official announcement ready 
about the first of March. Address 

P. P. CLAXTON, 
Superintendent. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Resident home for a limited number of students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H.N. HiBinbotham. Pre. . Mrs. P. D. Armour, V-Pres. 

SARAH E. HANSON,, Principal 

Credit at the 

Northwestern and Chicago Universities 

For_p«rticul.rs address Eva B. Whitmore, Supt 

6 E. Madison St., cor. nicb. ave,, Chicago 



The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Richmond, Va., 
Alice N. Baker, Principal 
Two years' course and Post 
Graduate course. 

For further information apply 
to 14 W. Main street. 



PESTAL0ZZ1-FR0EBEL 

Kindergarten Training School 

at CHICAGO COHnONS, 180 Grand Ave.' 
firs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent.! 
diss Amelia Hofer, Principal, 
TWELFTH YEAR. 
• r Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home flaking. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settlement 
movement. Fine equipment. For circulars 
and information write to 1 

MRS BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER 
180 GRAND AVE., CHICAGO 



CHICAGO FROEBEL ASSOCIATION 

Training Class for Kindergartners 

Established 1876 

Two Years' Course. Special Courses under Pro- 
fessors of University of Chicago receive University 
credits. For circulars apply to 

firs. ALICE H. PUTNAH or 1 /»//««./» 

nis. n. l. siieLDON / />--,«,,,«<, 

1008 Fine Arts Building , Chicago, III. 



CHICAGO 

KINDERGARTEN 

INSTITUTE 

Gertrude House, 40 Scott Street 



Regular Course— Two Years. 
Post-graduate Course — One Year. 
Supplementary Course — One Year. 
Non-professional Home Making 

Course — One Year. 

University Credits 
Residence for students at Gertrude 

House. 



DIRECTORS 

Miss CAROLINE C. CRONISE 
Mr«. MARY B. PAGE 
Mrs. ETHEL ROE L1NDGREN 
Miss FRANCES B, NEWTON 

Send for Circular* 



The Teachers' College 

Of Indianapolis 

For the Training of Kindergart- 
ners and Primary Teachers 

Regular Course two years. Preparatory 
Course, one year. Post Graduate Course for 
Normal Teachers, one year. Primary training 

e part of the regular work. 
Classes formed in September and February. 

90 Free Scholarships granted 

Each year. Special Primary CIss£ in nay and 
June. Send for Catalogue. 

Mrs. Eliza A. 3!aker, Pres. 

The William N. Jackson Memorial Institute, 
23d end Alabama Streets. 

OHIO, Toledo, 2313 Ashland Ave.' 



THE MISSES LAW'S 

Ftoebel Kindergarten Medical Supervision. 

TRAINING SCHOOL Zt r * on ^ al "" t ]?' 1 ; 
Thirty ■ five practice 
(choots. Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

9 MARY E. LAW. M.D., Principal. 



Kindergarten Training 

Exceptional advantages- daily practice- 
Lectures from Professors of Obcrlin College 
and privilege of elective courses in tbe 
College at special rates— Charges Moderate — 
Graduates readily find positions. 15th year 
begins September 23d' 1907. For Catalog- 
ue adress Secretary 

OBERLIN KINDBRGARDEN ASSOCIATION, 
Drawer K, Oberlin, Ohio, 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING 

Two Years Course leading to Certificate. 

Four Years Course leading to Bachelor's 
Degree. 

Special Courses for Graduate Kindergar- 
tens. 
BERTHA PAYNE, Head of Department 



For circulars of Information, address 
Nathaniel Butler, Dean. 



TRAININO SCHOOL?} 

-___ __ OF THE 

Louisville Free Kindergarten 
. Association 

Fceatty: 1» g Xoaltvlllt, gy. 

Miss Mary Hill. Supervisor * •* • 

Mrs. Robert D Allen. Senior Critic and 

Training 'feather. 
Miss Alexina G Boo'h, History and Phil- 

osophy of Education, j 

Miss Jane Akin, Primary Sunday Scliool 
Methods. ' 

Miss Allene Seaton, Manual Work r" 
Miss Frances Ingram. Nature Study 
Miss Anna Moore, Primary Methods. 
Miss Margaret Byers. Art work 
<ew Classes will be organized September 3. 1007 



Try the American Kindergarten 
Supply House, Manistee, Mich. 
Price List free. 



Cleveland Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

Corner of Cedar and Watklos Aves., CLEVELAND. 0. 
Founded in 1804. 
Course of study. und«r direction of Elizabeth Harrison, covers 
two yean in Cleveland, loading to senior and normal courses in the 



Chicago Kindergarten College 



K. Mi 






Atlanta Kindergarten Normal 

School 

Two Years' Course of Study 

Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

Willette A. Allen, Principal 

6J9 Peachlree Street, . Atlanta, Gl. 



OHIO COLUMBUS 

Kindergarten Normal Training School 

EIGHTEENTH YEAR BEGINS SEPTEHBER 25. 1907 

Froebelian Philosophy. Gifts. Occupation. Stories. Games, Music and Drau 

Psychology and Nature Work taught at Ohio State University --two years' coi 

For information, address Ei izabetm N Samt 



I7lb aim Bros* 
Streets 



Normal Training School 

of the KATE BALDWIN FREE 
KINDERGARTEN ASSOCIATION 
Established 1899 
HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of The 
Training School and Supervisor of Kinder- 
gartens. Application for entrance to the 
Training Schools should be made to Mrs. n . 
R. Sasnett. Corresponding Secretary, 117 
Bolton Street, EAST SAVANNAH, QA. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 
FOR KiNBEROAHTNEBS 

Will Open OCT. 1st at 14 WBST MAIN STREET 

DRAWING. SINGING. 
PHYSICAL CULTURE 

ALICE N. PARKER • • • Principal 

Two years course in Froebel's theory 
and practice. Also a third year course for 
graduates. 

Special Lectures 



Grand Rapids 
Kindergarten Training School 

Winter and Summer Terms 

September i7, 190?; to June 9, 19'Qtf 
July 2 to August 24; 1908 

Certificate. Diploma and Normal Courses 

CLARA WHEELER, Principai 

NELLIE AUSTIN, Secretary 

Auditorium Building 23 rountftlrt St. 

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH . 

mi i , saaaa— 

All kinds of Construction Material a t 
lowest Prices kept in stock by Th 
American Kindergarten Supply Hen 



Words by Mart A. PROUDrooT. 
Moderate 



£# 



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SPINNING SONG. 



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Melody by F 



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Z5I)£ IKinfcergarUn-^primar? Mfcagasine 

VOL. XXI— SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1908— NO. 1, 



TO THE SUBSCRIBERS AND FRIENDS OF THE 
KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE- 
GREETING. 

The Kindergarten Primary Magazine Co. has 
been reorganized, and will hereafter have its main 
business office in Manistee, Mich., with editorial 
and branch offices in New York. The business de- 
partment will be in the hands of Mr. J. H. Shults, 
and the editorial under Dr. E. Lyell Earle, with 
Miss Bertha Johnston, Dr. Jennie B. Merrill and 
Prof. Harriette M. Mills as special contributors. 

All subscriptions, advertising terms, back pay- 
ments and everything pertaining to the business 
department of the Magazine should be sent directly 
to the Kindergarten Magazine Co., Manistee, 
Mich., and all checks, money orders, etc. should be 
made payable in the same way. 

Many reasons contributed to the effecting of 
this change. First of all there is one Kindergar- 
ten Magazine already appearing in the East, and 
the West seems to be the natural headquarters 
of this publication. , . 

Secondly: The Kindergarten Magazine pub- 
lished apart from a business house must always 
be a losing venture, inasmuch as the number of 
kindergarten teachers is relatively small, their 
salaries not at all proportioned to the excellence 
of the work they do, or to the quality of the prep- 
aration they receive. 

Thirdly: Advertisers, who are the real support 
of every paying magazine, are inclined to shun 
publications appealing to a relatively small class 
such as kindergarten teachers, and consequently 
the publishers of the magazine are compelled to 
make a pure contribution to the cause of Kinder- 
garten Education. 

The history of kindergarten publications in 
America and elsewhere has been a record of sacri- 
fice and devotion on the part of a few noble women 
and occasionally a man, a history that might well 
appear in pamphlet form and enlighten the Kin- 
dergarten World. 

We all know what such women as the Misses 
Amalie and Marie Ruef Hofer, Miss Vanderwalker, 
Miss Bertha Johnston and others have done to 
support the cause, not only with time, brains, and 
exhausting energy, but also with actual money 
spent, a return for which can never be made. The 
present publishers of the Kindergarten Primary 
Magazine are glad to make this public announce- 
ment, because they have investigated the business 
methods of the magazine to the present time, and 
know as no one else can know the sacrifice made 
by these noble women. 

To that long list we should add contributors to 
the magazine whose name is almost legion, who 
have given their articles largely free and have 
done their best to sustain the standard of Kinder- 
garten Education. 

The history of the magazine under Dr. Earle 
during the two years has been the same as that 
of the past fifteen years. It has been carried in 
New York City with a large annual outlay, for 
which there can never be any monetary returns. 
The sole reason for this contribution on the part 
of the publishers was the effort to keep the 
magazine alive, to bring it out in accordance with 
its high standards when it threatened not to 
appear at all or to pass into doubtful hands. 

The future of the magazine, however, is 
absolutely secured. Mr. Shults is an established 
business man; Dr. Earle a successful editor. The 
problem of printing and publishing has been 
solved. The present reorganized company can 
promise that the high standard of excellence sus- 
tained in the past will not be lowered, and that 
the magazine shall appear promptly before the 



first of each month, and be in the hands of every 
kindergartner desiring its help. 

The magazine still has a mission, namely to 
assist in bringing the blessing of kindergarten 
training to all the children of America. The work 
must be a labor of love and interest in the cause. 
The publishers' hands must be sustained first, by 
increasing the number of subscriptions, secondly 
by recommending the magazine as a strong adver- 
tising medium, and thirdly, by sympathy and 
good will, as well as by the contribution of help- 
ful articles, and suggestions that every live kin- 
dergartner is able to produce. 

More rural one-room teachers, more principals, 
more superintendents, more fathers and mothers 
must be brought into sympathy and co-operation 
with the cause. In order to accomplish this pur- 
pose the magazine must have a far wider circula- 
tion than any kindergarten periodical in America 
has ever had, especially among primary teachers. 
To this end we are willing to do our share, and 
every subscriber who will send us one dollar within 
the next month can renew her own subscription 
and can have the privilege of sending one copy 
six months entirely free to any person whose name 
is not already on our list. 

Now let us have a prompt, quick response from 
every kindergarten subscriber. Send us $1.00 by 
first mail after reading this, and if you do not 
recall now any person to whom you would like to 
have the magazine sent, we will credit you for 
one and one-half years and you can send the name 
in later. 

The motto of the magazine is "Onward and 
Upward." We earnestly ask every subscriber to 
interest two or three others in the magazine, and 
she will have a material part in contributing to 
this onward and upward progress. 

The September and October numbers are issued as one, 
but the magazine will hereafter appear each school month. 

A Practical Suggestion to Kindergartners 

From a Supervisor of Drawing — being an Extract 
From a Summer Letter to Dr. Merrill. 

*I did so enjoy what Miss A. said about 
kindergarten work. 

I believe the time is surely coming when 
so much paper work must go. If I had 
those little children I would have them use 
clay and make toy dishes, dolls and animals. 
That is what they like best and what they 
would prefer to keep. As for the rarest 
vase in the world they would cheerfully 
trade it off for a lead tea-pot. 

Now if they make toy dolls of clay, when 
they come to draw they will not be so deter- 
mined to put the arms on the neck, nor six 
fingers on each hand, nor make the feet of 
animals look like rosettes, because they 
cannot fashion such details from clay. 

Children soon tire even of toys, but I 
believe they cling most fondly to dishes and 
dolls. Mechanical contrivances are only a 
passing joy. 

*What Miss A. said: "I intend to experiment 
upon some simple durable materials next year." 
\ Kindergartners Interested in these suggestions are 
urged to experiment and report results to the magazine. 

/ 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



THE KINDERGARTEN PROGRAM 

By HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS. 

Method — Theoretical and Practical Con- 
sideration. 

The principle of unity which determines 
the general attitude toward the pupil, 
toward the aim of education, the selection 
of subject matter and educative materials, 
determines, also, method in education. 
Difficult and obscure as are the problems of 
method, we are constrained to render an 
account of them in the administration of 
the daily program of the kindergarten ; and 
especially are we concerned with method 
as regulative of the lesson exercises with 
groups of children of various ages. 

Whether we look at method from the 
viewpoint of the teacher or from that of the 
child, we are concerned with plans of action 
for the control of experience, but it is the 
activity of the child or pupil that constitutes 
the fundamental factor in the concept of 
method as applied to educative processes. 
The endowment of power or capacity to 
act, is the pivotal element in human de- 
velopment. That this power is psychical 
we believe ; yet we cannot image the begin- 
ning of psychic manifestations any more 
than we can image the beginnings of physi- 
cal and intellectual activities. We only 
know activity as begun; and further, we 
know that through continuous and progres- 
sive manifestations of activity under vary- 
ing forms, there is revealed an individual 
whose uniqueness vindicates the right to be 
called a person. Activity reveals that in- 
definable characteristic which no other in- 
dividual possesses or ever can possess, and 
whichbeludes description and baffles inter- 
pretation. But we cannot conceive the ele- 
ment which reveals a self as sheer activity. 
Activity apart from a medium, or the ele- 
ment in which to act, is unthinkable ; and 
in seeking the coefficient of the power to 
act, we predicate environment with its con- 
stitutive, many sided forms of experience. 

But what do we know of the genesis of 
experience? And have we any way of de- 
termining how the child's vague continnum 
of impressions becomes differentiated from 
the total environment into an actual exper- 
ience? Here, again, we meet an, as yet, 
insurmountable obstacle, since we do not 
understand in any adequate manner the 
nature of experience, neither can we 
imagine the beginning of the experience 



process. We can only affirm, that at the 
kindergarten stage of development the 
worms of experience are fructifying child 
life and spirit, wakening "slumbering qual- 
ities and capacities (germs heart centres, 
and starting points.) in the child, as the 
sun's light, the earth's warmth, the 
materials of life and nourishment in the air 
and water act in spring on the seeds, germs, 
and sprouts of the plants;" and that all the 
processes of activity which ultimately bring 
these worms of experience under reproduc- 
tive and productive control, have begun 
their functioning. But the method of their 
functioning in the initial stages is hidden 
within the mystery of the undifferentiated 
self. 

Yet the problem of method is none other 
than this — by what means does a child get 
control of a world other than himself, and 
in getting control of this "other," gets con- 
trol of himself? We answer at once; it is 
by activity that these ends are accom- 
plished. But activity may be mere mechani- 
cal activity which is continuous; e. q., the 
governor of an engine is active, and its 
activity is continuous. Clearly, this is a 
form of activity due to external and me- 
chanical causes ; while we are concerned 
with the category of self activity, stimu- 
lated, indeed, from without, but, to use 
Froebel's own words, "actually and finally 
determined by the innermost working of 
the soul." It is that form of activity whose 
strivings are characterized by continuity 
and progression. Self-activity has just this 
dynamic element — the power of going on ; 
but its power is cumulative in both subjec- 
tive and objective relationships. By it the 
individual secures progressive development 
and control of a world other than himself.* 

Admitting the dynamic character of this 
force which yields progressive development 
of child life and objective experience, it is 
pertinent here to ask the following ques- 
tions : Are there distinct stages to be noted 
in this movement? Or, stated in another 
form, What are the modes of self activity 
by which the purposes of progression and 

*This idea of the vital element in education is 
by no means a product of recent educational 
thought, even though recent years have given the 
idea increasing practical application. Charles 
Hoole, a school master of the seventeenth century, 
translated the "Orbis Pictus" of Comenius; and in 
its preface, dated 1659, he advised teachers to 
consider this child-contributed factor in education, 
"it being the very basis of our profession to search 
into the way of children's taking hold by little and 
little of what we teach them." 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



control are achieved? Do these modes of 
activity fall into anything resembling an 
ordered series? What are the more impor- 
tant measures leading to a many-sided con- 
trol of experience? No final answers to 
these questions are possible; but the 
exigencies of daily practice require at least 
tentative answers as a working basis ; 
hence, we must give some account of our 
attitude towards these primary issues in 
practice. In attempting to meet these 
issues, many of the stages can be only 
noted; and no claim is made that any single 
one has, as yet, been worked over into com- 
plete harmony with every other issue. 

We believe that the modes of self-activity 
form a progressive and ascending series, 
moving toward the end of many sided con- 
trol of self and experience. But the process 
cannot be adequately imaged under the 
figure of a system of locks in a canal by 
means of which one level, rising to re- 
pletion, flows into the next higher level. 
The processes of the soul's development do 
not admit of close material analogic how- 
ever helpful they may be when used only 
as such. The processes by which the life 
of control develops must be conceived in 
terms of inter-action and inter-relation — 
each mode of activity from its initial move- 
ment continuing and reinforcing all its cor- 
relative activities. 

All that has been said in earlier discus- 
sions concerning the three common prob- 
lems in education, must now draw to a 
focus in our endeavor to understand the 
fourth and last of these problems with 
which this series deals — method in educa- 
tion. From the beginning, the law of or- 
ganic unity has been held as the principle 
of life and of education, and the ideal goal 
none other than an all-sided freedom for 
the individual and the race. Now between 
the law of unity and the ideal goal of free- 
dom, stands method, or the plans of action 
by which the law is demonstrated and the 
goal approximately won. It must be seen 
at once that Ave are not here dealing with 
the categories of mechanical activities, but 
with the categories of living activities — the 
plans of action of a living soul. Freedom 
is not predicated of mechanical facts; it be- 
longs to life, and hence cannot be won in 
slavery. Freedom can be attained only by 
a free soul in an environment conditioned 
by freedom; and method is nothing less 
than the life process seeking its own fulfill- 
ment through its own activity. 



Here we must grapple with the problem 
of method at close range. Leaving aside all 
problems of heredity, let us take our stand 
with the child before the implicit unity of 
its life has been subjected to the conditions 
and coersions of its environment, and see 
what constitutes its life. Clearly it is con- 
stituted by action. Describing the initial 
stages of action, we say that it is unregu- 
lated and aimless, a persistent doing. In- 
terpreting the activity, we find in persist- 
ence of this capacity, or power to do in the 
child, the germ of the will to do of adult 
life. Here, there is will potential, which, 
under processes of growth and development 
become will actual — the variable factor in 
the evolution of the will being difference in 
activity. But the life of action includes not 
only the capacity, or power to do, which is 
will; it includes, also the capacity, or power 
to. know, which is intellect. From one 
approach, the child's activity is the prime 
factor in the gradual emergence of will, and 
from another approach, activity is the prime 
factor in the development of the intellect. 
These — the will to do and the capacity to 
know — are, in a sense, terminal aspects of 
the soul's activity, which, through inter- 
action, inaugurate and extend the life of 
control of self and experience. 

It is not the purpose of this article to 
develop to any extent the method, or plans 
of action, by which intellectual control of 
experience is accomplished. It must suffice 
to indicate briefly that the principle of or- 
ganic unity is regulative of the processes of 
intellectual development. From this point 
of view, no single aspect or stage of the 
process by which either the will or the intel- 
lect developes is self-interpretive. For 
example, sensation as a factor in intellectual 
development can give no account of itself 
as a thing in itself. Sensation becomes in- 
telligible only when seen in its organic re- 
lationship to the total intellectual realm; 
and since intellectual life, prior to sensation, 
is unknowable, sensation and its content 
must be viewed as a sign pointing to a high- 
er form of the self's activity — the plane of 
perceptual consciousness. Yet here is not 
a final resting place. Perceptual conscious- 
ness with all its immediateness and practi- 
cal application, is marked by an increase of 
dynamic power. The power of attention, 
which, on the plane of sensation is exceed- 
ingly intermittent and undefined, becomes 
the essential characteristic of perceptual 
consciousness; and, since the control of ex- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



perience sought by consciousness on the 
plane of perception is mainly the control of 
external conditions, it has, as its coefficient, 
an increase of bodily movement. And yet, 
with all its immediateness, the plane of per- 
ceptual consciousness is charged with the 
element of "mental prospectiveness," or to 
use another term, with "feelings of mean- 
ing" that are promonitory of the plane of 
conceptual consciousness where mental life, 
while retaining all the immediacy and prac- 
ticalness of its correlative activity, percep- 
tion, passes beyond the mere externals of 
experience, and penetrates to the internal 
meaning of experience. Conceptual activ- 
ity as a method of control of experience has 
the capacity to transcend the limitations of 
time and space, and to move out into the 
world of general and universal truth, into 
freedom of thought, and, by the correspond- 
ing development of will, into freedom of 
action. 

However, it is the method of self activity 
as will that enlists our interest. Let us now 
return to the little child with his manifesta- 
tions of persistent physical activity. No 
one who has watched an infant can deny 
that physical development is one result of 
the eager restless activities of the child. 
Doing and the consequent feeling of doing 
which prompts to the repetition of the 
activity, are factors in the method of con- 
trol of self and experience. The inarticu- 
late sound which the child makes penetrates 
the awakening consciousness, and there fol- 
lows repetition of the sound — a kind of self- 
imitation. Again, the satisfaction with 
which the infant continues the sound, or 
repeats a movement, clearly reveals play as 
fundamentally an attitude of the self toward 
its own self initiated activities. This spon- 
taneous, aimless activity, and the capacity 
for self imitation, albeit unconscious, gives 
us the first step in the method of self-activ- 
ity, which is will. It will require no forcing 
of the imagination to see that the aimless 
activity which has an essential office in the 
evolution of the power of will to do, tends 
to persist, and is turned to account in the 
service of more extended control of self. 

Every observant kindergartner knows 
that the activities of the child of kinder- 
garten age are mainly of this aimless type 
wherein doing and the repetition of doing 
proceed for the mere joy in activity, rather 
than for the attainment of a conscious pur- 
pose. Yet an adequate evaluation of this 
form of activity is necessary to the under- 



standing of child life. This activity and its 
accompaning repetitions, which, for want 
of a better word, may be designated self- 
imitation, is a method of achieving freedom 
on its lowest plane — the freedom and con- 
trol of the physical self. It is comparatively 
easy to note that through persistent activ- 
ity, the physical powers of the child develop 
a^nd pass under relative control; but the 
development of the powers of will and intel- 
lect are by no means so rapidly or clearly 
seen. That a liberating function is at work 
here is revealed; but so obscure is our 
knowledge of beginnings, it is necessary to 
proceed with great care. The great merit 
of the Froebel system consists in "regulat- 
ing the natural spontaneous activity of the 
child according to its own inherent law, in 
order that the purpose of its nature may be 
fulfilled." To permit the functioning of this 
first form of activity too long or too exclu- 
sively, is to arrest the child upon this plane 
of doing. And again, to force the child in- 
to purposeful activities beyond his devel- 
oped power to do, is to inflict equal injury 
to the life process. 

From the development of aimless activity 
and its repetitions, or the "unconscious 
imitation of one's self by one's self" there 
emerges imitation proper — the capacity and 
power to do as an "other" doer. The dawn- 
ing of this power marks an epoch in the 
child's life. A second method of control of 
self and experience has emerged. The con- 
sciousness of the child is focussed upon the 
activities of others. The earlier method of 
aimless activity gives place to activities that 
are under the propulsion of purpose, albeit 
vague and undefined, while the power of 
repetition carried to a higher level becomes 
the means of perfecting within the child the 
activities of his fellows. 

The significance of imitation in life and 
its function in education is but partially 
understood. Yet with better knowledge, 
an existing prejudice is passing from edu- 
cational thought. Froebel in the "Mother 
Play" saw in the child's capacity to imitate 
a method by which the child could be led 
into the life of control of self and experi- 
ence-. He made this the corner-stone of his 
system of child development ; and the move- 
ment of educational thought since his time 
has come to place a truer evaluation upon 
this "despised form of action.*" 

*For those who still retain a feeling of uncer- 
tainty regarding the function of imitation in edu- 
cation, the chapter on The Psychology of Infancy 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



The method of imitation is inseparably- 
bound up with the development of a social 
consciousness. Dr. Harris indicates that 
through the various modes of imitation the 
individual repeats within himself the doing, 
feeling., and thinking, of others, and thus en- 
riches and defines his own life, by the lives 
and experiences of others. We may in this 
connection study the law of opposites, since 
the social consciousness waits upon the 
recognition of this other before any real 
consciousness of self can be realized. The 
other with its various activities of body — 
gesture, language, etc. — is set over against 
the self, and imitation becomes the mediat- 
ing agency between the self and its other. 

Admitting that the other which is 
imitated is in a measure formative and 
definitive of the self that imitates, the 
models that are imitated become matters of 
first importance. In free kindergarten days 
the child has responded to various models 
through imitation; but difficulties have be- 
set the way, since the other that he imitates 
cannot be adequately reproduced because 
of the child's physical and intellectual 
limitations. Further, the activities imitated 
are mainly adult models. It has become 
habitual to say that the plays of childhood 
which reproduce adult activities, are pre- 
monitory of the serious duties and pursuits 
of later life; e. q., the doll play of childhood 
is interpreted as premonitory of the cares 
which maternity entails; yet who knows 
this to be true? May it not be safer to con- 
jecture that the doll play arises out of a 
dim remembering, or recall, of ones self as 
recipient of such care? Be this as it may, 
if the given world of infancy and childhood 
by any reach of the imagination, could be 
conditioned by child companionships, and 
its impressions only such as childish pur- 
suits suggest, would these so called pre- 
monitory activities appear? Surely not; 
a/nd herein lies the fallacy of the over- 
wrought symbolic interpretation of childish 
activities, which is due mainly to a similar 
interpretation of Froebel's "Mother Play." 
This we know, that in the period of early 
childhood, when the other is all abounding 
and the processes of physical control are be- 
ing established through persistent play 
activities, imitation proper enters and faci- 
litates the life of control, imitating good and 

in Psychologic Foundations of Education by Dr. 
William T. Harris will be reassuring; and a care- 
ful study of the bibliograph which he suggests may 
prove convincing. 



ill alike, since discrimination and evaluation 
are not attributes of mimetic power. 

One point further should be noted. What 
this concentration upon the other, the "not 
self," means, psychology attempts to ex- 
plain. But as yet we do not know how the 
self as a person emerges out of this mimetic 
life. Certain it is, that very early we may 
detect a unique character of response — one 
individual's mode of imitation being unlike 
that of any other; and it is this factor that 
reveals a second and very important func- 
tion of imitation; for not only is imitation 
a method of conservation and control of 
experience, it is also the instrument of pro- 
gress. It may, under some circumstances, 
degenerate into mere copying; but in the 
young child, it is living, spontaneous self 
activity. With the development of power 
to do as others do, consciousness takes up 
the directive, and the child, setting itself 
over against the other, seeks to bridge the 
gap, or to mediate the difference, by imita- 
tion. This result achieved, the newfound 
power becomes the object of repetition and 
experimentation, revealing that propensity 
to variation which is the primary factor in 
individual and racial progress. 

Imitation from one aspect makes for ad- 
justment of the individual to his environ- 
ment; while from another aspect it makes 
for adaptive processes by which the indi- 
vidual may transcend the limitations of en- 
vironment. The unity of experience which 
is fostered by imitation under the dual 
aspects of adjustment and adaptation, 
makes for a higher and more comprehensive 
physical, intellectual, and volitional free- 
dom. Recognizing imitation, then, as a 
form of self-activity, and knowing it to be 
the young child's method of control of ex- 
perience, the teacher selects and arranges 
in the program themes or experiences that 
belong to the "center rather than the cir- 
cumference of life," as models for imitation; 
and further, the teacher revises ways and 
means of facilitating the life of control 
through the use of expressive materials, and 
provides for the ideal enrichment of ex- 
perience by the presentation of models in 
music, art, and literature. 

Here again, the teacher, must guard 
against arrested development, which will 
follow when either phase of imitation is 
over emphasized. When stress is laid upon 
adjustment processes, there is danger that 
activities will be dominated by a collectiv- 
istic ideal, the individual being submerged, 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



and the group reduced to one dead level of 
mimetic perfection. On the other hand, 
when too great stress is laid upon adaptive 
activities the individualistic ideal becomes 
dominant, and as a result, the kindergarten 
is lacking in social and cooperative spirit. 
The possibilities of normal development 
here lie in demonstrating the law of balance 
between these two aspects of the method 
of imitation. 

Recalling that no single stage of any in- 
wardly initiated process is self-explanatory, 
but is rather a sign pointing toward a high- 
er form of the self's activity, we must seek 
within the mimetic process for the sign 
which points to a higher control of self and 
experience. This is found in the growing 
alertness and increasing sensitiveness to 
stimul — a condition wherein the minimum 
of external stimulation is met by the maxi- 
mum of internal response. There can be 
no question but that this inner sensitiveness 
is due to a quickening mental imagery 
which makes for vividness in picturing a 
given situation, and an accompanying alert- 
ness in filling in the detail of the experience 
to be controlled when once its salient points 
have been presented. Thus, the pupil passes 
through the various modes of imitation into 
a state wherein the quickening capacity of 
response to suggestion takes up the burden 
of control of experience. 

On this plane the acquisitive and repro- 
ductive powers and the adaptive and experi- 
mental measures of control of experience 
function at the maximum rate. The 
presence of growing power in the child to 
image a situation and give to it many-sided 
expression, furnishes opportunities for the 
training necessary to child development. 
The increase. of intellectual power to grasp 
a given situation; an increase of volitional 
power as directive of increasing physical 
powers, these are factors in the control of 
experience by the method of the individual's 
own state of suggestability. These are the 
existing conditions that make the period of 
childhood preeminently one calling for 
training which has as its dominant char- 
acteristics, first inspiration, and then guid- 
ance. These are the years for gaining a 
practical control over self and environment. 
(See "Pedagogics of the Kindergarten" 
page 28). Thus, out of spontaneous activ- 
ity, imitation, and suggestion, arises habitu- 
ation — the ordered response of the indi- 
vidual to the common situations of daily 
life. The ability to meet this condition of 



sensitiveness to suggestion of the child, 
siezing the moment of inner readiness, be- 
longs to the artist teacher; while teaching 
by suggestion constitutes an art of teaching. 

But practical control of experience, with 
all its opportunities and attainments cannot 
long satisfy the normal developing child. 
Will, grown strong in its response to sug- 
gestions that impel to action, has also been 
acquiring power to withhold action; and 
with the growth of inhibitory power, the 
child enters upon the plane wherein conven- 
tional control of experience becomes pos- 
sible and absolutely essential to further de- 
velopment. It now becomes the function 
of self-activity, to withhold action until in- 
tellect and will become consciously in- 
formed with the purposes and ideas of an- 
other. Thus, training gradually gives place 
to instruction ; while the conditions which 
render instruction normally possible lie in 
the increasing capacity of volitional re- 
sponse to stimuli. 

The capacity of the individual to receive 
and act upon direct instruction was met in 
the kindergarten in the earlier days by dic- 
tation exercises with gifts and occupations. 
This procedure has fallen into disuse since 
child study and genetic psychology have 
revealed that the capacity to act productive- 
ly under the consciousness of direction be- 
longs to a stage later than the kindergarten. 
Much indirect instruction obtains in the 
kindergarten, and towards the close of the 
kindergarten period a minimum of instruc- 
tion may, very properly, be given, thus pre- 
paring the pupil for the work of the first 
grade wherein the individual comes into 
possession of the conventional modes of ex- 
pression. Power to use these elements of 
expression in conventional form, developes 
in turn the power to adapt them in ways 
that bear the stamp of originality and 
creativity. Here again, mental initiative 
moves out upon the plane of free spontane- 
ous activity — the freeplay of an informed 
intellect responding to consciously con- 
ceived purposes which are sustained by a 
developed will. 

The terminal aspects of the individual's 
method of control of experience are, alike, 
spontaneous activity; but how different. 
In briefest characterization, one is aimless, 
unconscious activity v/herein the physical 
element predominates; while the other is 
purposeful, conscious activity, utilizing 
every developed resource of physical, intel- 
lectual, and volitional power in response to 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



the allurement of an ideal. The movement 
that defines method of control of self and 
experience has passed from the unconscious, 
implicit unity and freedom of infancy to the 
relatively conscious and explicit freedom of 
mature years. To unduly retard this move- 
ment is to arrest development. To unwise- 
ly stimulate and accelerate it is to develop 
a precocity which often lapses into medio- 
crity from sheer prodigality and wasteful- 
ness. The movement of the mind of the 
learner with its characteristic modes of 
activity constitutes method; and a knowl- 
edge of the significance of the various levels 
of activity is a prerequisit condition of suc- 
cess in teaching. 

Method, then, is. consonant with the 
nature and needs of the child; and the 
media in which it functions, is the experi- 
ence content of life in general, and the or- 
dered experience content of purposeful edu- 
cation in particular. Method is an internally 
conditioned process. This point of view is 
at issue with popular conceptions of method 
which claim that method deals with the pre- 
sentation of the subject matter of experi- 
ence by means of structural agencies. 
Method, from the latter point of view, is an 
externally conditioned process arising in the 
mind of the instructor. The subject matter 
constitutes the major factor in instruction, 
and the minor factor is contributed by the 
mechanically arranged approach which is 
called method. But if the foregoing discus- 
sions are valid, then method consists in the 
inwardly initiated activities of the child 
manifest for the control of experience. 
Method is not determined by the teacher 
nor by the subject matter of education. It 
is revealed primarily by the activities of the 
learner. The spontaneous activities of 
childhood furnish the clues to methods of 
control that are natural and unlearned; and 
educational procedure, based upon these 
native measures of control consists in utiliz- 
ing and accentuating these activities, in- 
creasing their efficiency by a wise direction. 
Waste is eliminated by wise concentration 
upon chose phases of activity most available 
for control. Here again the differentiating 
agency of selection and the integrating 
agency of arrangement may be clearly de- 
monstrated, and the learner may find in the 
carefully selected and arranged experiences 
of the school program, the supplementary 
and interpretive elements that define the 
rudimentary meanings of its own life. 



No hard and fast lines of demarkation 
exist between the various modes of self 
activity as will or self-activity manifest as 
intellect; neither does any phase of the 
movement complete its function and then 
become quiescent. A single day spent in in- 
trospection will prove that the control of 
daily experience in adult years, takes place 
by means of interrelated mental states 
which lead to unconscious aimless activity, 
mimitic response, response to suggestion, 
volitional response, and conscious creative 
response to experience. 

What, then, is the teacher's problem ? It 
is a problem that can be defined only in 
terms of self-activity. The primary self- 
activity as method is contributed by the 
child, and requires training, guidance, in- 
spiration and direction. The secondary self- 
activity is that of the teacher manifested in 
device in meeting the requirements of the 
primary self-activity. The child contributes 
the subjective factor, and the teacher repre- 
sents the objective factor of the educational 
process. Both are essential, since mental 
initiative can only become realized through 
objective expression which must be guided 
to successful issues by the teacher's device. 
The central difficulty lies in the fact that 
device, masquerading under the name of 
method, has been made to serve a dual 
capacity, thus usurping the place of true 
method and resulting in the teacher planned 
and teacher executed exercise. Thus, under 
cover of clever device, experiences are pre- 
sented that the child cannot appreciate, and 
materials used that he cannot control. 
Method and device are, alike, induced, or 
superimposed upon the child. Device, as 
the teacher's plan of action, occupies a large 
place in educational procedure ; but it can- 
not take the place of method which belongs 
to the learner and indicates the plane upon 
which activity is most vital. Device is nec- 
essary and legitimate, but it must be sub- 
servient to the larger issues involved in the 
development of child life. 

In proof that this point of view of method 
can be made the working basis for lesson 
plans in primary grades, or for the exercise 
plans with the educative materials of the 
kindergarten, the following suggestions — 
the outgrowth of years of experience with 
children — with illustrate. 

In thinking about an exercise or lesson 
plan, two general points should be clearly 
defined at the very beginning; first, the 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



office, or function of the teacher in relation 
to the plan; and second, the function of the 
exercise plan itself. Of the first, Dr. Charles 
McMurray says :. 

"The function of the teacher is to provide 
suitable material and to render the condi- 
tions as favorable as possible to the child's 
exercise of his own mental forces. The pur- 
pose of the teacher's plan is to engender 
self-activity." 

In relation to the second. 

The lesson plan must be conceived as a 
psychological process in which the self- 
activity of the child is to be guided in realiz- 
ing one aim, namely the organization of ex- 
perience for the purpose of many sided con- 
trol — expressive control, motor, manual, and 
graphic, language control descriptive and 
interpretive, and all with reference to social 
ends, since all true education must be rela- 
tive to the society in which it is given. 

Further may be added a third general 
consideration regarding method of which 
Dr. Arnold Tompkins writes : 

"Method is the movement by which the 
mind of the learner identifies itself with the 
thought and spirit of the world other than 
himself and thus participates in the univer- 
sal life of the world which is his inherit- 
ance." 

In particular, it may be noted that the 
exercise plan should have five distinct 
divisions: 

i. The Children. 

2. The subject matter or experience to 
be emphasized. 

3. The aims and purposes to be realized. 

4. The material selected for expressive 
activity. 

5. The method. 

1. The Children. 

Think of the group of children with refer- 
ence to age — capacities, interests. Think 
of these elements in their retrospective, im- 
mediate, and prospective references. Think 
of the exercise in relation to the time of year 
and the length of time the children have 
been in kindergarten. 

2. Subject Matter. 

Select subject matter embodying some 
fundamental phase of social experience that 
is a direct outcome of previous experience, 
or can be shown to be closely related to it. 
Indicate the important points to be empha- 
sized within the given experience. The 
character of the subject matter selected 
should be such as will progress naturally 
into the next related experience. 



3. Aims and purposes. 

(a) Determine clearly for yourself the 
aim or purpose of the general subject 
matter. 

(b) Determine the purpose of the im- 
mediate exercise. 

(c) Determine what the children may 
reasonably be expected to gain from the 
new thought and activity. 

4. Media of Expression. 

Determine the medium and gift or occu- 
pation — by means of which the child may 
express his thought relative to a given situ- 
ation. 

5. Method. 

(a) Indicate the native reaction that will 
be the reasonable response of the child to 
the proposed subject matter; i. e., the child's 
psychologic modes of activity; namely, free 
play, imitation, suggestion, dictation, crea- 
tive activity. 

(b) Indicate how the subject matter 
shall be approached in order to establish 
the interest as mutual; e. g., through con- 
versation, picture or object, play, story, or 
song. 

(c) Indicate the point in the develop- 
ment when the child's purpose in the exer- 
cise emerges and is clearly stated. 

(d) Having established a motive for play 
with the material, present the material to 
the children. 

(e) Indicate the point in the exercise 
when the unity of the exercise is established 
through interchange of thought or activity. 

In the use of such a plan every exercise 
by any method save free play of the first 
orders should have three movements; first, 
motivation, second, unification, both of 
which deal with the group in relation to a 
common thought and action content; and 
third, individuation, wherein the special 
needs of each child are met by the intimate 
direct approach of the teacher. In every 
exercise, provision is thus made for the 
functioning of adjustive and adaptive 
activities. Every exercise is a step in the 
education by unification which requires that 
a balance be kept between collectivistic and 
individualistic activities. In providing in 
the lesson plan for the exercise of these dual 
activities, the primary function of school as 
an institution organized for the conserva- 
tion, preservation, and transmission of ex- 
perience believed to be of value to the de- 
veloping human being is honored ; and 
through the fostering of individual power 
to adapt experience to new ends, the essen- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



tial factor in individual and racial progress 
is fostered. 

This form of an exercise plan is likely to 
meet with at least, two objections; the first 
relating to the teacher and the second to the 
child. Of the first it may be conceived that 
such a carefully planned exercise may prove 
a hindrance, and the teacher become the 
slave of her device. It may produce this 
effect, truly; but, on the other hand, the 
teacher who thinks through her plan, stat- 
ing its aims and purposes, may make it a 
means to an ever broadening freedom. 
From the point of view of the kindergarten, 
the second objection may be urged that it 
is not play but work. Here, let us remem- 
ber that kindergarten is the first plane of 
purposeful education; and that while it 
avails itself of all the characteristic modes 
of child activity, its sanction for such use 
lies in the fact that they are made to func- 
tion for the conscious control of self and 
the organization of experience. Aimless 
play activities constitute a large part of the 
business of early childhood; but out of 
these emerges the purposeful play of mid- 
dle childhood- — the kindergarten stage of 
development. And further, the final test 
of play lies not in the mere manifestation of 
activity, but in the spirit which prompts to 
activity. Work may often assume the 
character of play and play, in the common 
acceptance of the term, may be work — nay 
worse, it may be drudgery. Dr. Home 
writes : "Doing and achievement smile 
alike on work that is as joyous as play, and 
play that is as profitable as work." 

The purpose of the foregoing studies re- 
garding the kindergarten program has now 
been fulfilled; namely, a discussion of four 
of the common problems which the kinder- 
garten shares with education in general. 
The kindergarten can lay claim to no other 
principles than those which regulate all 
educational endeavor. In closing, let us 
dwell for a moment on the main sanctions 
for the Humanitarian program. 

Its volitional sanctions rest upon a belief 
in the primacy of the will. The acting, feel- 
ing, desiring, striving, and asserting char- 
acteristics of child life are the indices of the 
presence of rudimentary will. Upon the 
development of the primacy of the will in 
the individual, depends the maintenance of 
a permanent capacity for progress in the 
race, since the whole structure of human 
achievement and freedom rests upon the 
foundation of will. Hence the emphasis 



that is placed upon choice, and upon the 
situations which furnish the best media for 
volitional activities. 

Its intellectual sanctions rest upon the 
belief that the necessary correlative of the 
will to do is the power to know. Just as 
will in the individual develops under the 
whet and play of other wills so intellect 
develops in the same social media. "Social- 
ity has been the great agent in the achieve- 
ment of man's intellectual preeminence, and 
it has operated by widening and diversify- 
ing human experience."* Hence the 

*(See "Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy" by John 
Piske, Chapter 21.) 

emphasis that is laid upon the most funda- 
mental of human experiences first those of 
the home and the activities which make 
home life possible — and second, upon 
nature as manifestly related to home life. 

Its social sanctions with the emphasis 
which is laid upon kindliness, courtesy, 
cheerfulness, and good will, are part and 
parcel of the philosophy concerning the will 
and the intellect. The social media is the 
culture ground of all human activities and 
virtues. 

Its ethical and moral sanctions are based 
upon the belief in the brotherhood of man. 
The human relationships that the program 
emphasizes reflect that unity of purpose 
with which ethical culture deals ; and since 
everything that is done in the kindergarten 
is with reference to humanitarian ends, it 
follows that the management and discipline 
of the kindergarten are based upon the will- 
ingness of its members to interrilate their 
activities and interests. 

Its religious sanction is based upon the 
belief that man, himself is not self explana- 
tory; that the aim of all willing and know- 
ing, and the relationship of man to man is 
found in the relationship of man to an ever 
living will and intellect — God. It is not 
necessary that there be direct religious in- 
struction in kindergarten, since it is the in- 
forming spirit that imbues the will and in- 
tellect of man with transcending power. It 
is the indwelling spirit in nature, which, 
speaking through nature's wondrous beauty 
bids the listening learning spirit "be still 
and adore." If the little child is brought 
in the right spirit into the presence of God 
in the world of humanity and of nature, 
those stirrings of the spirit, which in un- 
taught, primitive man gave birth to re- 
ligious aspiration and expression, will, I 



/"* 



IO 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



believe, waken in the heart of the little 
child. 

These are the sanctions which underlie 
life and education; and they are the sanc- 
tions which entitle the kindergarten to 
share in the activities by which even a little 
child may enter into his birthright of free- 
dom. 

The End. 



THE USE AND ABUSE OF DESIGN. 

MAE B. HIGGONS, PH. B. 
Kindergarten Public School No. 68, New York City. 

In discussing the use and abuse of design 
in the kindergarten, it may be well to note 
that there are two phases of the subject, so 
distinct as to be quite separate. 

First, there are those productions called 
in the parlance of the kindergarten, beauty- 
forms or forms of symmetry. These are 
usually made with the blocks, tablets, rings, 
and parquetry papers or, less frequently 
now-a-days, with the Froebel system of 
paper-cutting. 

This is what the word design means to 
the kindergartener, who confines herself to 
the formal work described by Froebel. To 
many other kindergartners, however, the 
word has a far different meaning. It means 
that form of artistic expression which is 
known as design by an artist or an art 
teacher; it means the arrangement of units 
under the laws of repetition, balance and 
harmony; it means the production of bor- 
ders, ornaments and sketches calculated to 
decorate definite objects; it means the ap- 
preciation of the beautiful, begun in the 
kindergarten and carried on throughout 
life. The first use of the term design is 
peculiar to the kindergarten, the second is 
familiar in all grades of the school and, in- 
deed, in life in general. The chief fault 
with the formal design of the kindergarten 
is that Froebel's tendency toward the over- 
emphasis of geometry has been followed, 
while his playful spirit has been forgotten 
by many. 

Froebel gave as one of the uses of the 
gifts the production of symmetrical figures 
which he called beauty-forms. We find, 
however, that in his description these 
beauty-forms are translated in terms of 
life-forms, for he says of a form, "It appears 
to us something, but we do not know what 
is formed by it; we call it a picture, and it 
will look now like a flower, now like a star." 
Also later in describing the different moves 



in a sequence, he speaks in terms of life- 
activity, saynig, "Come, child ! We will 
dance the cubes" and he gives little rhymes 
for the child to sing for the dancing. Surely 
this playful changing of shapes is very dif- 
ferent from the dictation of sequences of 
symmetrical forms which one sees in many 
modern kindergartens. Contrast the usual 
method of presenting forms of symmetry 
with what Froebel says of this kind of 
work. He says [in the Pedagogies of the 
Kindergarten], "How shall these represen- 
tations of forms of beauty be carried on 
with the children? [Precisely as has been 
already explained in the original delineation 
of these plays] : in the same way as mothers 
play with their children, of their own ac- 
cord, and guided by motherly love and 
motherly feeling. Mothers observe some 
kind of a thing which they believe will 
captivate the child's mind, be it only for an 
instant, and they try forthwith to retain 
it for the child's observation. Some par- 
ticular object which has a symmetric form 
has been represented by the mother or the 
child or by both together. Through its 
symmetry it captivates for an instant the 
child's attention. * * * 

The watchful mother perceives the fasci- 
nation and seeks to heighten and retain it 
through words spoken or sung. Notice the 
life names in the rhymes he gives 

"This is a very pretty play 

All our blocks in a wreath to lay." 

or, 

"Now all our blocks to the middle go 
And clearly a beautiful star they show." 

or again, 

"When the stars and circles meet 
Then they look like flowers sweet." 

It is hard to see how a kindergartner 
who tries to follow Froebel to the letter, 
can read these words and still continue to 
dictate to children a sequence of forms 
which have no meaning to the child. 
"What is a sequence to the adult mind may 
not be to the child's mind because he does 
not see the underlying philosophy." 

Recently, as a matter of observation and 
experiment, I dictated a long series of 
forms with the blocks of the Third and 
Fourth Gifts combined. The children 
obediently made form after form with little 
apparent joy. Finally, I worked in a more 
divergent form which I thought too scat- 
tered to be seen as a whole by the children. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



ii 



I was surprised by a spontaneous burst of 
admiration with which it was greeted. "Ah, 
isn't that pretty?" "It's a star" and "That's 
pretty" came in a chorus from the children 
who had been almost silent up to that point. 
To my mind this was an indication that 
each form is a separate thing to the child 
to be approved or not on its own individual 
merits, not as part of a larger whole. The 
use of a sequence may be ligitimate as a 
means to an end but it is certainly not an 
end in itself. Easy forms must precede the 
more difficult ones but each one must have 
a meaning of its own. In free play the fol- 
lowing day the children did not attempt to 
reproduce the different steps in the series. 
These called forth no further activity. But 
they did try to make the interesting form 
which had attracted their attention and 
when their imagination and memory failed, 
they called upon the teacher to direct them. 
The unity of the sequence made no impres- 
sion upon them but interest was the unify- 
ing agent in the work. The law of contrast 
and sequence has led us to forget the rela- 
tion between interest and effort and to 
force upon the children many forms which 
do not interest them. 

I do not believe that sequence work can 
be made to any extent the outcome of the 
child's own thought and I do believe that 
Froebel was right when he said, "All that 
does not grow out of one's own inner being, 
all that is not one's own original feeling or 
thought, or at least awakens that, oppresses 
and defaces the individuality of man in- 
stead of calling it forth." I believe that to 
be educative, design must become the 
working out of a problem. The child must 
see the need for it and must think out the 
best way to fill that need. To be sure, an 
able teacher can make any work educative 
by the way she presents it but by the same 
power she can make a thing which is in- 
herently interesting that much the more 
educative. Why should we confine our- 
selves to blocks, tablets, rings and par- 
quetry papers, when there are so many 
leaves, grasses, shells, nuts, etc., that could 
serve the same purpose and that appeal so 
strongly to the child-mind? Primary edu- 
cation has long since discarded the type 
forms of drawing and other work and has 
taken nature material instead. 

Perhaps by studying primary methods, 
kindergarteners might get a better perspec- 
tive of the child's life so as to help him to 



realize his highest possibilities in each stage 
of his development. 

We should recognize the fact that this is 
a distinct advance and should plan our work 
accordingly. The kindergarten would only 
be carrying out Froebel's suggestion if it 
did so. If the kindergartner should be- 
come acquainted with the work of the first 
and second grades, she would gain an in- 
sight into the line of work which the child 
is expected to follow after he leaves the 
kindergarten, and, though we would not 
teach anything merely because it will be of 
use in the future, we may be able to. 

Turning now to the other phase of the 
topic, What are the reasons for teaching 
design in the kindergarten? To answer 
this question we must first answer the 
larger question, Why do we teach any- 
thing? What is the aim of education? 
Looking at the many and varied answers to 
this question we find that, right living or 
adjustment to environment, natural human 
and spiritual, is the ideal sought. Froebel 
expresses it "to lead and guide man to 
clearness concerning himself and in him- 
self, to peace with nature and unity with 
God." If this is the aim of education it 
must also be of every branch of education. 
We teach art not because it may train a few 
possible artists but because it affords an 
experience which will broaden life. 

If we look at education from the cultured 
standpoint, we find that the study of artistic 
expression gives the aesthetic and artistic 
development which increases a hundred 
fold the richness of life through the power 
of the appreciation of the beautiful. If we 
look at it from the utilitarian standpoint, 
we find that the study of artistic expression 
is the means for gaining control of the 
mental image and trains the imagination. 
Imagination is at the foundation of all 
human activity. The power of imagining 
things as they are and as they would be in 
different combinations lies at the very root 
of production and invention. Imagination 
makes possible the sympathy which 
governs our relation to those around us. I 
have heard it said that lack of the picture 
making facvdty was responsible for most of 
the criminals of the world; that a person 
who could imagine beforehand all the 
effects of an act would avoid crime. If the 
study of art will train the imagination and 
help men to live better lives, it is well worth 
while. 

Desisrn inculcates the line of order which 



12 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



is the basis of righteousness. Denman 
Ross says there is more ethical value in 
manual training than in the study of a 
dozen sciences. 

For the child of kindergarten age the 
first of the laws of design is the all impor- 
tant one. Balance and harmony are too 
subtle to appeal to him but repetition or 
rhythm is the response to a nature instinct. 
Life itself is essentially rhythmical. Every 
bodily and every mental process shows this. 
Respiration, heart beat and the process of 
waste and repair are the constant accom- 
paniment of life and if their rhythm be dis- 
turbed, pain is the result. Day and night 
with their alternation of activity and rest 
have a definite influence on the mind. We 
might multiply examples by showing how 
the patter of the raindrops, the ceaseless 
ebb and flow of the ocean, the growth and 
decay of plant life, the change of seasons 
and many other processes of nature are a 
part of life and have affected man through- 
out the ages. 

It is perfectly natural that children 
should find satisfaction in rhythmical activi- 
ties and forms. Design is rhythm applied 
to the picturing activity. 

Groos in his "Play of Man" states that 
the pleasure which is derived from form is 
primordial and universal, and he goes on to 
trace the development of design in the 
earliest forms of art. In so far as the 
Recapitulation Theory is applicable, we 
may gain some knowledge of the child's in- 
structive attitude from the study of primi- 
tive life. In the early development of the 
arts man decorated his person, his pottery 
and his baskets with representations of the 
activities of nature. A series of vertical 
lines represented the fall of rain, a broken 
line stood for lightning. These show simple 
repetition though the latter begins to have 
in it the elements of contrast and alterna- 
tion shown and in the compound curves for 
waves, and the alternation of sun and star 
indicating day and night. As the race 
progressed there came to be a fuller appre- 
ciation of design and mere repetition was 
supplemented by symmetrical and bi-sym- 
metrical forms arranged with reference to 
balance and harmony and studied as to pro- 
portion, relation to background, and appro- 
priateness to limiting space and object 
decorated. 

In the kindergarten, we naturally begin 
with simple repetition and alternations 
which the child happens upon in his play, as 



when he places first a tall block, then a 
short one and repeats the combination. In 
drawing, painting, and other occupations, 
the repetition of a unit may be the result of 
simple efforts of control. We may wish to 
give the child an opportunity to experience 
the activity of using a brush and he may 
just daub, daub, and if by chance on holding 
it off, he sees a system of arrangement he 
will try to reproduce it or will vary it for 
the satisfaction of his instinct. 

Simple arrangements in stringing or 
pasting have a wonderful charm for the 
child. Even grown people find a certain 
fascination in stringing beads and similar 
activities. 

After such work involving only repeti- 
tion, more purposeful design may be intro- 
duced and the child may compare different 
pieces of work and learn that beauty 
depends upon spacing, balance, and tone as 
well as upon repetition and alternation. 
Every design which a child makes should 
have some excuse for being, that is, it 
should be made to suit some definite pur- 
pose. It must not be a border or ornament 
such as we use on objects but must actually 
decorate the object itself. The crafts are 
the basis and initiative for design. Pottery, 
basketry, weaving, book-binding and metal 
and wood-working supply the productions 
which naturally call for decoration and in a 
school where these industries are taught all 
the design work would originate in this 
way. But what about schools where there 
are no facilities for teaching these crafts? 
Must design then be unpored upon the 
children according to the teacher's ideas? 
By no means. 

Most of the failures in the teaching of 
design result from this very fault. The 
object to be decorated and the need for the 
design do not grow out of the life of the 
children and consequently interest is 
lacking. 

Subject matter and material are in a large 
degree the outgrowth of the environment 
and should differ in different localities. For 
instance, with children whose homes and 
school rooms were destitute of curtains, we 
would not attempt to make a border for 
a curtain. Similarly, we would not lead 
children who had never seen a rabbit to use 
this form in a decoration. Of course in 
both of these cases the teacher may provide 
the conditions to make the lesson of vital 
interest. If a window or a closet needs a 
curtain, nothing could be a better excuse 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



13 



for a study of design than the making and 
decorating of such a curtain, and if a rabbit 
came to visit the kindergarten, it would be 
very natural to use that unit in design. 
Lacking such incentives, however, there 
are always available, articles made of clay, 
wall-paper, carpets, and curtains for the 
doll's house, borders for the black board, 
book-covers, blotters, calendar cards, wall 
pockets, picture frames, valentines, May- 
baskets, and boxes and other construction 
work. All of these objects can be made to 
suggest decoration which is perfectly legiti- 
mate in the kindergarten and primary 
grades. 

When the object to be decorated has been 
chosen, the kind of design to be used be- 
comes the problem. Dr. Haney says "A 
design which is to be applied, must primari- 
ly consider both the purpose of its applica- 
tion and the nature of the form it is to 
decorate. The first question must always 
be: Is the problem a proper one? Should 
this form be decorated?; and if it should, 
what shall be the nature of the decoration? 

These questions should be answered by 
the children after a sufficient study of good 
examples. Classic decoration as well as 
artistic designs found in the environment 
should be presented in order to give the 
children a wide range of usual material to 
influence them in the selection of designs 
for their work. This applies in the higher 
grades more than in the kindergarten but 
may be begun even with the little ones as 
soon as any decoration of objects is under- 
taken. The children should learn to select 
their designs according to beauty and fit- 
ness and the teacher should guide them in 
learning why one design is better than 
another. 

Friezes for the room, made by the com- 
bined efforts of the class are very good. 
For these the units should be objects of 
interest, appropriate to the line of the right 
for the season or the day. More or less 
natural outlines should be used as conven- 
tionalizations come at a later period. At 
Thanksgiving a frieze may be made by 
alternating corn-stalks and pumpkins on a 
background of soft brown. At Christmas 
the units may be a Christmas tree and a 
Santa Claus, cut from crepe paper decora- 
tions. In March a windmill and a boat have 
been used effectively. At Easter a chicken 
and an egg and, later, in the spring, flowers, 
animals, birds, or insects may be used. 



When the child begins to abstract the 
principle of design from the embodiment of 
it, he begins to love art for its own sake. I 
believe this comes later than the kindergar- 
ten period, but we may help the children 
form habits of artistic expression as a foun- 
dation upon which the grade teachers may 
build. 

I leave it to you to decide which of the 
two phases of design is the more educative 
and which you will use but I would remind 
each one that we are not true disciples of 
Froebel unless we present to the children 
that which serves to awaken self-activity 
in its broadest sense. Whatever the form 
of the work it must be self-expression. 
Only thus can we hope to make the children 
truly artistic. 

Summary. 

There are two distinct phases of design: 

1. Making symmetrical figures, borders, 
etc., with the traditional kindergarten 
material. 

2. Decorating definite objects with de- 
signs studied from the standpoint of art. 

The first form of design was described by 
Froebel but it seems that his spirit has not 
been imitated by those who use forms of 
symmetry in uninteresting sequences. 
These are not educative when given in the 
usual way. Children do not use sequences 
as adults do because they can not under- 
stand the underlying philosophy. 

The second phase of design may be made 
the outgrowth of the children's own experi- 
ences, and therefore allows great oppor- 
tunity for development. 

We teach art to broaden the children's 
experience and help them to live. Art 
trains the imagination. Imagination is the 
basis of all human activity. 

Design should teach the laws of repeti- 
tion, balance and harmony. Repetition is 
natural to the youngest children because 
rhythm is fundamental to life. Balance and 
harmony can be taught in the grades better 
than in the kindergarten. 

The crafts are the natural basis for de- 
sign. Where these are not taught, objects 
made by the children should be decorated 
or friezes made for the room, curtains, etc. 

Whatever the form of the work, it must 
be self-expression. It is the process, not 
the product that counts. 






14 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



DAY BY DAY WITH NATURE— FOR 

THE KINDERGARTEN AND 

PRIMARY GRADES.* 

MARY A. PROUDFOOT, A. M. 

Subject: The Bee, with Suggested Occupa- 
tions. 

A walk in the garden. 

i. Observe the bee in a garden to deter- 
mine her mission. 

Trace one if possible, from flower to hive. 
This of course could be done easily if a hive 
were in the garden. Allow the children to 
taste the nectar from the flowers, and 
afterwards honey taken from a hive. In 
some mysterious way she changes the 
nectar into honey. 

II. Observations of the bee's return. 
Watch the arrival and alighting, and 

observe the entrance into the hive. Pro- 
cure a frame of honey to be afterwards used 
in the kindergarten. 

III. Use of honey. 

Let the children prepare a table for a 
little spread out under the trees in the kin- 
dergarten yard, or at the home of one of 
the children, decorating the table with the 
blossoms the bees have been seen to visit 
most. Through the actual use and contact 
with the honey, as with all other things of 
their environment, children will uncon- 
sciously learn the characteristics of things, 
their use, and where they come from. If 
the children have no access to bee hives 
directly, much can be learned by a visit to 
field or park. 

IV. The work of the bees as seen in the 
observation hives. (See the primary plan 
immediately following this program). 

It may be difficult for kindergarten, or 
even primary children, to detect the queen 
bee among several thousand in a colony, 
but they can watch the bees busy at their 
tasks. They can also examine a section 
frame and be shown the honey cells and 
learn that some are reserved for the breed- 
ing of workers and drones, and perhaps 
they may be able to discover those larger 
cells, constructed for the rearing of the new 
queens. 

V. Observe and make a model of an old 
fashioned circular bee hive, the kind made 
of straw and known as a skep. Each child 
can easily make one by twisting straw into 
a rope, and then coil it into shape, by sew- 
ing each round of straw together. Such a 
model might be made of raffia. 



Uses of wax for various occupations. 

a. To wax thread. 

The most simple use of wax is for the 
waxing of thread. See the shoemaker wax 
his thread, and let the children wax strings 
for their kindergarten beads. Mother also 
uses bees wax to wax her irons, just like 
the laundryman. 

b. Furniture polish. 

A practical furniture polish can be made 
by a mixture of turpentine and bees wax 
and the children will be glad to polish the 
kindergarten chairs and tables. 

c. Dip-candles. 

It will be interesting to learn how the 
grandmothers of olden times made dip 
candles. This can be done by dipping 
string into hot melted bees wax, exposing 
the string to the air after each dip, until the 
wax hardens. 

d. Molded candles. 

The best candles are made however, by 
pouring melted wax into little paste-board 
molds. The molds can be made of old 
postal cards. Cut the card into the size 
desired, and make a hollow cylinder leaving 
one end open and one closed. Through 
the closed end draw a string which will be 
drawn through the center for the wick. In 
pouring in the wax, the string will have to 
be held in place. When the wax is cool, 
pull off the paper mold. These candles can 
be saved till Christmas time, when they can 
be used on the Christmas tree. 

e. Wax modeling. 

This is an interesting occupation, but as 
bees wax is not plentiful, each child can 
only be given a small quantity, and should 
only be asked to model a very simple object. 

f. Waxed floors. 

Some children will have seen wax used 
to polish floors, or they themselves may use 
it to give a finish to any little wooden boxes 
made by children in the primary grades. 

Stories : 

Emilie Poulsson's In the Child's World. 

a. The Rhyme of the Idle Boy — Emilie 
Poulsson. 

b. Solomon and the Bees — J. G. Saxe. 

c. Edith and the Bees — Helen Keller. 

E. Wiltse's Kindergarten Stories and 
Morning Talks. 

a. The Bee Pockets. 

b. The Queen Bee. 
Songs : 

W. H. Neidlinger's Small Songs For 
Small Singers. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



*5 



The Bee. 

Jessie Gaynor's Songs of * the Child 
World. 

The Bumble Bee. 

E. Reinecke's Childen's Songs. 

To the Bee. 

Poems : 

Mary Lovejoy's Nature in Verse. 

a. The Song of the Bees — Marion Doug- 
lass. 

b. The Busy Bee — Isaac Watts. 

c. To a Honey Bee — Alice Cary. 
Frank Dempster Sherman's Little Folks 

Lyrics. 

Jester Bee. 

PLANS FOR PRIMARY GRADES 

Subject:. The Bee with Suggested Occu- 
pations. 

In the kindergarten, the children became 
acquainted with the work of the bee and 
grew familiar with the products through 
their use. The children of the grades can 
more completely enter into the life of the 
colony, and appreciate the miniature ideal 
community, where there exists a common 
interest, each bee contributing to the one 
store, a harvest to be shared for the good 
and prosperity of all. They can trace the 
complete cycle of the bee's experience from 
the long summer days of industry, to the 
winter's period of rest and luxury. 

The only method for this study is that of 
direct observation. The W. I. Root Co. of 
Medina, Ohio, will ship observation hives 
filled with Italian bees, for prices ranging 
from one to four dollars, according to the 
size of the hive. A description of these 
hives may be found in the Nature Study Re- 
view for May, 1905, page 112. These con- 
structions are provided with glass windows 
which enable children to watch closely the 
movements of the bees. There is also a 
wooden case which fits over the hive, for 
bees do not like the light, and when not 
being observed, should be covered. If this 
is not done, they will cover the glass them- 
selves, with beeglue. In placing one of 
these hives, it should be set in a second 
story window on the quiet side of the house. 
The entrance should be turned toward the 
window, and the latter raised sufficiently to 



allow the bees to pass in and out. Boards 
can be inserted beneath the sash on either 
side, to exclude the bees from the room. 

The Use of Tongue and Antenna. 

Those members of the colony which will 
first interest the little observer will be the 
"busy-bees" or the workers and the first 
problem will be to find out what enables 
them to sip the nectar. Watch and see how 
they unfold a long black tongue from under 
the head. It will soon be discovered why 
this tongue is of such length, for when the 
bee seeks honey from flowers like the slen- 
der honey suckle, the tongue can probe 
down into the narrow blossoms much 
deeper than the bee herself can go. Can 
the children find out what seems to guide 
the long tongue to its treasure? Notice 
the trembling feelers or antenna, which 
like so many fingers feel the way. The 
antenna are also of use to the bee in help- 
ing her to recognize other bees, when 
they lock antenna; then, perhaps, that is 
their way of greeting one another. 

The Honey Sack. 

After finding the honey the next question 
is how the bee carries her store. If it were 
possible to see a bee resting upon a window 
pane, the light shining through the body 
would reveal the sack, but as this occasion 
would be rare, the children would probably 
have to be told the fact and also that it 
takes several trips even to fill one cell. 

The Worker Bee as Collector of Pollen. 

Watch the bee draw herself over the 
flowers, as if she were searching for some- 
thing. Whether it be for nectar or not, she 
becomes covered with the dust or pollen 
from the flowers. If the opportunity 
allows, it will be interesting to see the bee 
brush off the pollen with the brushes on her 
legs. This pollen she rolls together and 
puts into a pocket in each hind leg. Why 
does the pollen cling to the bee? 

This pollen is saved by her and before it 
is put into the cells, a bit of honey is 
kneaded with it and thus the bee makes bee 
bread. Show some of this to the children; 
let them taste it. It is bitter and of a brown 
color. This is made for the young bees and 
is the first food given to them after they are 
hatched. 



i6 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



The Colony. 

Observe the bees in the hive ; the plan 
and construction of cells, and the uses of 
the same for honey, bee bread, and breed- 
ing. How do bees make wax? Wax is an 
excretion sweated from the pores between 
the abdominal segments of the workers. 
This they scrape together with their feet 
and convert into comb with their jaws. 
These segments or rings can be counted by 
the children and it would be interesting to 
call their attention to the process of cell 
making. The bees' honey is sweeter than 
the nectar gathered from flowers, but how 
it is thus changed is quite a mystery. 

The Queen Bee. 

Among so many, it is difficult to single 
out the queen, so that possibly it will be 
best to study a picture of her, comparing 
this, with the real workers and drones that 
can be seen. She has no honey sack or 
brushes to gather together the pollen. She 
has brushes, to be sure, but these she uses 
to make her toilet. Her wings are small; 
her tongue short. The queen uses her 
sting as her egg placer and seldom as a 
weapon. The workers are her daughters, 
the drones, her sons. Her mission is to lay 
eggs and it is always the duty of a crowd 
of her daughters to caress and care for her, 
for she does no other work and is even fed 
by them. They make a special sweet jelly 
which they feed her. 

Bee Eggs and the Work of the Nurse Bee. 

When the queen lays an egg in a cell, a 
larva or tiny worm-like creature hatches 
out in three days. The little larva is very 
hungry then, so the nurse bee makes a kind 
of bee milk and fills the cell with it. Soon 
the larva grows so large it almost fills the 
cell, and when this happens, the nurse stops 
feeding it, and covers it with a little wax 
coverlet. The larva then spins a cocoon for 
itself and changes into a pupa, or beedoll, 
(really a chrysalis), but it lies still only for 
a few days, then awakes, bites a hole in the 
coverlet, and steps out a perfect bee. The 
nurse bee feeds it bee bread then, but it is 
soon strong enough to wait upon itself, and 
if the bee is a worker will begin life at once 
by doing the duty of a nurse to a hungry 
larva. 

The Drones. 

These are the brother bees. It will not 



be so difficult for one of these to be obtained 
for study. They can not work, since they 
are not prepared with the proper facilities. 
The drone has no honey sack, his tongue, 
too, is short and he has no pockets for 
gathering the pollen, so that he must be 
excused for not being as industrious as his 
sisters. His real mission need not be re- 
ferred to, till a somewhat later period. 

What Bee Swarming Means. 

In early summer when the coiony be- 
comes uncomfortably large and new queens 
are most ready to step forth, the old queen 
goes forth from the hive followed by many 
workers, to seek a new home. She first 
lights on a branch and all of her companions 
cling to her in quite a crowd. It is then 
that they may be shaken into a new hive, 
and thus induced to stay. Read John 
Burroughs' "An Idyl of the Honey Bee," 
which tells about how to hunt for the 
homes of wild honey bees. When children 
can not have an observation hive, they may 
be able to visit a bee-keeper. 

"THE BUSY BEE." 

The following is intended to illustrate 
how a nature study story may be used to 
present a resume of the facts the children 
have observed. The story thus serves as an 
ideal review ; containing familiar facts, with 
just the new element ot story form to make 
it sufficiently impressive. 

Children, have you ever heard of a bee's 
hive in the hollow of an old tree ? The door 
of this house is often only as large as a little 
mouse hole. 

A dark house it would be for you or me 
without a single window; but the bees like 
it, after being in the sunshine all day, for 
each one has more than a thousand eyes, 
and can see just as well in 'the dark as in 
the light. 

A bee hive is neat, too, for the bees have 
a place for everything. If we could go into 
their house, we should see neat rows of wax 
baskets, some filled with the bee bread and 
some with honey, while still others are used 
for babies' cradles. 

Now, how they get these wax baskets is 
a secret. All I know is that when they 
need new ones, they have a honey party, 
eat all the honey they can, and then taking 
hold of hands, hang themselves up and go 
to sleep. One might think perhaps a 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



dream-fairy brought the wax to them, for 
when they wake up they 'find wax enough 
in their vest-pockets to make all the wax 
baskets they need. In bee language, how- 
ever, we must not call them baskets, but 
cells. 

I must not forget to tell you about the 
mother bee, for the bee children love her 
far better than anyone else. They take 
such good care of her that they do not let 
her do any work, and even feed her bee- 
jelly, which is far sweeter than honey. But 
you will not wonder that they love this 
queen bee, when I tell you that almost 
every day she lays little bee eggs in some 
of the cells and these eggs are always 
hatching out new sister and brother bees. 

The youngest of the workers watch their 
turn to be little nurse bees and take care of 
the babies. You would, however, never 
guess what a baby bee looks like — not like 
a little bee, but like a small, white worm 
that is not even called a baby bee, but 
Larva. Larva is the baby bee, however, 
and as soon as it comes out of the egg, the 
little nurse bees feed it from their own 
mouths with bee milk. Ah, but that milk is 
sweet, sweeter than honey, and in no time 
the funny little thing grows so fast it be- 
comes almost too large for its cell. That 
would never do, so the nurses stop feeding 
Larva; and knowing that babies always 
sleep a great deal, they make a wax cover- 
let and cover little Larva up in a wax cell. 

If Larva were like our baby, it might feel 
lonesome and cry, but instead it pulls a fine 
thread out of its mouth and weaves itself 
a tiny silken gown, and goes to sleep for 
two or three days. During these days, it 
grows to look very much like a doll, but 
the little nurse does not know anything 
about this. What if she could look into 
that covered cell? But the doll is a live one 
and wakes up after a while, and tired of 
lying so still, bites a hole in the coverlet. 
Then it steps out of its doll dress, and finds 
itself no longer Larva, but a lovely bee in 
a velvet gown of black and gold. The 
nurses next quickly feed it bee bread, and 
it is not long before the young bee is not 
only as large as its sisters, but just as 
strong. 

Oh, how many workers there are in that 
hive ! All day the bees fly in and out, busy 
as bees ought to be. There goes a big 
sister, Miss Bee, with all of her companions. 
Miss Bee is not going out in order to gather 
nectar this morning, but to go to the 



miller's, to Mr. Dandelion's, who keeps 
yellow flour. 

"Buzz, buzz," says Miss Bee; "please 
give me some of your yellow pollen," (for 
that is the name of the bee's flour), "I need 
it, for I must make bee bread this morning." 
"Take it all, all my pollen," said Mr. Dande- 
lion, "but where will you carry it?" "Right 
here, in my back pockets, I have one on 
each side. Look, here and here," said Miss 
Bee, and first with one back foot, and then 
with the other, she filled her pockets till 
they bulged on either side like any boy's. 
Now, the secret of Miss Bee's bread making 
is that she mixes honey with her pollen. 
This makes sweet dough, and it hardens. 
Perhaps some of you know what that 
brown bread tastes like. 

If I were a bee this very day, the most 
fun of all to me, would be to go out for 
nectar. Just think of dipping deep down 
into a morning-glory cup ! Only see Miss 
Bee this moment. 

"Buzz, buzz, Mrs. Morning Glory," says 
she, "will you give me some of your nec- 
tar?" "Aye, aye, my pretty maid, "replies 
Mrs. Morning Glory, "come into my blue 
house and you will find plenty of nectar, 
way back on my pantry shelf. But I am 
afraid you cannot reach it, Miss Bee." 
"Just watch me, Mrs. Morning Glory," and 
she begins to unfold a long but dainty 
tongue, which she has tucked under her 
chin. Longer and longer it grows, until at 
last, it reaches the treasure and sucks in a 
tiny drop, which goes into the little honey 
sack which every worker bee carries in her 
little inside, right under her velvet jacket. 
A bit of that drop she swallows for her own 
dessert, but most of it she puts safely into 
her honey-sack, and when she reaches 
home, stores it away in one of the wax cells. 

Now if I were a bee, I should visit the 
flowers all summer long, and sometimes I 
should want to fall fast asleep in a beautiful 
lily cup, but then, if I did, my mothej could 
not call me a worker, and if I were not busy 
the other bees would be sure to call me 
"drone ! drone ! drone !" A drone you know 
is the brother bee who does not work, but 
poor thing how can he, for he has neither 
honey-sack nor pockets. He could not 
gather nectar if he tried. Who then, would 
gather nectar if he tried. Who, then, would 
toil of the summer could enjoy a long win- 
ter's rest in the hive with the good queen 
mother? 



i8 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR THE KINDER- 
GARTEN AND PRIMARY 

BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

Kindergarten has opened once more and 
children and teachers are happy to meet 
again after the summer's experiences. 
Teachers who have had good training will 
prefer to be self dependent in planning 
their program — but even those who are 
most independent are pleased to gather 
suggestions from different sources, which 
they will use as occasion demands and 
judgment dictates. 

The Kindergarten Magazine has fre- 
quently published a day by day, or a week 
by week program, in response to demands 
from many quarters. It has done this, often 
under silent, and some times under ex- 
pressed protest — lest the young kindergart- 
ner be tempted to use the outline as an end 
rather than as one of many means to a 
desired end. In this article we will attempt 
no fixed outline, but rather give a few sug- 
gestions some of which may be of value to 
teachers in any grade, and which the kin- 
dergartener may use or discard according 
to her own plans and purposes. 

There will be a few ideas given in con- 
nection with different gifts for use in the 
play circle, appros of various "points of 
departure." Many kindergartners will 
choose the "home" for the "point of de- 
parture," that being the center of things 
for the very little people. As many sensi- 
tive young children find the first few days 
very hard — being unused to so large a fam- 
ily, so many unfamiliar faces, it would be 
well to help them project themselves by 
centering attention in the "baby." There 
is likely to be a baby in very many homes, 
and if not in their own, in that of a neigh- 
bor or a relative. 

Talk of the family, in the morning circle 
— who help make the home, father, mother, 
brothers, sisters and baby. Sing the finger 
songs — teaching them of course gradually, 
and choosing such as meet your own im- 
mediate needs, and if the children appear to 
suffer from self consciousness, ask them if 
they would like to learn a song to sing to 
the baby at home, or learn a finger play to 
teach to baby. 

It is well to have dolls in the kindergar- 
ten. Let the children bring their own 
dollies. Sing the finger plays point out the 
dollies. Sing the finger plays, pointing out 
the dollie's fingers. At some mother's meet- 



ing tell the mothers how they may make 
dolls out of cotton goods, painting in the 
features, etc. Miss Harriette M. Mills of 
the New York Froebel Normal has each of 
her class of students make and clothe a doll, 
and it is interesting and instructive to see 
what a variety are forthcoming, and how 
each one discloses the character of the 
young woman who makes it. 

In the play with the dolls, one or two 
facts may be impressed upon childish minds 
which may save much future pain. For in- 
stance, it is said that a large proportion of 
blindness in adults is preventable being due 
to carelessness with the eyesight of chil- 
dren. Therefore, in the circle, let a child 
carry a doll-baby, or wheel it in the car- 
riage. L,et the teacher ask the play-mother 
— Is dollie quite comfortable? Are her 
pillows fixed right? Are you sure the sun 
is not shining in her eyes? Then, in a 
natural, nondictative manner, tell the chil- 
dren that we must always be careful that 
the sunlight does not shine in baby's eyes. 
That, just as baby cannot eat the meat we 
do, or lift the heavy things that we can lift 
so easily, so baby's eyes will be burnt by 
the light which our own strong eyes can 
endure very well. Then, see that the 
dollies eyes are thus protected, and occa- 
sionally through the term, when you see 
the children playing with the dolls, ask, 
half playfully, are you always careful to 
keep dollie's eyes from the bright light? 
Such little hygiene talks should be given in 
no set manner, lest by making the point too 
emphatic you tempt the children to experi- 
ment with baby's eyes. 

On a circle, or in a corner of the room, a 
bed or cradle can be made for dollie, with 
the chairs — here again see that dollie's eyes 
are shielded from the light. 

At the table, plays with the gift balls may 
be taught the children so that they may 
teach them to baby, although few children 
will have the balls at home. 

The second gift may be used as a cradle 
or a doll carriage, with the ball for the 
lively baby, the cylinder and cubes, the 
stove where you cook baby's food. 

The third gift may be transformed in 
succession (starting from baby's house) in- 
to baby's high chair, baby's crib, and baby's 
carriage. Cut paper dolls of brown paper, 
and use little china dolls to fine purpose to 
these plays, in the child's eyes. Similar 
objects may be made of the other gifts. 
Different teachers may work out the series, 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



19 



each in her own way, either dictate or sug- 
gest to the children. 

In weaving with the older children, 
weave coverlet for baby's carriage, or turn 
mat up into baby's basket. 

In cardboard modeling make simple box 
which mounted on cardboard legs will be 
crib for baby — older children can cut and 
paste a high chair. By experimenting the 
inexperienced teacher will find herself de- 
veloping in equal ratio with the children. 

From her paper-folding series let the 
teacher select one associated with baby and 
then give practice to the little ones in the 
forms which lead up to it. It is instructive 
to the teacher to give, perhaps a week in 
which, each day, some one material is used, 
and observe how the children learn its pos- 
sibilities. For example, give a week, one 
period each day, to weaving, or to paper 
folding, series could include baby's table 
cloth, baby's first book, (teach a song to 
sing to baby) ; the window from which 
baby sees many pretty, moving things ; the 
tunnel, or bridge, under which roll a marble 
for baby's amusement, baby's chair, etc., in" 
the salt cellar series we have baby's cup and 
saucer. 

Slimmer Experiences. 

Some kindergarteners may wish to begin 
the year with a rehearsal of the summer 
experiences. The children who have been 
in the city all summer may be able to tell 
of summer school or playground joys, while 
out of town children will tell of travel by 
carriage or rail or motor-car or hay rides 
and picnics, and sails upon the river or sea. 

In the city, the small boy who daringly 
or sometimes, alas, maliciously runs in 
front of motor-car or trolley, is the despair 
of the motorman and the conscientious 
chauffeur. Perhaps, we may be able in- 
directly to help the children to assume a 
different attitude to those who drive these 
swiftly moving vehicles. 

On the circle, the teacher may tell the 
story found at close of this article being 
careful not to so emphasize the dangers of 
confronting the cars, that the venturesome 
or contrary-minded child will forthwith go 
out and tempt Providence. 

After the children have told of travel by 
rail or boat they will be glad, as always to 
play "train." L,et some children be the 
automobile and mark off with chalk the 
dangerous grade crossing, station a child as 
flagman or sometimes play that there is no 
flagman; as the automobile approaches the 



crossing have the careful trustworthy own- 
er, get out, walk to crossing, look up and 
down tracks and then signal that it is safe 
to cross, or, perhaps, that a train is coming. 
Emphasize the caution and trustworthiness 
of the chauffeur. 

Instead of a train, vary by having a trol- 
ley, with a very careful motorman who feels 
responsible for the lives of the people in his 
car. 

At the table, with beginning children 
who are learning the colors, let the red, 
green and yellow balls represent the lights 
on the train or trolley. Have them choose 
and suspend the ones that indicate the back 
or front of a car, or that signify different 
street car lines. 

Out of second gift blocks build a car 
barn, and let the boxes be trolley cars, with 
the ball for passenger and the cylinder for 
steady motorman. Slide the boxes from 
child to child along the table having them 
stop at times to let passengers on or off, or 
to see if crossing is safe. 

Either gifts may be used in same way, 
and elevated grade crossings may be built 
as well as bridges and tunnels and depots. 



THE DOCTOR'S MOTOR-CAR 

By BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

There was once a Doctor who was very 
fond of children and so, nearly all of the 
sick people he visited were little folks. He 
had so many calls to make one summer, 
that he decided to buy an automobile. He 
found that he could manage with this to 
see a great many people in one day. And 
the children were always so glad to see him 
because he was always so merry and jolly 
that it did one good just to look at him or 
hear him speak or laugh. 

But one week he had so many calls to 
make that when Sunday came he thought 
he would take his own wife and little baby 
out for a rest and ride in the country for 
he was really very tired himself. He told 
his chauffeur, therefore, that he might have 
Sunday for a day of rest and he would drive 
the car himself. 

Soon they were in the country having 
such a good time, looking at the green 
fields and the wild flowers and the beautiful 
clouds in the blue sky and the river far, far 
away in the distance. 

Now it happened, that, not long before, 
a careless man had been walking along the 
road carrying the box in which were the 
remains of his lunch, papers and crumbs 



20 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



and parings of fruit and strings, and he 
tossed these across the road into the bushes 
but some fell into the road and among these 
was the bottle in which he carried his 
coffee. This broke as it fell, and the pieces 
of glass fell right into the road, directly 
into the way of bicyclists and automobiles. 
And now comes our Doctor with the 
baby and its mother all so happy, never 
dreaming of the glass in the road. On, on 
they come, when suddenly "look out, 
Mister, calls a voice and down from a tree 
swings a boy. "There's glass in the road," 
he said, "and if you don't look out that 
pretty cooing baby of yours will have a 
tumble or perhaps get home late for supper 
and bedtime." "Thank you, my boy," said 
the Doctor, in his merry way. "You are 
a man and a gentleman and I hope some 
day you may have a machine of your own," 
and then he left his car and he and the boy 
tossed the glass into the grass by the way- 
side where no cars or carriages would be 
likely to run over it. Then the Doctor 
drove on, thankful indeed that he did not 
have to spend long hours in mending his 
wheels or any broken bones. Soon after, 
they turned homeward and the fresh air 
had made the baby so drowsy that when 
they reached their house she was sound 
asleep and they undressed her and put her 
to bed without waking her up. 



T-he authorities of the school of St. Cyr, 
France, propose to publish a historical 
account of the school, and have requested 
certain information of the War Department 
relative to the parties from the United 
States who attended the school at different 
times from 1863 to 1893, and as the persons 
in question were not connected with the 
militarv service at the time the Chief of 
Staff is endeavoring to locate the indi- 
viduals with a view to obtaining the infor- 
mation the school authorities desire. 

The names sent Gen. Bell so far concern- 
ing whom the requested information is de- 
sired are Burthe, 1863-4; Jones, 1864-6; 
Slidell, — ; Harden Hickey, 1874-6; J. H. 
Baron, 1898; Crosbey, 1879-81; Charde, 

1891-3- 

Information relative to any of these per- 
sons or others from this country who at- 
tended the school at St. Cyr at any time 
should be sent to Major Gen. J. Franklin 
Bell, Chief of Staff, in order that their 
biographies may be included in the publi- 
cation in question. — The New York Times. 



MUNICIPAL PLAYGROUNDS IN 
MANHATTAN. 

CAROL ARONOVICI. 

Freedom and opportunity to play is an 
inalienable right of childhood. Slowly 
society is awakening to its duty to provide 
its children with time and facilities for 
wholesome play. This problem becomes 
more pressing as population increases and 
open breathing and play spaces are replaced 
by the crowded tenement or skyscraping 
office and factory building. In New York 
the records of the Juvenile Courts, the roll 
of the penal institutions, the records of 
hospitals and schools, the daily list of acci- 
dents show the fruits of the crowded tene- 
ment and the street playground. 

The recent organization of the Play- 
ground Association of America shows that 
public spirited people are awake to the im- 
portance of the problem. Chicago, Boston 
and Washington are in a fair way toward 
its solution. In Manhattan the congestion 
reaches its climax. The question is what is 
Manhattan doing for its 80,000 children and 
is she doing it economically, progressively, 
efficiently? These questions we shall try 
to answer in the following paper. 

History. 

In 1887 a bill (1) was passed by the 
legislature, and approved by Mayor Hewitt 
authorizing the City of New York to spend 
$1,000,000 a year in acquiring small parks, 
in each of which a playground was to be 
constructed and equipped. This law re- 
mained a dead letter until 1895, when new 
legislation (2) provided for the purchase of 
two small parks within two years from that 
date. The sites were purchased and the 
houses demolished; but the grounds were 
left a heap of ruins. Finally, in 1900, the 
Outdoor Recreation League obtained per- 
mission to level off the ground and make it 
possible for the children to play upon it. 
This was the beginning of municipal play- 
grounds in Manhattan. 

Since 1900 the Borough of Manhattan 
has established, and opened in rapid succes- 
sion, eleven playgrounds. Some of these 
were placed in parks already in use; for 
others, new parks were created. 

Cost. 

The establishment of these parks entailed 
a total expenditure of $12,643,991.51, dis- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



21 



tributed as follows: (i.) Chapter 676 of the 
Laws of 1887 (2) Chapter 293 of the Laws 
of 1895. 

Hamilton Fish Park $ 1,719,455.00 

Thomas Jefferson Park 2,748,122.00 

Seward Park 1,811,127.00 

Corlears Hook Park 1,370,421.00 

Tompkins Square Park 93,358.00 

Hudson Park 533,705.04 

St. Gabriel's Park 1,034,711.00 

DeWitt Clinton Park 1,272,385.00 

John Jay Park 388,534.00 

East River Park 522,118.88 

Chelsea Park 1,200,000.00 

Total $12,693,936.92 

Adequacy. 

That eleven playgrounds are wholly in- 
adequate to the needs of the people of Man- 
hattan Island there remains no doubt. 
With its 2,112,380 people at least 800,000 
of whom are between the ages of four and 
eighteen, Manhattan has more than 190,- 
000 persons (or about 70,000 children to a 
playground). The following table shows 
not only that Manhattan has fewer play- 
grounds in proportion to its population 
than other cities considered, but also, what 
is perhaps of even more significance, that 
Manhattan's density of population is much 
greater than any of them. 

TABLE. 

Number 
of peo- Density 

Number pie to of 

of play- a play- Popu- 

Cities Population grounds ground lation 

Manhattan, N. Y. 2,112,380 11 192,634 131.8 

Chicago, 111. 1,432,315 13 148,640 16.8 

Newark, N. J. 272,950 3 90,983 19.3 

Boston, Mass. 588,482 16 36,780 23.9 

Louisville, Ky. 219,191 6 36,531 16.7 

Portland, Me. 53,493 2 26,746 3.9 

Washington, D. C. 298,050 20 14,902 7.8 
*See New York State Census for 1905. 

It is the congestion more than the size of 
a city that makes playgrounds necessary. 
The table shows that Manhattan Island is 
almost six times more crowded than Boston 
and over seven times more crowded than. 
Chicago. This means that the Manhattan 
children must share the scanty space un- 
occupied by tenements with a great many 
more children than do those of other large 
cities. Almost unknown here are the de- 
lights of the vacant lot and every year sees 
more and more children crowding into the 
narrow dangerous streets. 

Nor are the playgrounds large and com- 
modious spaces. The eleven small parks 
containing playgrounds cover a total of 
seventy acres, but of this only twenty-four 
acres are devoted to the playgrounds. The 



following table shows what part of each 
small park is occupied by playgrounds: 

TABLE II. 

Total area of the parks in which there are play- 
grounds and the actual area occupied by the play- 
grounds proper. 

Area of Area of 

Park Playground 

DeWitt Clinton Park 7.4 acres 3 acres 

Thomas Jefferson Park... 15. 5 acres 9 acres 

Wm. H. Seward Park 3.3 acres 2 acres 

St. Gabriel's Park 2.9 acres 1.5 acres 

Corlear's Hook Park 8.3 acres 2 acres 

Tompkins Sq. Park 10.5 acres 1.5 acres 

East River Park 12.5 acres 1 acres 

Hamilton Fish Park 3.7 acres 2 acres 

Hudson Park 1.7 acres . 5 acres 

John Jay Park 3.0 acres 1.5 acres 

Chelsea Park 1.0 acres . 25 acres 

Total 69.8 acres 24 . 25 acres 

Distribution. 

The playgrounds and park kindergartens 
must be located within easy reach of every 
child. The children of the tenements can- 
not afford to ride on street cars and even 
the delights of the playground will not in- 
duce them to take long journeys on foot. 
(See following table). Moreover, they 
hesitate to cross busy and crowded streets 
and they will not willingly go into the ter- 
ritory occupied by people of other national- 
ity than their own. All these considera- 
tions should be borne in mind in determin- 
ing the location of playgrounds. 

TABLE I. 
Showing the radius of the playground attendance. 

Distance of Home from Playground 

Playground Less 4 to 6 7 to 10 10 Total 

than bl'ks bl'ks bl'ks No. of 

4 and children 

Bl'ks over question- 
ed 

Hamil. F. Pk. .85 31 4 120 

Tompkins Sq. . 99 29 3 2 133 

Seward Park.. 172 36 7 3 218 

Thos. Jef. Pk.178 42 8 2 230 

Total 534 138 22 7 701 

The figures given above show that out of 
the 701 children attending the playgrounds 
during the investigation 534, or 76 per cent, 
live less than four blocks away from the 
playgrounds. 

It is, therefore, evident that the advant- 
ages of the playgrounds are enjoyed only 
over a limited area and that with the play- 
grounds as few as they are, most of Man- 
hattan's eight hundred thousand children 
are still dependent upon the dangerous 
streets for their free play. 

With the increased density of population, 
the homes become more and more sunless 
and airless and the play space more and 
more scanty. It is evident, therefore, that 
playgrounds are most needed in the con- 



22 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



gested districts of the city. Have the Man- 
hattan authorities borne this consideration 
in mind in determining the location of the 
playgrounds ? 

In a very general way they have. Figure 
i shows that the west side with its popula- 
tion of 901,423, but with an average density 
of only 93.3 persons per acre has two play- 
grounds, while the more crowded east side 
has nine. AVithin the east side, however, 
the distribution has not been so wise or so 
equitable. The east side, south of 14th 
street with a population of 602,975 and with 
432.9 persons to the acre has four play- 
grounds, while the district north of 14th 
street with a population of 598,295 and an 
average density of only 21 1.2 persons per 
acre has five playgrounds. When we con- 
sider the smaller divisions of the city the 
injustice seems even more marked. For 
example, Ward 8 with a population of 
727.9 to the acre, the most densely settled 
district in the city has no playground, 
while in the same region Ward 6 with a 
population of only 397.6 persons to the 
acre, and with one exception the least 
populous district of the lower east side has 
a playground, and Ward T2 with 465 per- 
sons to the acre has two. While no section 
of the city has too many playgrounds, 
some districts where they are most needed 
have been entirely neglected. The result 
is that although Manhattan has spent more 
money on playgrounds than any two cities 
in the country the benefits have been far 
from proportionate. 

In Manhattan with its constantly increas- 
ing land values the solution must lie in the 
acquisition of small but numerous play 
spaces distributed with due reference to the 
density of the population, and, in so far as 
it is possible, within easy walking distance 
of every home. (1) 

(1) In Germany, as is shown by the map 
on page , the play grounds are small and 
devoted entirely to the use of the children. 
This makes it possible for the state to pro- 
vide a larger and better distributed number 
of playgrounds. As far back as 1897 there 
were in Prussia 1985 playgrounds, almost 
all of which were within less than ten 
minutes' walk from a school, and, as is well 
known, the German schools are well dis- 
tributed, according to the distribution of 
homes. Germany was not slow to learn 
that distance is a very important factor in 
playground distribution, and the splendid 
results achieved in Germany are undoubt- 



edly due to its tendency to sacrifice size to 
number. 

Management. 

In the organization of the department, 
the playgrounds fall into the division of 
"Playgrounds, Kindergartens, Bathhouses 
and Comfort Stations in the Parks." The 
official in charge of this division is an As- 
sistant Superintendent who is not fitted, 
either by training or by interest, for the 
supervision of the playgrounds. Moreover, 
there is nothing but the most general over- 
sight, no plan or system, no responsibility. 
As a result the attendants who are people 
of various kinds and degrees of training are 
permitted to use their own judgment in 
conducting playgrounds, and to carry out 
their own ideas whether they are good or 
bad. Besides, the attendants are frequently 
transferred from one playground to another 
with all the unpleasant adjustments which 
such changes always mean. In short, there 
is misunderstanding, confusion, and lack of 
co-operation, all because there is no com- 
petent and responsible head to the play- 
ground system. 

In this connection it may be said that the 
present method of registering attendance 
is misleading. Counts are made twice a 
day, once from the time of opening to 1 p. 
m. and a second time from 1 to 5 p. m. 
This system makes the attendance appear 
well distributed throughout the day, and 
conceals the fact that during most of the 
year it is largely concentrated between 
twelve and one and between three and 
five. (See Table III). 

New York, in the Borough of Manhattan 
was the first city in the United States to 
provide its playgrounds with paid and 
trained teachers. Today the eleven play- 
grounds are regularly supervised by seven- 
teen women teachers and twelve gym- 
nasium instructors. The yearly salary of 
the women is $720.00 and that of the men 
is $900, making an annual expense of $23,- 
040 to the city. 

The management of the individual play- 
ground is not such as to bring the most 
satisfactory results. It is the park foreman 
and not the teacher who is really in charge 
of the playground. The park foreman has 
the custody of the supplies and acts as time 
keeper of the teachers' work. He it is who 
decides whether the weather is suitable for 
opening the playground or whether the 
teachers should be sent home. His author- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



23 



ity is often carried to a point where the 
prestige of the teachers is lowered before 
the children and discipline suffers accord- 
ingly. Because of the legal objection to the 
employment of teachers bv any other muni- 
cipal department than the Board of Educa- 
tion, the Department of Parks has deprived 
the teachers of their rightful titles and sub- 
stituted "Attendant," the name by which 
the employees about the bath houses and 
comfort stations are designated. In fact, 
one order from the Department of Parks to 
the foreman was found to read "You are 
hereby directed to acquaint the playground 
and gvmnasium attendants of your gang, 
etc." The matter of title is perhaps of little 
importance but it is clearly illogical that 
persons who are selected to take care of 
parks should be made supervisors of work 
which is by nature educational. It is as if 
the janitor of a school building were put in 
charge of the teachers there. 

The opening hours of the playgrounds 
are a striking examole of bad management 
and needless expense. Under the present 
arrangement nine of the eleven play- 
grounds under the Department of Parks 
are open the vear round as follows : Prom 
10 a. m. to 5 p. m. during October. Novem- 
ber, December. January and February : 
from o a. m. to 6 p. m. during March. April 
and Mav; and from o a. m. to 7 p. m. in 
June, July, August and September. 

It is aoparent, from the above schedule, 
that during eight months of the vear 
October to Mav the hours of the play- 
ground conflict with those in the public 
schools, ihe natural result of this schedule 
is, that between o or io a. m. and 12:11; p. 
m. and between 1 and 7, p. m. the nlav- 
grounds are practically deserted and the 
teachers are idle from four to Ave hours 
during a dav, eight months of the vear. 
The executions are very often truants and 
the attendants are freauentlv called uoon 
to cross-examine the children who come 
into the playground during" school hours. 

An illustration of the distribution of at- 
tendance during school hours, as compared 
with the hours when the children are out 
of school, is given by the following table, 
prepared from the attendance in Tompkins 
Square Playgrounds during several days in 
February and March. 



TABLE. 

Showing hours of attendance in Thompkins Square 
Playground. 



Hours 


February, 


1907 




March, 


1907. 




20th 21st 


25th 


26th 


4 th 


5th 


9-12* 


10 20 


None 


10 


6 


5 


12-1 


133 110 


75 


80 


125 


140 


1-3 


19 27 


15 


30 


20 


30 


3-6* 


310 210 


150 


200 


150 


300 



Total 472 367 240 320 301 475 

*In February the hours were from 10-5, while 
in March they were from 4-6. 

But if the attendants are occupied only 
a small portion of the time during the eight 
school months, their work is doubled dur- 
ing vacation when they are expected to 
look after five or six hundred children in 
the course of eight or nine hours. The 
1906 report of the Statistician on play- 
grounds and kindergartens shows that in 
every case the attendance during the sum- 
mer was at least double that of the school 
term, and in John Jay, DeWitt, Clinton and 
Tompkins Square Playgrounds the attend- 
ance was trebled. 

While the Department of Parks keeps 
the playgrounds open throughout the day 
regardless of the small attendance during 
school hours no effort has been made to 
induce the children living near a play- 
ground to take advantage of its benefits and 
keep off the streets. Within a block or two 
of a playground street gangs may often be 
observed shooting craps, smoking cigar- 
ettes or playing ball, to the peril of passers- 
by. The records of schools and reforma- 
tories and of the Juvenile Court show that 
street gang amusements are responsible for 
a great deal of delinquency and crime. 
While no boy can, or should be brought to 
a playground against his will, the police, by 
dispersing these gangs might be the means 
of inducing them to go to the playground 
where the surroundings are more healthful 
and where they would not annoy the neigh- 
borhood. 

The value of play as an educative in- 
fluence is so well known and the importance 
of directed systematic play is so generally 
accepted that no exposition of these facts 
is necessary here. The playground should 
be under the supervision of the Board of 
Education. To the Board of Education has 
been intrusted the work of training the chil- 
dren of the city, and it does this according 
to a thorough and harmonious system. It 
is of the utmost importance that directed 



24 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



play be so carried on as to strengthen and 
emphasize school influence. Unless work 
and play are conducted by the same depart- 
ment there will be no harmony, no co- 
operation. The Board of Education is the 
proper, logical agency. To the Depart- 
ment of Parks has been delegated the im- 
portant but absolutely different function of 
taking care of trees and grass. 

The Board of Education already con- 
ducts a system of playgrounds which quite 
dwarfs the park's system in its proportions. 
There were 80 such play-places located in 
the court yards or on the roofs of the school 
buildings, and in a few cases, in vacant 
lots. These recreation centers are con- 
ducted in a systematic, scientific manner 
and in harmony with the other work of the 
schools. The city, by appropriating money 
for playgrounds to be conducted by the 
Board of Education has recognized the 
educational importance of play. That the 
same Board of Estimate should appro- 
priate money for the same purpose and 
recognize in one case the Board of Educa- 
tion and in another the Department of 
Parks as the proper authority to conduct 
the work is clearly illogical. 

The difference between the school and 
the park playgrounds can be seen in the 
equipment of the two types of playground. 
For purposes of comparison, an inventory 
of the equipment in Thomas Jefferson and 
Tompkins Square Parks and a list of the 
standard equipment used by the Board of 
Education, are appended. While there is 
as yet no recognized standard of play- 
ground equipment, it is apparent that the 
word playground is interpreted in widely 
different fashion by the two departments. 
The park playgrounds are, as a rule, 
equipped with the best and most up-to-date 
apparatus. It is gynasium apparatus, how- 
ever, and of an elaborate and expensive 
nature. It shows that the idea of the Park 
Department is to provide a place for 
gymnasium and athletic sports rather than 
an opportunity for guided free play. The 
inevitable result is that the playground 
attracts the professional or would-be pro- 
fessional athlete and becomes a show place, 
to the exclusion of the children who have 
not attained to proficiency in athletics. On 
the other hand, the Board of Education 
recreation center playgrounds show a 
simpler but more diversified equipment and 
one which is fitted to accommodate more 
children at a given time and to offer them 



a greater variety of amusement. As 
evidence of this the figures show that the 
attendance at the playgrounds at present 
under the Department of Parks is consider- 
ably less than it was in the same play- 
ground five years ago, when they were 
under the jurisdiction of the Board of 
Education. 

Besides the greater variety of outdoor 
amusements the recreation centers offer 
many other advantages — libraries, reading 
rooms, equipment for quiet games and for 
manual training and opportunities for con- 
ducting clubs. The Department of Parks 
attempts none of these things in the play- 
ground. Some of these activities, because 
of lack of space, are manifestly impossible. 
Others, under a more responsible admini- 
stration, might be carried on successfully. 
There is no reason why the larger of the 
parks should not be equipped with build- 
ings for quiet games, baths, and perhaps 
small libraries and reading rooms. 

Manhattan, with her crowded living con- 
ditions and expensive land, cannot hope to 
duplicate the splendid playgrounds of Chi- 
cago with their athletic fields, open air and 
indoor gymnasiums, for men, women and 
children, swimming pools, etc. The larger 
of our playgrounds might easily be 
equipped with wading pools which enter- 
tain a great number of children, pleasantly 
and healthfully and with little risk of super- 
vision. The other features should be kept 
constantly in mind when we are construct- 
ing playgrounds in what are now less 
crowded parts of the city. 

Conclusion. 

The close relationship that play bears to 
education has been recognized by both the 
Board of Education and the city financial 
authorities. In spite of this recognition, 
the playground work is still divided be- 
tween the Department of Parks and the 
Board of Education. The Department of 
Parks has given proof of wastefulness of 
methods, and of incompetence to conduct 
the playgrounds in a satisfactory manner. 
The logical conclusion is that jurisdiction 
over the playgrounds should be given over 
to the Board of Education. 

In the meantime, the following changes 
are obviously necessary and possible : 

I. That all playgrounds hereafter ac- 
quired bv the city under the law of 1887 
(1) be located with the aim in view of 
accommodating; the most crowded districts. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



25 



2. That the playgrounds be situated, as 
far as possible from busy thoroughfares, 
so that children may have access from all 
sides. 

3. That in the acquisition of future play- 
grounds, size be sacrificed to number. 

4. That a general, coherent and har- 
monious system of conducting the play- 
grounds be adopted. 

5. That the playground work be harmon- 
ized with the work in the public schools. 

6. That the teachers and instructors be 
designated by their proper title and not by 
some substitute which lowers the prestige 
of the persons engaged in the work. 

7. That a responsible and competent 
person be placed in charge of the system 
and of the individual playground. 

8. That the co-operation of the police be 
secured for the purpose of breaking up 
street gangs in the neighborhood of the 
playground. 



GUATEMALA SCHOOLS. 

The new transcontinental railroad which 
was opened on January 19 has brought 
Guatemala much nearer to the United 
States, and American capital and enterprise 
are expected to play an important part in 
the immediate future of the country. 
Already the people, though as yet little 
known here, want to be like Americans. 

"There isn't a girl in my school who 
doesn't want to be like the Americans," 
says Miss Alice Dufour, principal of the 
girls' manual training school of Guatemala 
and a graduate of Columbia, who is now in 
this city. "All of them are eager to learn 
the English language," she continued, "and 
while the transcontinental railroad was be- 
ing built they had a kind of race with the 
road, all trying to acquire fluency in the 
language before the road was completed." 

Miss Dufour's school was established out 
of his private funds by President Manual 
Estrada Cabrera, along with a similar in- 
stitution for boys. Only children whose 
parents are loyal to the administration are 
admitted, and the president, besides pay- 
ing the salaries of the teachers, furnishes 
uniforms for the pupils and everything else 
required for the successful operation of the 
schools. 

"All the pupils live at the school," said 
Miss Dufour, "and they attend classes six 
days a week for ten months of the year. 
They visit their homes only on the last 
Sunday of each month. The girls rise at 



5 o'clock and breakfast off coffee and dry 
bread. Then comes another meal at 8, the 
regular dinner at 11, fruit at 3 p. m., supper 
at 5 p. m. and coffee and bread at 8 o'clock. 
The supper is always prepared by the class 
in cooking, and the chief object of the 
school is to give the girls a knowledge of 
how to run a home, a quality sadly lacking 
among the women of Guatemala and, in 
fact, all Central American countries. Fam- 
ilies of even moderate means have from 
three to six servants. 

"Gardening is also a feature of the school 
work. Each girl cares for a plot of ground 
4 by 10 feet. Here she raises roses, orchids 
and other flowers on one side of a banana 
tree, while on the other she grows radishes, 
lettuce and like vegetables. Seedlings are 
protected by the giant leaves of the royal 
palm. 

"Cooking, gardening, dressmaking and 
housekeeping do not take all their time. 
They also study French, English and 
Spanish, history, geography, mathematics, 
elementary science, music and art." 

The public school system of Guatemala 
dates only to the rule of President Barrios, 
who held the reins of government from 
1870 to 1885, and amid the political disturb-, 
ances that have afflicted the country it has 
not greatly flourished. One of the first acts 
of the present president was to revive and 
rehabilitate the school system. Among 
other things, he established the "Feast of 
Minerva" which comes at the close of the 
school year. It lasts three days, and pro- 
fessors, principals and government officials 
join the children in celebrating it. — New 
York Tribune. 



ARMY EDUCATION. 

The conditions confronting officers and 
men who have children to educate, are 
simply pitiful. Many an officer is at this 
moment in debt, and paying interest on bor- 
rowed money, so that he may send his son 
or his daughter to a good school, or keep 
them in some city where their education 
will be continuous and uninterrupted. No 
matter of domestic economy touches 
officers more deeply than this of the chil- 
dren's education. 

It is true that the public schools of a city, 
if the post be near a city, are generous in 
taking boys and girls in, and some do so 
for a tuition fee; but it is, nevertheless, a 
fact that an army officer cannot demand 
local school service as a right, because of 



26 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



his profession and his residence on a mili- 
tary reservation. Even when near a city, 
the post is outside of it, and the children 
spend from two to four hours daily travel- 
ing behind army mules to and from the 
school house. 

Ihe so-called "post schools" now estab- 
lished, and to which children are sometimes 
sent through absolute necessity because of 
isolation, are a farce, for the officer having 
the high sounding title of "Superintendent 
of Post Schools," is generally so fully 
occupied with other engaging military 
duties that he can give little or no attention 
to the school development and system, 
while the man who is teacher has usually 
never acted in that capacity before. 

Again, officers and men are so changed 
about that the education of the children is 
subject to sad and costly interruptions, as 
they frequently go back one grade in their 
transfer from one locality to another. 

Is there not a remedy for this ? West 
Point represents hundreds of similar, 
though smaller cases, and these children 
are as lusty, as loyal and as American as 
any the nation produces. — Army and Navy 
Life. 

EDITORIAL. 

We are pleased to call attention to an 
association of zealous, public-spirited citi- 
zens which has recently been organized in 
Milwaukee although its scope is national 
rather than local as indicated by its name, 
viz. : the National New E lucation League. 
Its object is, in brief, the self uplifting of 
the American nation upon a higher intel- 
lectual, ethical, esthetic and universal cul- 
tural level by a reorganization of the public 
school system along the lines of the new 
education. 

Some of the means to this end are briefly 
outlined as follows : 

I. An energetic agitation throughout the 
United States are the more consistent ap- 
plication of the "new educational" princi- 
ples, methods, aims, and practice not only 
in the kindergarten, but as the best founda- 
tion for the objective, developing, organic 
and correlative art of child-culture and 
soul-evolution, to be continued in peda- 
gogic development through all the stages 
of the common school wo*, making of 
education one unitary living growth under 
the co-operation of the school (teachers), 
the home (parents), and the community 
(district population), as briefly but compre- 



hensively outlined in C. H. Doerflinger's 
booklet "synopsis." 

2. The publication of a monthly paper 
and other literature. 

3. The expansion of the league into 
every district or parish throughout the 
country. 

4. The seeking of a private endowment 
for a 12 grade "Model New Education Ad- 
vanced Common School" in which a 
selected faculty of true educators devoted 
to this cause shall find an opportunity, un- 
trammeled by political or other detrimental 
forces, to prove the superiority of the pro- 
posed new system over that now in vogue, 
by the practical .results it will attain, ap- • 
proximating those of the high school in 
the quantity of imparted knowledge, but 
better as to powers and character. 

5. The advocacy of Mr. Doerflinger's 
plans for the publication of a series of New 
Education Teachers' Manuals and other 
needed auxiliaries. 

6. The advocacy of a development of the 
United States Bureau of Education into a 
well equipped Government Department. 

Mr. C. H. Doerflinger has had a move- 
ment such as this, upon his heart and brain 
for many years. Like Froebel, he proved 
his patriotism by risking his life for his 
country in the civil war (losing a leg in 
the great conflict) and like Froebel again, 
he proved his patriotism still further and 
in more difficult, discouraging ways, by 
striving through long years to raise the 
educational ideals of his city and state. 

He was well trained himself in a fine 
school established upon the best educa- 
tional principles and has studied thought- 
fully the educational systems of Switzer- 
land, Germany, France and Mexico at first 
hand. 

In common with many thoughtful obser- 
vers of today he feels dissatisfied with the 
results of our schools. For some reason 
we are not turning out the children our 
country needs, either as to character or 
general equipment to fight the battles of 
life with honor or success. Our public 
schools, our private schools, our colleges 
alike fail in establishing high principles or, 
disinterested characters in those who 
graduate from their beautifully equipped 
buildings and perfect organizations. 

From time to time men with high educa- 
tional ideals have succeeded in establishing 
and carrying on schools permeated with 
the noblest spirit of consecration on the 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



27 



part of the teachers; and guided by wise, 
courageous and far-sighted leaders much 
has been accomplished and even the rank 
and file of the public schools have felt their 
influence. Notable among these efforts 
may be mentioned, the German-American 
Acadeirv of Milwaukee founded by Peter 
Engelman, the Ethical Culture School of 
N. Y., founded by Felix Adler, the Cook 
Countv Normal School with which Colonel 
Parker carried on his long battle for the 
social ideal of the school, the Laboratory 
School of the University of Chicago in 
which Dr. Dewey has proved many things, 
and the Horace Mann School of New York 
City. Possibly the Ethical Culture School 
is the only one which fulfills the demands 
of the present ideal, as for many years it 
embodied the highest educational theories 
and was free to all students, but of late 
years, when the advanced grades of the 
high school were added it ceased to be en- 
tirely free. 

The Laboratory School and Colonel 
Parker's School of Education and the 
Horace Mann school of New York have 
fallen under the restricted control of the 
university organizations and so have lent 
freedom, and there appears little prob- 
ability that the public schools which are 
more and more systematized, should ever 
secure the freedom called for by the new 
education, but we believe with Mr. Doer- 
flinger that the times are ripe for an experi- 
ment such as he suggests and which has 
the indorsement of well-known educators. 

If one school such as we have named 
above could in time be placed in every lead- 
ing city in our country to little by little 
make its impress upon the main body of 
the school system it would not but result 
in vast changes in the tone of modern 
society. We ask co-operation of all who 
know the defects of our present modern 
life, the tragedies enlisted because of the 
selfishness, low moral ideals and lack of 
reverence of the average child as well as 
the children of the very rich and the 
extremes to join with us in the effort to 
establish first one such school, then others 
as rapidly as the necessary funds may be 
secured. It requires consecration and 
sacrifice but the promise of a new earth, if 
not a new heaven, is assuredly worth the 
cost. 




FOLK AND FAIRY STORIES. 

RICHARD THOMAS WYCHE. President Story 
Tellers' League. 

N the child's estimate the stone 
that the builders rejected has 
become the chief of the cor- 
ner. Many a floating fairy 
and folk tale that failed to find 
its way in saga and epic, has 
because of its inherent worth 
lived through the centuries, 
and is today the favorite fire- 
side story of the younger chil- 
dren. The child's interest in "The Three 
Bears," "Cinderella," "Little Red Riding 
Hood," "Beauty and the Beast," "Santa 
Ciaus," and so on, is a better guide to us 
than the opinion of the overwise adults in 
determining the literature he shall have. 
The stories that gave pleasure and inspira- 
tion through the centuries lived while oth- 
ers were forgotten, and we have today the 
winnowed and selected fairy stories of the 
world to choose from ; but one should know 
the folk tales of his own land before those 
of another country. Our children study the 
geography and history of America before 
that of India. 

The North American Indian and the 
Negro have furnished us with many charm- 
ing folk tales. Longfellow has used and 
idealized many of the Indian traditions in 
his masterpiece "The Song of Hiawatha," 
while Joel Chandler Harris has collected and 
given to us in his faultless dialect many of 
the Negro stories. The re-telling of these 
traditions are splendid examples to us of 
the story teller's art. Longfellow selected 
his material partially from "Schoolcraft's 
Collection of Indian Traditions," while 
Harris gathered his at first hand from the 
Negroes, and in idealizing these selected 
and gathered stories, they have written 
masterpieces that will live forever. Hia- 
watha with its sweep of imagination, sus- 
tained effort and heroism comes properly 
under the head of an epic, and for charm of 
meter, out-of-doors life, spiritual and ethical 
ideals we have no story superior to it. It 
was the first story that revealed to me the 
vastness and beauty of storyland, when as 
their teacher I looked into the eyes of lis- 
tening children. 

For humor, relaxation and pure fun we 
have no better stories than the deeds of 
"Brer Rabbit," in the Uncle Remus books. 



28 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



These stories told as they were by a gray- 
headed, kind-hearted, old Negro to a little 
boy who came to his cabin fireside every 
evening after supper, reveal a beautiful pic- 
ture of a child race, typified in Uncle Remus, 
speaking to a child of a more mature race. 
They understood each other, a child look- 
ing into the face of a child. What a unique 
situation that is : the untaught race becom- 
ing the teacher of the educated race. If 
music, humor, good-natured raillery, skillful 
blending of animal traits and human nature 
as given in the stories that were told every 
day to the children of the South, meant an 
educational impress, we must then duly 
consider the work of the black mammies and 
uncles who told these stories to the chil- 
dren by the fireside, in the fields, and under 
the shade of trees. 

The Negro, bringing some of his stories 
from Africa, getting some from his white 
master, others from the Indians, and him- 
self creating many on the plantation, has 
produced a piece of literature that will re- 
main for all time a record of what he 
thought and felt during his years of servi- 
tude in America. An interesting example 
it is, too, of the unconscious making of liter- 
ature by a primitive race. When we com- 
pare the stories of the Negro with those of 
other races we see this difference : the In- 
dian's hero was Hiawatha, the Norseman's 
was Siegfried, the Greek's was Ulysses; but 
the Negro's hero is the rabbit. Other races 
had men and women as characters in their 
stories, but the Negro has only animals. 
His hero is the harmless and helpless rabbit, 
who outwits the fox, the lion and wolf. Not 
by might or power, but by craft he succeeds. 
If the hero of a race reveals characteristics 
then the Negro's message to the world is 
not one of prowess and brute force, but one 
of a child-like spirituality, as seen in his 
songs and stories. 

The Negro's emotional life, his songs, su- 
perstitions, stories, and beliefs in haunts 
directly by the race that creates its own lit- 
erature. And since Uncle Remus stories 
have been published, the literature of the 
Negro has reached all parts of America, and 
extends even into Europe. William Morris 
puts Uncle Remus down as one of the Amer- 
ican books he enjoys. While these stories 
are universally popular, they are because of 
the dialect, not suitable for language work 
in the schools, yet the dialect and quaint old 
English has in itself a charm and educa- 
tional value. And for pure humor, Ameri- 



can literature has nothing better. The boy 
and girl whose sense of humor has not been 
developed, who has not been allowed to re- 
lax and laugh is not fitted for the world's 
work. To the extent that we can let down 
and relax, to that extent we can rebound to 
higher things. 

He who has been giving the child some- 
thing all day to teach him, needs occasion- 
ally to give him a story not to teach a 
blessed thing. 

We cannot go all the time keyed up to 
the deeds of Hiawatha or King Arthur. 
When friction and little misunderstandings 
arise, as they usually do in organized effort, 
nothing is better for teacher and pupil than 
to laugh together at the deeds of some char- 
acter such as Brer Rabbit. An immediate 
psychic adjustment is made, they have met 
on a common plane and are for the moment 
comrades. The atmosphere is lightened, 
sweetened and purified so that all can 
breathe freely again. We have more mus- 
cles in our face for laughing than for crying. 
How shall we develop those muscles unless 
we laugh. To see the point in a story and 
know when to laugh means a finer and 
higher form of mental development and cul- 
ture than understanding a rule in mathe- 
matics. 

It is rarely that we find stories so preg- 
nant with life as the Uncle Remus tales for 
they interest both the young and old. The 
little child enjoys the animal play and talk: 
Most of the humor is lost on him, and for 
that reason a simple heroic story is more 
popular with him. But the adult sees in the 
artistic settings, the post lude and pre 
lude, the dialect, the humor and human life, 
something extremely interesting and amus- 
ing. Measured by some standards these 
flowers of the soil may seem common and 
unworthy, but those who heard them in 
their childhood and those who feel the 
fellowship of all literary art, can see with 
Wordsworth, in the meanest flower that 
blooms thoughts too deep for tears. 
Others have crossed the seas, and climbed 
the heights of some Mount Olympus to find 
literature, but Joel Chandler Harris found 
his in the common life on the plantation; 
and he has written a piece of literature that 
will live. As Theodore Roosevelt says of 
him, "Presidents may come and presidents 
may go but Uncle Remus stays put." 

With the passing of the primative races 
and the coming of the printing press, folks 
tales have had a tendency to die out. * * 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



29 



If as Froebel has said, story telling is a 
refreshing spirit bath, then the fairy story is 
the most popular bath with a little child. 
But to attempt to give him all the fairy 
stories now published , English, German, 
Japanese and Russian, would be worse than 
not giving him any. Some one has defined 
a fairy story as a heavenly story with an 
earthly meaning and in this all good fairy 
and ghosts, touching the white child at the 
most impressionable period, left a lasting 
impress on America and especially on the 
South; for the children of no other section 
of the country have had such splendid story 
tellers and as charming fairy tales told them. 



IF. 

If I was big I'd have a troop 

An' go an' fight the foe, 

An' lose my arm or somethin' 

Just like my Uncle Joe. 

An' when we'd licked 'em good and hard 

An' won our spurs, why — then — 

I guess you'd see how brave we'd be 

If me an' the boys was men. 

I wonder how 'twould really seem 

To be like Uncle Joe, — 

Do you suppose he's kinder scairt 

When lights is turned way low? 

I think if I was really growed, 

So I could beat a drum, 

When bedtime came and it was dark, 

I'd want my mother some. 



THE SWING. 

BY ROBERT DOUIS STEVENSON. 

How do you like to go up in a swing, 

Up in the air so blue 
Oh, I do think it the pleasantest thing 

Ever a child can do! 

Up in the air and over the wall, 

Till I can see so wide, 
Rivers and trees and cattle and all 

Over the countryside. 

Till I look down on the garden green, 
Down on the roof so brown — 

Up in the air I go flying again, 
Up in the air and down! 



September and October are missionary months 
with this magazine, during which time any sub- 
scriber who renews for a year can have the 
privilage of sending one copy free for six months 
to any person not now on our list, the object be- 
ing to reach more people and interest them in the 
kindergarten cause. Select some young kinder- 
gartner or primary teacher and send the magazine 
to her as a gift to a friend, or send 25c additional 
and secure the magazine for a full year for your 
friend. We will begin subscription at any time- 
Christmas, if you like. 



DRAWING, PAPER CUTTING, FOLD- 
ING AND PAPER TEARING 
FOR SEPTEMBER. 

By liteon CiAXTON. 

The plan of the articles that are to follow 
on this subject is to find a thought for the 
month, some nature interest, some study of 
animal life, more or less definitely connected 
with that thought, some helper whose work 
is especially appropriate during the month; 
to not forget to look back into the days that 
have gone and even cast the eye forward to 
the days that are to come. The particular 
objects chosen will only be suggestive and 
imply lines of story work and talks, excur- 
sions into the world and much self expres- 
sion on the part of the child. If the mater- 
ials used be considered as means of self ex- 
pression rather than materials for illustra- 
tion, the real purpose will be attained. The 
results will be valuable only as they enable 
a child to see and act for himself. Finished 
work is not the purpose to be kept in mind. 
If the same object be drawn and then cut 
free it will help the child greatly to see form 
and mass. The results will be very much 
more satisfactory than just to perform the 
one process with a given object. The draw- 
ings, etc., when saved and made up in book 
form show at a glance the improvement in 
the work, and if the parents are invited to 
come each month to see the children's work 
and compare with others, and finally to take 
it home it will add greatly to the interest. 
A design for the book cover would then be 
one feature of the month's work. 

September. 

The month of recall; the time when the 
work goes back to the home and summer 
joys. This then is a month when home in- 
terests appear largely in the drawing, cut- 
ting, folding and paper tearing. This also 
is the month when the neighborhood is 
searched for some beautiful object to be the 
subject of conversations, visits and lessons 
during the year. 

_ The choice of subject-matter depends en- 
tirely on the child's environment and devel- 
opment. The feeling for the work and 
truths presented will be found to some de- 
gree in the most benighted districts and in 
the crudest home life. To be sure, after the 
starting point of the child's experience is 
found, the work will lead away from some 
homes more quickly than others, but the 
child's experience must be the working 



3o 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



foundation. The mothers and fathers are 
the helpers to whom we especially direct 
the thought of the children in September. 

The following outline will be suggestive 
of work along these lines : 

Free Drawing. 

1. The mother at her daily duties; churn- 
ing, milking, feeding chickens, washing, 
ironing, sewing, caring for the baby. 

2. The father at his daily duties ; driving 
milk to town, working in fields, etc., con- 
ductor, carpenter, mason. 

3. The home. 
.4 The school. 

5. Representation of some of the plays 
of summer time, as fishing, boating, a day 
at the beach, gathering flowers, trolley ride. 

6. Illustration of stories. 

Directed Drawing. 




CatfcYViltar 



Caterpillar 

Cocoon 

Animal life. 

Some bird that migrates. 





G oldte\rrr*xi 



Goldenrod 
Astors 




Seed pods 
Pears 
Peaches 

Bunch of grapes 

Book cover — Goldenrou and astors 
Flowers, fruits and toys brought in class-room by 
the children. 



^f^^X. 



Gretas §J ?~tfP 



Cht-ir 



Free Cutting. 

1. This is the time for snipping if the 
children wish to. But gradually the chil- 
dren will be led from this to a line of cut- 
ting, suggested by the teacher. 

2. Also plan to have pictures cut from 
magazines, fashion plates, etc., but the re- 
sults will of necessity be very crude. 

3. The home (cut doors and windows.) 

4. Table-cloth. 

5. Napkins. 

6. Chairs. 

7. Tables. 



u ^ 




f ^ 




Tub 



Tubs, washboard, ironing board 

fS A 




Washboard 



Spool 



clothes line full of clothes, clothes horse 
with clothes on it, spool of thread, dust pan, 
dust brush, broom. 

Drawing and Cutting. 

1. Draw a window frame; cut out space 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 

for glass; paste a thin, colored paper on ^ 



31 







V^indow-fvante 



FSowevpot 



2. Free illustrative drawings of father 
and mother at work. (These pictures must 
be kept free from detail, for instance, the 
father holding a hammer, the mother with 
a broom, would be good subjects. 

3. Drawing a flower ; cutting it out ; 
pasting a slat on the back and standing this 
in a flower pot made of an empty spool cov- 
ered with crepe paper and tied with a 
ribbon. 

4. A flight of birds on a blue back- 
ground ; cut some birds larger than the oth- 
ers and arrange the larger ones in the front. 




Practice Drawing. 

Street — Add objects of interest. 




Poles — Add details appropriate, as 
clothes lines, vines, etc. 

Ball — Add strings to make balloon, etc. 

Folding and Cutting. 

1. Towels. 

2. Shutters — Draw window and paste 
the shutters. 

3. Bed, 
Bureau, 
Table, 
Piano. 
Chair, 




The foundation form is described in a 
previous article. 





/ Esalloons ( 



Wagon — Farm wagon. 

Make barrels by rolling the strips used 
for chain paper. 

If the wheels of the wagon be fastened 
with paper, fastened so that they "walk," it 
will add greatly to the charm of the con- 
struction. 



32 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



4. Home and school-house; also based 
on descriptions in previous articles. 

Paper Tearing. 



Oak Leaf — green, 
brown. 




Strips for chains. 

Snips, 

Plates, 

Saucers, 

Bouncing balls, 

OCTOBER 

This is the month of falling leaves and harvest- 
ing; preparation for winter both in the home and 
the world of nature. The farmer sees that his 
buildings are in repair and the mother begins to 
look over the winter clothing. The flowers have 
made their seeds. The fruits are ripening theirs. 
Jack Frost touches the nuts and the squirrels 
gather their winter store. The bees have sufficient 
honey for the long winter montns and almost im- 
perceptably the insects and creatures of the winds 
have disappeared. Winter is coming and all must 
be ready. The farmer is the helper to whom our 
attention may well be directed and as the thoughts 
of the children are drawn to his activities the spirit 
of the season may be reflected in the Drawing, Cut- 
ting, Folding and Paper Tearing in a variety of 
ways. The following outline will be suggestive: 

DRAWING 

1. Seed pods — to remind us of September and to 
suggest November. 



Sunflower 
seedL-pod 







branch 



2. Maple Leaf — red. 

green, 
brown. 



Tree betiding in w'mdl 





















S00H- 

cover Barrel' 



// 


\ w 


\ 


i 

\\\ 

WW 



4. Chestnut branch, including open and shut 
burrs and leaves. 

5. Hickory branch, including open and shut 
burrs and leaves. 

6. Different trees in foliage. 

7. Bare trees. 

8. Tree bending in the wind. 




9. Apples — red. 

green, 
yellow. 

10. Branch with deserted nest. 

11. Squirrel — The animal life for November. 

12. Jack-o-Lantern. 




13. Book Cover — Maple leaves in colors. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



33 



PRACTICE DRAWING 

1. Barrel for apples. 

2. Bare tree. 

FREE DRAWING 

1. Illustration of stories. 

2. Representation of conditions in nature as 
colored foliage, falling leaves, squirrels gathering 
nuts, store houses being repaired, sheep in fields. 

CUTTING 

1. Apples. 

2. Sheep. 

3. Sheep fold. (Described In previous article.) 

4. Coats. 

5. Mittens. 

6. Stockings. 



8. Illustration of story work. 



Mitten 



Stochifii 




3. Fruits. 

4. Chestnut. 

5. Acorn in cup. 

6. Sheep fold. 

7. Hen house on same foundation as sheep fold. 
i>raw big windows. 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 
tray. 

6. 
simple 
dog. 



DRAWING AND CUTTING 

Apple tree filled with ripe fruit. 

Chestnut tree. 

Mr. Squirrel's family. 

Mr. Squirrel's home. 

Sheep to paste on back ground or use in sand 

Illustration of stories, keeping the pictures 
as a squirrel with nut in fore feet or watch 



CUTTING 



Farmer. 
Leaves. 



You can do kindergarten missionary work at our 
expense. See announcement first page. 



A NEW-FOUND SENSE. 

If the eyes of one who had never seen were sud- 
denly opened, the world would be a strange sight. 
We see not only by means of the physical powers 
of the eye, but by experience. A blind man whose 
sight is restored cannot recognize his own wife 
until he touches her face or hears her voice. A 
man who had never seen until he was thirty years 
old has sent to the Problem, a magazine for the 
blind, a remarkable account of his experience when 
the bandage was drawn from his eyes in the hos- 
pital, and he was, as it were, born again into the 
world: 

"What I saw frightened me, it was so big and 
made such strange motions. I called out in terror 
and put out my hand. My fingers touched my 
nurse's face. I knew she was there, for she had 
just taken the bandage from my eyes, and I knew 
what I was touching; but I did not know what it 
was I saw. 

" 'For mercy's sake, what is it?' I asked. 

The nurse answered me soothingly, taking my 
fingers in her hand and moving them from her 
mouth to her eyes, to her nose, chin, and forehead. 

" 'It is my face that you see. Look! You know 
this is my mouth — my chin — and these are my 
eyes.' 

" 'So I knew that I was seeing what was familiar 
to the touch of my fingers, — a human face. But 
the sensation was still one of terror. I seemed so 
small beside that expanse of human features which 
was so familiar to my fingers, so unnatural to my 
new sense. 

"When the nurse moved away from my cot, I 
felt a new sensation, which was so agreeable that 
I laughed aloud. The nurse came back, but not 
so close as before. 

" 'What is that?' I asked. 

" 'You are looking at the blanket which lies 
across your feet,' she said. 

" 'Blankets must be very beautiful things,' I 
said. 

" 'It is a red blanket,' she explained. 

"Then I thought I knew why people spoke of 
the beauty of the red rose. This was my first 
knowledge of colors. 

"I saw, and yet did not know that I saw. How 
could I know at first that those new and wonder- 
ful sensations meant the birth of a sense of which 
I knew nothing except in theory? Of course I 
was expecting to see; but was this sight — this 
jumble of extraordinary sensations? 

"The dazzling light first convinced me, for I 
had always been able to distinguish between night 
and day. But I could not recognize objects with 
my new-found sense until I had translated into 
its speech the language of the other senses. 

"The one lesson of the blanket was sufficient to 



34 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



teach me the color, red. Yellow was a different 
matter. The nurse brought me a cool drink. I 
could recognize her by sight now. The thing I 
saw in her hands I knew to be a tray after I had 
felt of it. Suddenly I felt a thrill of disgust. 

" 'What is that thing on the tray?' I asked. 'It 
makes me sick.' 

" 'It is a lemon. You said you liked lemonade.' 

" 'Then it is yellow. It is the color that 
nauseates me.' 

"Any object close to me looked tremendously 
large. I had often romped with children, yet when 
I first set eyes on a baby it looked gigantic. 

"The first day I sat by the window I put my hand 
out to feel the pavement. 

" 'That must be the pavement," I said. 'I'm 
going to feel of it to make sure.' 

" 'My goodness!' laughed the nurse. 'The pave- 
ment is two stories below.' 

"The first meal I ate was an odd experience. 
When I saw that great hand with a huge fork 
approaching my mouth, the inclination to dodge 
was almost irresistible." — Youth's Companion. 



Take advantage of our kindergarten missionary 
offer. See announcement first page. 

Subscribe now and get the magazine free for a 
friend. See announcement first page. 



"Play-Drill." A series of useful physical 
movements for young children by Annie M. Ben- 
nett, with words and music by Alice L. A. Hands. 
The primary end of the book is "to teach young 
children to breathe deeply both in the inspiratory 
and expiratory acts. This is most successfully 
done when the children are taught to do it un- 
consciously in the form of play. They are in- 
structed, for instance, to blow away imaginary 
bubbles or kites and to do this with the utmost 
vigor. In doing this they are sure to make a 
complete exhalation, and nature will see that 
there is a complete inhalation, the little ones be- 
ing all unconscious of anything but the fun." 
There is throughout the plan, insistence upon a 
perfect standing position which recalls Ling's in- 
sistence upon a frequent return to his funda- 
mental position which was also one in correct 
standing. In her introduction however the author 
makes special concessions to those who for any 
physical defect may not be able to assume this 
important position. The selections are arranged 
with reference to giving all parts of the body their 
needed quota of exercises. It is planned with 
sound good sense and a thorough understanding of 
the child and what he needs and does not need. 
There are numerous pictures from photographs to 
illustrate the special exercises and the music 
compositions are simple, short and expressive. 
The directions are clear and brief. One picture 
shows the children sitting on a rug placed in an 
open court and rowing very vigorously their 
imaginary boat. There are flower songs, see-saw 
songs; words to accompany horse and butterfly 
music, as well as wind songs, swinging, police- 
man and soldier songs. The closing one is quite 
up-to-date in that it takes for its subject the 
"electric cars," as a running exercise. George 
Philip & Son, London, England. Price 1 s 6 d. 
The book is well bound in serviceable red cloth and 
opens easily for piano playing. 

"List of Books for the Blind." In 1904 the 
Board of Trustees of the Brooklyn Public Library 
voted to establish a Library for the Blind. They 
found upon investigation, that upon the rolls of 
the department of Public Charities were 397 blind 
pensioners, and to each of these was sent a notice 
of the intention and inquiry as to whether they 
were readers and if so the kind of type used. For 
a long time, the Church of the Messiah had main- 



tained a library for the blind but recognizing the 
special fitness and better equipment of the Public 
Library for carrying on the work they transferred 
to its care its entire collection of 437 volumes. 
This formed the nucleus for the present Public 
Library for the Blind which was opened April, 
1905. The collection since that time has increased 
to a total of 1140 volumes, including 125 volumes 
of sheet music. Books for the blind are printed in 
five different types. These are known as: Line, 
English Braille, American Braille, Moon, and New 
York point. We are told that the Moon print is 
especially adapted to the aged, and to those whose 
sense of touch is deficient, while to those whose 
touch is normal, New York point offers certain 
advantages. Since facilities for learning to read 
are beyond the reach of many individuals the 
library provides a teacher who gives a regular 
course of instruction in the home free of charge. 
Pupils up to the age of 7 6 have been taught suc- 
cessfully. Oral readings are held three times a 
week and in addition to its books the library re- 
ceives four periodicals a week in the four different 
types. It contains also a number of maps for the 
use of the blind. In this connection we would 
mention a suggestion made by Dr. Jaral, the 
great French physician who became blind some- 
what late in life. Out of his own sad experience 
he has written a book of suggestions for those who 
are facing this dread loss of sight. He has stern 
words for those physicians, who knowing that 
blindness is inevitable fail, out of mistaken sym- 
pathy to give the due warning which will enable 
the patient to prepare himself beforehand for 
the darkness that is to come. Dr. Jarval gives 
many practical ideas that will aid the patient in 
training himself for a certain degree of independ- 
ence. For himself, being a man of scientific train- 
ing and familiar with several languages, he finds 
one of his greatest deprivations to be his in- 
ability to continue his studies in the foreign 
tongues. He therefore highly recommends the 
translation of all important books into Esperanto 
which will thus place them at the disposal of the 
blind of any nation. 



Free subscriptions to the magazine. See an- 
nouncement first page. 



In "School and Home Education" for March we 
find what promises to be a paper of revolutionary 
tendencies. It is by B. C. Gregor, now of Chelsea, 
Mass., and is called "The Foundation of Gram- 
mar. In 1902, when superintendent of schools, 
Trenton, N. J., Mr. Gregory conducted a practical 
investigation to determine what was wrong in 
present" methods of teaching grammar. That 
something was wrong was certain, according to re- 
ports of High School teachers. This study was 
made by having all of the children from the 
fourth to the eighth grades inclusive, write a 
composition on a subject given by the teacher. 
Each teacher was to follow her customary plan 
in such work. The compositions were then 
marked in accordance with a certain detailed 
scheme, covering 45 different points, and the 
errors were classified. The results were surpris- 
ing and seem to indicate that the schools have 
right along been pursuing the wrong way to turn 
out writers of good, plain English. There has 
evidently been much time and energy wasted. A 
study of this article will help grade teachers to 
a better understanding of just what the gram- 
matical weaknesses of the children are likely to 
be and how they may best be corrected. Mr. 
Gregory believes that the three essential points to 
be followed at first are: 1. The insistence upon 
very short and simple sentences. 2. The avoid- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



ance of superfluous words. 3. Practice to insure 
the agreement of subject and predicate, nouns 
and pronouns, etc. Attention to these three mat- 
ters would eliminate many common errors which 
are not necessary to be dealt with before the High 
School period. Mr. Gregory says: "Here are 
three propositions which this discussion tends to 
put in the light of facts: First, many errors are 
so complex that children rarely make them; 
second, when the children do make them 
they are so immature that they cannot under- 
stand the explanation when it is offered; third, 
if the errors could be explained, the pupils don't 
have practice enough in said errors to enforce 
their correction." The article is not concluded in 
the March number but the facts already given set 
one to thinking at once. There is more than one 
way of simplifying the course of study. 



We offer to send the magazine as a missionary 
free. See conditions on first page. 



A COUNTING LESSON. 

BT CAROLYN S. BAILEY. 

One little nest In the apple tree; 

Two fat robins, and blue eggs three; 

Four little heifers, meek and brown; 

Five little lambkins soft as down; 

Six little grass blades new and green — 

Seven blue violets peeping between; 

Eight nodding blossoms of sweet red clover; 

Nine little honey bees circling over; 

One little girl come back again 

To grandfather's farm, 

And she counts ten. 

Note.— A little girl should give this recitation. She should 
count oft a finger at a time as she recites, pointing to herself 
as the last three lines are repeated. Accent the SHE and TEN, 
of the last line very strongly and with a "cute" Inflection. It 
will be considered a "dear" little thing if the right child gives It. 

WORDS FREQUENTLY MISUSED 

Rarely ever, incorrectly used for hardly ever. 
Libel, incorrectly used for slander. 
Learn, incorrectly used for teach. 
I says, incorrectly used for I say. 
Liable, incorrectly used for likely 
Lay, incorrectly used for lie. 
Average, incorrectly used for or dinary. 
Expect, incorrectly used for suspect. 
Farther, incorrectly used for further. 
Latest, incorrectly used for last. 
Many, incorrectly used for much 
Luxuriant, incorrectly used for luxurious. 
Plenty, incorrectly used for plentiful. 
Propose, incorrectly used for purpose. 
Real, incorrectly used for really. 
Compliment, incorrectly used for complement. 



One by one tky duties wait thee; 

Let thy whole strength go to each; 
Let no future dream elate thee, 

Learn thou first what these can teach. 

Then let us learn to help each other 

Hoping unto the end : 
Who sees in every man a brother, 

Shall find in each a friend. 



The Acorn. 

BY FANNY J. CROSBY. 

A little acorn said one day, 
As near an aged elm it lay, 
"I wonder if I e'er shall be 
As strong and tall as that big 
tree?" 

The little acorn soon was found, 
And kindly planted in the ground, 
Where after many years it grew, 
And to the breeze its branches 
threw. 

Its leaves were green, and 'neath 

their shade 
The old reclined, the children 

played. 
And so we all, if we will try, 
Can useful be as time goes by; 

And as the acorn, we are told, 
Its branches spread o'er young 

and old, 
Oh, let our greatest joy be found 
In doing good to all around. 



Tonight — Confession. 

I have read the gospel story, 

I have listened tc its song; 
How the Lord of life and glory 

Came to save both old and young. 
I have seen bright, eager faces 

Glow with rapture and delight. 
But — to know His precious promise 

Is for me this blessed night! 

I have heard it since my childhood, 

Heard it at my mother's knee, 
But I did not feel the blessing 

Could be meant at all for me. 
Now I see the gift He offered, 

See the wisdom and the might, 
So, I come to claim His promise, 

And confess my Lord tonight. 

Oh, for all those years of waiting! 

Can I serve, and thus atone 
For the past-dear Lord, forgive me! 

I 1 n my heart SSemed turaed to stone? 
I would now obey Thy precepts 

Conquered by Thy love and might- 

Buried, but to rise and serve Thee, 

Let me do all this tonight! 

Then I'll try to do Thy bidding, 

Seek Thy blessed will to know; 
Ask Thy guidance and protection,' 

All along my path below. 
Then, when called to go up yonder, 

Join that throng of angels bright, 
May I then be counted worthy 

Of the choice I've made tonight. 
— Mary Sias. 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCIES OF AMERICA 

Ev»ry progressive teacher whs dssirss pramotiaa should take up the matter with some wide-awake Ttachers' Agency. Beyand 
the scope of a teacher's personal acqtuiataace thsre is aot much hope of advancing unaided. Some agencies have positloas wait- 
lag for experienced teachers and all should bt abls to advise ym to your advantage. If you contemplate moving ts a distant aec- 
tioa, let soma agency secure you a position before you go. Any of the following will doubtless seal particulars in reply to postaj; 



Ina good position this year is the aim of the SUCCESS TEACHERS' AGENCY- 
We can make this record if we can get the teachers, but we will need YOU- 
Send in your name to-dav. Vacancies everywhere. No registration fee. 
Stamp for blanks and circular. SUCCESS TEACHER'S AGENCY, 
Established, 1904. Address, Department K, Chicago, 111,. 



TEACHERS' AGENCY 
D. B. COOK, Maiager 

Syracuse, N.Y. 
we not help you) 

An Agency with agents. 



LOCATES KINDERGARTEN TEACHEBS 

Because of the scarcity of candidates we will 
register any kindergarten teacher and accept 
registration fee later, after we place you. 

We alse extend time in payment of com- 
mission. 

Write Te=day. Sead Pfceto 

We have placed hundreds of others. Why may 

Empire Teachers' Agency, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 



OUH 15ft YE&R BOO K jgff ?g%T?,#*fr iTtis- HAZARD TEACHERS 1 AGENCY 

n" M bu B r U ^-^^"V*»onaf^k) 3,T KqSOta Bu,ldln 9' ' MINNEAPOLIS, H 
ted Mera'Darcb.-j)."" '".VrneUto'tiearost 615 Empire State Sulldlng, SPOKANE, W 



Westers State 
era positie 
for a Se!*cte<3 
office. 



224 Railway Exchange. 



MINN. 
WASH. 
DENVER. COLO. 



SARIN'S ^BUGATIOMAL EXCHANGE 

HENRY SABIN 1907 14th Season ELBR1DGE H SABIN- 

During last y«nr placed teacberslnSo counties In Iowa, and in Minnesota, NorthsndSa- 

Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Washington and Ore, 
gan. Address, HENRY SABZfS, Manhattan Building, Des Moines, Iowa. 

PIONEER TEACHERS' AGENCY, Jklahoma City, Okla. 

VTill hslp yoa to get e. new or b<4tor Msitloa, wh*ti«-r yso ar* s Teaeher 
Clerfc, Beak- v°*&er, mr St^aegTepher. enroll »»w for fall vaeca<*l«* la triinole 

Th» d'T«r>n-l lev eswj t^cefe*?* la sJS ifea Wweterz eaj Bootheca Stetss U far 
greater than Hie *nnalr. 

Writ* fer spi»l!«»»*»B Wsnke asd fall particslars. 



TEACHERS* AGENCY 

Teachers wanted for geod positions in all parts of the United States 
Registration fee holdg Rood until we secure a position for you. 



X. Crsder, 



^.©me. New YorK 



s 



Vs»csm<"!ea E9< Bataoae »f <5<- - Bisad, utter fRESB rp®-f*trsii£e*£ no 
ttsose xiW'- sarao Kp»rier»««. V7f.» M. THTJR.STOPS', lSasseer, 

THT'RII W*S TEACBRRS' AGEKC7, S7S Wabash Ave.. diSeass* 



Admits to membership nnly the better class of t*»C".«<N 

registration fee returned to others at oicc 
Returns fee if its service is not satisfactory 
Makes specialty cf placing menihera in the Middle 
States and in the West— largest salaries paid there. 
Is conducted by experienced educators an<$ feusiaaas 
men. 

ur 5. Has had phenominal success in placing it« rrwmbeiv dur 
Latest ins the past year, 

ookl-t ^ ow ' £ the time to register. 

Send for our cor Booklet. 
Address, 337-320 Faurteeath Avenue, 

Dept. F. MINNEAPOLIS, 1HINJH. 



for' 



Po$itions--for Teachers 

If you want a position on the Pacific 
Coast or in Montana or Idaho, it will 
pay you to register with the 

Pacific Teachers' Agency 

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 

Send for Manual and Registratiou 
blank. Address 

B. W, BRINTNALL, Manager, 
523 New York Block, 

Seattle, Wash, 

Teach in the 
Sunny South 

This section offers better In- 
ducements to aspiring teachers 
than any other, and teachers are 
in great demand. If you want a 
good position for next school year 
you can secure it in this field. For 
full information write 

CLAUDE J. BELL, 

Nashville, Tena. 

Proprietor the Bsil Teachers' 

Agency. 




any Teachers Wanted 



An Agency that 
Recommends in 15 Southern States 
Ala., Ark., Pla., Ga., Ky., Md., 
Miss., Mo., N. C, S. C, Tenn., 

Tex., W. Va. 
Also conducts a 

Special Florid a Teachers' Agency 
Supplies Teachers for Universities, 
Colleges, Private, Normal, High, 
and Grade Schools; Special Teach- 
ers of Commercial Branches, Man- 
ual Training, Domestic Science, 
Art, Drawing, Music, Elocution, 
Physical Culture, Athletics. 
Deals in School Property 

Calls come from School Officials. 
Recommends all the year round. 
Register now. Best chances come 

early. 
SOUTHERN EDUCATIONAL RE- 
VIEW TEACHERS AGENCY 
CHATTANOOGA, TENN. 



L) .' ' E VAN B.-RFN.S7 ' , ^ ': ; 17-KH YZ 

i TEACHERS' AGENCIES 



FOUND 



AT 



LAST 



A suitable medium for model- 
ing in all its branches. 



Harbutt's 
Plasticine 



"The perfect modeling ma- 
terial." 

Five beautiful colors. Always 
plastic. No disagreeable odor. 

Ask your dealer for particulars 
— if he cannot supply you, write 

THE EMBOSSING CO., Albany, 
N. Y., U. S. A. , General American 
Agents. 

I SCHEDULE OF PRICES 

on 

HARBUTT'S PLASTICINE 

for 

PROFESSIONAL and SCHOOL 

USE 
Ca&es containing 100 one pound 
pieces 1 in. x 20 in., one color 
only 25c per lb. 

Cases as above with more than 
one color ... ...... 27c per lb. 

L--s than case lots (10 lbs. or 

over) 28c per lb. 

Less than 10 lbs. . . . .35c per lb. 

TERMS— NET CASH, F. 0. B. 
ALBANY, N. Y . 

N. B. — On single orders 
amounting to 1,000 lbs. or over, 
a discount of 5 per cent will be 
allowed. 

THE 
EMBOSSING CO. 

Albany, H. Y., U. S. A. 

General American Agents. 



TEACHERS 



We have great difficulty in 
supplying the demand for 
Wages will please you. 



strong Primary Teachers 

Write us 

Owen Pacific Coast Teacher's Agency 

Mcninnvllle, Oregon. 



An Agency that Recommends all Over the 
Country 

Here are examples of 190* changes through this agency In every case by recom- 
mendation only. Nova Scotia to N. T. Edith McLeod, Parrsboro to Montour Falls. 
Maine to N. J. Anna L. Bard, Presque Isle to Hoboken. Massachusetts to N. T. 
Ruth M. Fletcher, Northampton to Watertown. Connecticut to N. T. Clarence O. 
Boyd, New Haven to Chateaugay. New York to Vt. Ida Eveland. Franklin to Cas- 
tleton Normal; to N. J., Martha Baggs, Ithaca to Fast Orange; to Pa., W. E. 
Dlmorler, Montour Falls to Erie: to W. Va., Myra L. Shank, Auburn to Morgan- 
town; to Ohio, Elspeth McCreary, Franklin to Geneva; to Mich., Gertrude Miller, 
Oswego to Kalamazoo; to Iowa, E. Theodore Manning, Rochester to Storm Lake; to 
Mo., John P. Clark, Gowanda to Carthage. New Jersey to N. T., F. W. Reed, 
Brldgeton to Dobbs Ferry. Pennsylvania to N. T. Ada M. Perry. Fast Sharon to 
Geneva; to N. J., Marietta Meredith, Towanda to Passaic. Michigan to Ohio. 
George W. Slevers, Kalamazoo to Cincinnati. Wisconsin to N. T. C. J. Vrooman, 
Racine to Utica. California to Ala. Ida M. Cooley, San Francisco to Birmingham. 
During 1906 this agency filled 57 places with candidates who did not even write a 
letter. They were either called up by long-distance telephone or asked to come here 

Without even Writing a Letter 

for an interview, and the contract was closed without correspondence. Among these 
were the principals at Cardiff, Fast Wllllston, Eastwood. Great Valley, North Rose, 
Russell and Sharon Springs, N. T., and Du Bols, Pa. ; such men assistants as Merle 
W. Ralph, Amsterdam; E. L. Taylor, Ithaca; F. W. Palmer, Troy Academy; A. C. 
Lewis, St. John's School; Richard D. Fish. Milton. Pa.; and Robert H. Stevens, 
Towanda, Pa.; such training class teachers as Caroline H. Annable, Jamestown; and 
Jessie Mann, Massena; such city teachers as Mae L. Haley and Grace P. Glllett, 
Auburn; Margaret M. Allen and Ada M. Perry, Geneva; Alice M. Stack and Edna 
C. Fear, Hornell; E. Nellie Barker, Ithaca; Eunice E. Titus, Schenectady; Florence 
A. Brooks, Utica; and Dora E. Falrchlld, Tonkers; the preceptress of Cook Academy 
(from Nova Scotia); and such high and grade teachers as Katherlne Hayes, Bat* via; 
Edith E. King, Bay Shore; Marlon Hodskln, Munnsville; S. Grace Pulford, New 
Hartford; Mary F. Fltcpatrlck, Rouse's Point; Mary D. Spencer, Sidney; Wanda 
Tompkins, Vernon; Mary E. Campion, Westbury Station; Grace X. Curtis, Lillian B. 
Flsk and Anna L. Williams, Whitehall; such out-of-the-state appointments aa 
Marietta Meredith, Passaic, N. J.; Helen Hart and Maude F. Deuel, Conneaut, O. ; 
Elspeth McCreary and Elizabeth Trayhern, Geneva, O. ; Ethel M. Crandall, Harriet 
F. Bird, and Nettle B. Matthews, Warren, O.; and Gertrude T. Miller. Kalamazoo, 
Mich. Wouldn't you like to get a good place aa easily aa thlsT Tou can do It only 
through a recommendation agency. 

School Bulletin Agency, C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y. 



The South Dakota Teachers' Agency 

Is the best medium through which to obtain positions 
in the South Dakota Schools. Write for blanks to 

The JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, MADISON, S. D. 



THE TEXAS TEACHERS' BUREAU, 315 Thomas At., Dallas, 
Tex., will secure you a lucrative position in the southwest. 



The Western School News 

Published at Taloga, Oklahoma, will be enlarged and 
greatly improved for 1908. Largest and best advertis- 
ing medium of its kind in Western Oklahoma. Contains 
special departments for School Boards and School 
Officers, Children's Department, General News and 
Notes, Teachers' Department, Common School Alumni, 
Examination Questions, etc. Best publication in the 
state for School Boards. Bright and breezy and should 
be read by every teacher and school officer. 

WESTERN SCHOOL NEWS, 

Taloga, Okla. 
R. N. FROST, Publisher and Manager. 



The New Kenmore 



ALBANY, N. Y. 




One of the Best Hotels in the City 
EUROPEAN PLAN 



$50,000 5PENT IN IMPROVEnENTS 

$ 1 .50 and Upwards 

150 rooms with Shower and Tub Baths. 
175 rooms with hot and cold running 
water. Telephone in every room. Spe- 
cial attention paid to Tourists. Cuisine 
and service unexcelled. Nearest hotel 
to Capitol Building, Theatres and Un- 
ion Station. 

JAMES A. OAKES. 

Also LAKESIDE HOTEL, Modern Sum- 
mer Resort, with all Improvements. 
Situated at Thompson's Lake, Heider- 
berg Mountains, N. Y. Altitude 1650 
feet. Seventeen miles from Albany. 



Write for Descriptive Booklet 



HOTEL 

RICHMOND 

17th and H. Streets 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

100 Rooms, SO Private Baths, American Plan 
13.00 Per Day, Upwards; with Bath, $1.00 
Additional. European Plan, $1.50 Per Day, 
Upwards; with Bath, $1.00 Additional. 




KINDERGARTEN 

SUPPLIES 



Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Con- 
struction Material 
WE ARE HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE 
Send for Colalogue 

Thos. Charles Co., 80=82 Wabash Ave., Chicago, III. 



Hints from Squints 

By HENRY R. PATTENGILL 

144 Pages, Cloth,. 50 

CHAPTER I. Hints Comical. Stories — wise aand otherwise. Regulaar 
rib ticklers, liver lnvlgorators and diaphragm Jlgglers. 

CHAPTER II. Hints QulzzicaL 100 of the best conundrums — old and 

new. Enigmas, Mental stunts, etc. Whetstones to the wit and aids to 
digestion. 

CHAPTER III. Hints Pedagogic Neither exhaustive nor exhausting. 

but Just sensible suggestions all along the line. 
CHAPTER IV. Hints Ethical. Just be good for something. Pull of 

things to read at morning exercises. 
CHAPTER V. Hints Miscellaneous. 

Games for children. Choice selections, 
like "Otto and his Auto," "The Teacher's Creed," "The Irish Recruit," 
"Johnny Schwartz," etc., and the "&" Is the best and the biggest of all. 
The book Is good for everybody with red corpuscles and will help red- 
den white ones. 

Addrccs H. R. PATTENGILL Lansing, Mich. 




The Rotary 

"UNCLE WILL'S MAGAZINE" FOR THE CHILDREN. 

The magazine is carefully graded and contains seasonable i elec- 
tions of the highest grade. The children themselves conti Urate 
stories and correspond with the editor, who has taught and (super- 
vised schools for a quarter of a century. For a dime it will bo sent 
on trial three months. NO MAGAZINE LIKE IT IN THE COUN- 
TRY. Address 



Publisher Westland Educator. 



W. G. CROCKER, 

Lisbon, N. D. 



A high-class hotel, conducted for your 
comfort. Remodeled, refurnished through- 
out. Directly on car line. Union Station, 20 
minutes. Capitol, 20 minutes. Shops and 
Theaters, 10 minutes. Two blocks to White 
House and Executive Buildings. Opposite 
Metropolitan Club. 

Summer Season July to October. 

Wayside Inn and Cottages, Lake Luserne, 
N. T.. In the Adirondack*. Switzerland of 
America, it minutes from Saratoga, 
Send for Booklet. 

CLIFFORD M. LEWIS, Prop'r 



Why Pay Freight on Water? 

Use Rowles' Ink Essence. Makes a Perfect let 
black School Ink. Inklnthlsform Is now used In 
Schools of New York, Chicago and leading cities. , 

PINT PACKAGE MAILED FOR 10 CENTS 
School Supply Catalog with Wholesale Prices 

mailed free on request. 
E. W. A. HOWIES. 233-235 Market Street, CHiCACO 



smfir^Me 



By S. C. Hanson. NINE DIFFERENT I00M for Qraded and 
Ungraded Schools. All popular and splendid. 
Filled with beautiful words, charming melodies 
sweetly harmonized. Thousands of schools capti- 
vated by these books. Write for descriptive eiroa- 
lars. S. C. HANSON * CO., raslltliirs, 

Williftmsporti In<L 



WOOSTtff , 

iWMBINATKTjL. 

■READING CHiKf. 



JST. 



-SSL* IV 

J.H.SHULT5 



7^ 



^^"^ 



=r 



NOVEMBER, 1908 




INDEX TO CONTENTS 




The Contribution of the Kindergarten 






To Elementary Education 


Charles McKenny, 


37 


The Kindergarten Festival 


Jane L. Hoxie, 


42 


Number In The Kindergarten 


Harrietta H. Freeland, 


44 


Mothers' Meetings And Reading Circles 


Jenny B. Merrill, 


46 


Character In The Raw, a Glimpse of 






a City Playground 


Mabel E. Macomber, 


47 


A Kindergarten Terrarrium 


Lileon Claxton, 


49 


Items Of Interest In Connection 






With Thanksgiving 


New York Kitidergartners, 


50 


Aim Of Nature Study 


Anna I, Wiesenburg, 


51 


Child Nature In Relation To Kindergarten Teaching, 


51 


Query Column, 


- . 


53 


Program Previews For November 


Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 


54 


The Mother in the Home 


Bertha Johnston, 


55 


The Clock .... 


Bertha Johnston, 


58 


Drawing, Cutting, Paper Folding And 






Paper Tearing For November 


Lileon Claxton. 


59 


A Few Suggestions For November, 


- 


61 


The Folk Game In Education 


Marie Ruef Hofer, 


64 


A Story For Thanksgiving 


Bertha Johnston, 


66 


Thanksgiving Story - - 


Elizabeth G. Peene, 


67 


Book Notes, 


. 


68 


Suggestions For Clay Work And Pro- 






per Material In The Kindergarten A 


nd Primary, 


70 



Volume XXI, No. 2. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Massachusetts Training Schools 



BOSTON 

Miss Laura Fisher's 

TRAINING SCHOOL FOR 

KINDERGARTNERS 

Normal Course, 2 years. 

Post-Graduate Course. 

Special Course. 



•><>-2 Marlborousrli St., BOSTON. MASS. 



New York Training Schools 



The Kraus Seminary for 
Kindergartners 

REGl EAR AND EXTENSION 
COIRSES. 

MRS. MARIA KRAUS-BOELTE 

Hotel San Remo, Central Park West 

75th Street. - NEW YORK CITY 



Kindergarten Training School 

X-J St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars acUlrosss 
MISS I.I CY HARRIS SYMONDS. 

MISS ANNIE COOLIDGK RUST'S 

Froebel School of Kinder- 
garten Normal Classes 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Regular Two Years' Course. 

Post-Giaduate Course. Special Courses. 

Sivteenth Year. 

For circulars address 

MISS RUST, PIERCE BLDG., 

Copley Square. 

BOSTON 

Perry Kindergarten Normal 
School 

MRS. ANNIE MOSELEY PERRY, 
Principal, 



If Huntington Ave. 



BOSTON, MASS 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

134 Newbury Stieet. BOSTON, MASS 

Regular Two Years' Course. 
Special One Year Course for graduate 
students. 

Students' Home at the Marenholz. 
For circulars address 

LICY YVHEEEOCK. 

BOSTON 

The Garland 
Kindergarten Training School 



MRS. MARGARET .1. STANNARD, 

Principal. 

1(» Chestnut Street. Bostoi 



THE ELLIMAN SCHOOL 

Kindergarten Normal Class 

POST-GRADl'ATE CLASSES. 

Twenty-tilth Year. 

Ifi7 vy. 57th Striet. NEW YORK CITY 

Opposite Carnegie Hall. 



Miss Jenny Hunter s 
Kindergarten Training School 

15 West 1127th St., NEW YORK CITY. 

Two Years' Course, Connecting Class and 
Primary Methods. 

ADDRESS 
2(>T9 Fifth Ave., New York City. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 



inform nti 



addi 



MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN. Principal* 

Central Pa' '-' We«t ^ml 63(1 St. 

NEW YORK. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF THE 

Buffalo Kindergarten Assoc'n. 

Two Years' Course. 
For particulars address 

MISS EEI.A C. ELDER. 
f*fl Delaware Avenue. - Buffalo, N. Y. 

Connecticut Training' Schools 

BRIDGEPORT 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

FOB 

KINDERGARTNERS 

IN AFFILIATION WITH 

The New York Froebel Normal 

Will open its eighth year Septem er IS. 
For circulars, information, etc.. address 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal 

179 West Avenue. 
BRIDGEPORT, - - CO NX. 

The Fannie A. Smith 

Froebel Kindergarten 

and Training School 

Good Kindergarten tea. hers have no 
trouble in securing well-paying positioi s 
In fact, we have found the demand for 
our graduates greater than we can sup- 
ply. One and two years' course. 

For Catalogue, address 

FANNIE A. SMITH, Principal, 
T.nfnyefte Street. BRIDGEPORT, C"NN. 



ADELPHI COLLEGE 

Lafayetu Avenue, St. James and Clifton Places. BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 

Normal School for Kindergartners 

Two Years' Course. Mdivss Prof. Anna E. Harvey. Supt 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training Schools 

(S100 per year. 



Two Years' Course. Ten 
Apply t 



HATTIE TWICHELL, 
SPRIXGI iei,i>— i.on<;mea:i ., 



Established 1896 

The New York 

Froebel Normal 

KINDERGARTEN and PRIMARY TRAINING 
College Preparatory. Teachers' Academic. Music 

E. LYELL EARL. Ph. D.. Principal. 

HARRIETTE M. MILLS, Head of Department of Kindergarten Training. 

MARIE RUEF hOFEK, Department of Music. 

Eleventh Year opens Wednesday, Sept. 18, 1907 

Write for circulars. Address. ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ N y 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Pennsylvania Training Schools 



Miss Hart's 

Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Re-opened Oct 1st, 1908, at 1615 
Walnut Street, Philadelphia, The 
work will include Junior, Senior, 
Graduate and Normal Trainers 
Courses, and a Model Kindergar- 
ten. For particulars address 

Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



The Philadelphia Training 
School for Kindergartners 

Reopens October 2, 190S. 

Junior, Senior and Special Classes. 
Model Kindergarten. 

Address 

MRS. M. L. VAN KIRK, Principal, 

1333 Pine Street, - Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pittsburgh and Allegheny 
Kindergarten College 

ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

Regular Course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. 
Seventeenth yeir begins Sept. 30, 1908 
For Catalogue, address 
Mrs. William McCracken, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avi-mie. PITTSBURGH, PA 



Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Under the direction of Miss Caroline M. 
C. Hart, will re-open September 26, 1907,' 
at 1615 Walnut St., Philadelphia. The 
work will include Junior, Senior, Gradu- 
ate and Normal Trainers' Courses, Moth- 
ers' Classes, and a Model Kindergarten. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART, 
The Pines, - - - KVTLEDGE, PA. 



California Training Schools 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING CLASS 



ent 



State Accredit* 
ieth Year opens 



List. 

spten 



ber, 1907 



Address 

Miss Grace Everett Barnard, 

i Franklin Slreet, OAKLAND, C'AL. 



Maryland Training Schools 



Baltimore Training School 
for Kindergartners 

EMMA GRANT SAULSBLRY, 

AlrlANDA BOlGL.iS SAl LSBl RY, 

Principals. 

Normal Course, two years. 

Post-Graduate Course, one year. 

ADDRESS 

516 Park Ave.. - BALTIMORE, JID. 

EAST ORANGE, - NEW JERSEY 



Wisconsin Training Schools 



Milwaukee State Normal 
School 

Kindergarten Training: Department. 

Two Years' Course for graduates of 
four-years' high schools. Faculty of 
twenty-five. Special advantages. Tuition 
free to residents of Wisconsin; $40 per 
year to others. School opens the first 
Tuesday in September. 

Send for Catalog-ue to 
NINA C. VANDEWALKER, Director. 

Washington Training Schools 



WASHINGTON. D. C. 

The Columbia Kindergarten 
Training School 

2115 Caiilarnia Ave., cor. Connecticut Av 

Certificate, Diploma and Normal Course 
Principals: 



Virginia Training Schools 



The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Richmond, Va. 

Alice N. Baker, Principal. 

Two years' course and Post 

Graduate course. 

For further information apply to 

14 W. Main Street. 



Georgia Training Schools 



Atlanta Kindergarten Normal 
School 

Two Years' Coarse of Study. 
Chartered 1S37. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
C39 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 

Normal Training School 

of the 
KATE BALDWIN FREE KINDERGAR- 
TEN ASSOCIATION. 
(Established 1899) 
HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 
the Training School and Supervisor 

of Kindergartens. 
Application for entrance to the Train- 
ing Schools should be made to Miss M. R. 
Sasnett, Corresponding Secretary, 

117 Bolton St., EAST SAVANNAH, GA. 

If your Training School is not represent- 
ed in these columns, kindly send us your 
copy, and let us put it among the others, 
Aside from the advertising value, both 
your pupils and your graduates will be 
pleased to see your training school have a 
place among the others of America. 



1874 — Kindergarten Normal Institutions — 1908 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 



Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



Repton School 

Tarrytown=on=Hudson, New York. 
A School for young boys between the ages of 7 and 14. A few of 
our special advantages are: 

Specially designed, modern buildings, costing over $100,000.00. Numbers are limited 
to Forty, giving an average of Five boys in a class, thus ensuring every boy, practically in- 
dividualtuition 

A Physical Instructor, qualified in Europe, attends to the Swedish and other exer- 
cises, under the supervision ot the School Physician, who prescribes the exercise for each boy. 

A resident nurse, and hospital building. 

Fee for the school year $400.00— $500.00. 

Apply to THE HEADMASTER. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Michigan Training Schools 

Grand Rapids 
Kindergarten Training School 



Winter and Summer Terms. 
Oct. 1st, 190X, to June 1st, 1909. 
July 1st to August 21st, 19(19. 



CLARA WHEELER, Principal. 
MAT L. OGILBY, Registrar. 

Shepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



Maine Training Schools 



Miss Norton's Training School 
for Kindergartners 

PORTLAND, MAINE. 

Two Years' Course. 

For circulars address? 

15 Dow Street, - PORTLAND, MS. 

Miss Abby N. Norton 



Ohio Training Schools 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



Kindergarten Training 

Exceptional advantages — daily practice. 
Lectures from Professors of Oberlin Col- 
lege and privilege of Elective Courses in 
the College at special rates. Charges 
moderate. Graduates readily find posi- 
tions. 

For Catalogue address Secretary 

OBERLIN KINDERGARDEN ASSOCIA- 
TION, 

Drawer K, Oberlin, Ohio. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

Corner of Cedar and Watkins Aves., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded in 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten Course. 

MISS NETTA FARIS, Principal. 
MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



Indiana Training Schools 



The Teachers' College 
of Indianapolis 

For the Training of Kindergartners and 
Primary Teachers. 

Regular Course two years. Preparatory 
Course one year. Post-Graduate Course 
for Normal Teachers, one year. Primary 
training a part of the regular work. 

Classes formed in September and Feb- 
ruary. 

90 Free Scholarships Granted 

Each Year. 

Special Primary Class in May and June. 
Send for Catalogue. 

Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker, Pres. 

THE WILLIAM N. JACKSON MEMOR- 
IAL INSTITUTE, 

23d and Alabama Streets. 



The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

14 West Main Street. 
DRAWING, SINGING, PHYSICAL CUL- 
TURE. 

ALICE N. PARKER, Frincipal. 

Two years in course. Froebel's theory 
and practice. Also a third year course 
for graduates. 

SPECIAL LECTURES. 



Kentucky Training Schools 



TRAINING SCHOOL OF THE 

Louisville Free Kindergarten 
Association 

Louisville, Ky. 

FACULTY: 

Miss Mary Hill, Supervisor. 

Mrs. Robert D. Allen, Senior Critic and 
Training Teacher. 

Miss Alexina G. Booth, History and Phil- 
osophy of Education. 

Miss. Jane Akin, Primary Sunday School 
Methods. 

Miss Allene Seaton, Manual Work. 

Miss Frances Ingram, Nature Study. 

Miss Anna Moore, Primary Methods. 

Miss Margaret Byers, Art Work. 



New Jersey Training Schools 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 



Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
1G Washington St., East Orange, N. J. 



OHIO COLUMBUS 

Kindergarten Normal Training School "X 



d Broad 
Streets 



-EIGHTEENTH YEAH BEGINS SEPTEHBEK 25, 1007- 

Frocl.clian Philosophy. Gifts. Occupation. Stories. Games, Music and Or, 

PsyclioloBV and Nature Woi k t.iusht at Ohio State University -two years' < 

For information, .nl.licss ICi tznniil it N Sas 



Illinois Training Schools 
Kindergarten Training School 



Resident hor 



Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham, Pies. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour. Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSOX, Principal. 

Credit at the 
No- thwestera and Chicago Universities. 

For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Sunt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave., Chicago. 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBFL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

at CHICAGO COMMONS, 10 Gra^dAve. 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hrg-er, S -neri-te-ident 
Mis Amelia Hof?r, Principal. 

THIRTEENTH YEAS. 

Regular course two years. Advanced 
cou-ses for Graduate Stroerts, , " 'f ' 
in Home Miking. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar wUh the Pocitl Settle- 
ment movement. Fine equipment. For 
circulars and information write to 

MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNES. 

ISO Grand Ave., Chicago. 



Chicago Froebel Association 

Training Class for Kindergartners. 

(Established 1S76.) 

Two Years' Course. Special Cou-ses un- 
der Professors of University of Chicago 
receive University credits. For circulars 
apply to 

MRS. ALICE H. PUTXAM : or MISS M. 
L. SHELDON. Associate Principals, 

1003 Fine Arts Building 



Chicago. III. 



CHICAGO 

KINDERGARTEN 

INSTITUTE 

Gertrude House, 40 Scott Street 



Regular Course — Two Years. 
Post-graduate Course — One Year. 
Supplementary Course — One Year. 
Non-professional Home Making: 

Course- — One Year. 

University Credits 
Residence for students at Gertrude 

House. 



DIRECTORS 

Miss CAROLINE C. CRONISE 
Mrs. MARY B. PAGE 
Mrs. ETHEL ROE L1NDGREN 
Miss FRANCES E. NEWTON 

Send for Circulars 



This Magazine only 65c a 
Year. See following: page. 



A Year and a half for one Dollar. 



Hints from Squints 

By HENRY R. PATTENGILL 



144 Pages, Cloth,. 50 



Regulaar 



CHAPTER 1. Hints Comical. Stories — wise aand otherwise. 

rib ticklers, liver invigorators and diaphragm jigglers. 
CHAPTER II. Hints Quizzical. 100 of the best conundrums — old and 

new. Enigmas, Mental stunts, etc. Whetstones to the wit and aids to 

digestion. 
CHAPTER III. Hints Pedagogic. Neither exhaustive nor exhausting, 

but just sensible suggestions all along the line. 
CHAPTER IV. Hints Ethical. Just be good for something. Full of 

things to read at morning exercises. 
CHAPTER V. Hints Miscellaneous. 

Games for children. Choice selections, 

like "Otto and his Auto," "The Teacher's Creed," "The Irish Recruit," 
"Johnny Scnwartz," etc., and the "&" is the best and the biggest of all. 
The book is good for everybody with red corpuscles and will help red- 
den white ones. 

Address H. R. PATTENGILL, Lansing, Mich. 

The Rotary 

"UNCLE WILL'S MAGAZINE" FOB THE CHILDREN. 

The magazine is carefully graded and contains seasonable selec- 
tions of the highest grade. The children themselves contribute 
stories and correspond with the editor, who has taught and super- 
vised schools for a quarter of a century. For a dime it will be sent 
on trial three months. NO MAGAZINE LIKE IT IN THE COUN- 
TRY. Address 



Publisher Westland Educator. 



W. G. CROCKER, 

Lisbon, N. D. 



The Western School News 

Published at Taloga, Oklahoma, will be enlarged and 
greatly improved for 1908. Larg est and best advertis- 
ing medium of its kind in Western Oklahoma. Contains 
special departments for School Boards and School 
Officers, Children's Department, General News and 
Notes, Teachers' Department, Common School Alumni, 
Examination Questions, etc. Best publication in the 
state for School Boards. Bright and breezy and should 
be read by every teacher and school officer. 

WKSTERN SCHOOL NEWS, 

Taloga, Okla. 
R. N. FROST, Publisher and Manager. 






&0S 

c 



* 



< 






u 
O 

gtt~S 

Cl C 
to ¥ 

* h « 

wmm ■ to 

5 ^ 



4> 



To Friends and Patrons of the Kindergarten-Primary Magaztne 




'HIS is indeed the golden age of education. 
There is danger, however, of our school sys- 
tem becoming heavy at the top. We are liable 
to forget the specific needs of tbe child at the 
plastic period from four to seven, when growth 
cannot be so easily measured as in the later stages of 
life. Kindergarten teachers of the world have always 
had to contend for the rights of the child at this early 
age. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine stands for the 
child's rights, development, and preparation for the full- 
est success in life ,and it stands for these at the age of 
the child when he is not able to plead his own case. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine has a mission. 
Its publishers and editors and contributors are doing a 
work of love. It has been brought out -with an annual 
loss of thousands, and can never be made a paying propo- 
sition on pure educational lines. The purpose never 
was or is it at present to make money on the magazine. 
It stands for the child, it stands for an ideal, and its 
faithful friends are willing to put brains and money and 
energy into the realizing of this ideal. 

Kindergarten and Primary Teachers, however, 
throughout the country and throughout the whole world 
should have the same mission as the Kindergarten Maga- 
zine. They should be jealous about sharing in the realiz- 
ing of this ideal, and are, I am sure, ready with brains 
and energy to do so. 

There is another way, however in which they may 
help. Namely, by supporting tbe subscription list and 
the advertising columns of the magazine, by subscribing 
for it themselves, and by inducing other teachers to sub- 
scribe for it, and increase its circulation up into the ten 
thousands, so that every kindergarten-primary teacher 
throughout the United States, and in other countries 
where the English language is spoken shall be a reader 
and supporter of the magazine. If the expenses and re- 
sponsibility is divided among such a large body of undi- 
vided workers it will be felt but little by each one, and 
the possibilities of making the magazine, from the intel- 
lectual, artistic and pedagogical sides, far more attrac- 
tive and useful than it is to day will be increased im- 
measurably. 

The duty, therefore, of every friend of the child at 
the Kindergarten age is to support the magazine, is to 
send in news items that would be of interest to Kinder- 
garten-Primary teachers throughout the world, to renew 
their own and to secure new subscriptions, to write ad- 
vertisers, letting them know that their advertisements 
are read and to do everything in their power to make it 
the leading journal of child life and child education in 
the world today. 

Act today and induce some friend to act also. This 
is the Xmas time and period of giving, and no better or 



more helpful gift can be given to teacher or mother than 
a year's subscription to the Kindergarten Magazine. 

You should also take the Kindergarten Primary Magazine 

Because it contains departments that cannot fail to 
interest any kindergartner or primary teacher in the 
world. If you contemplate becoming a kindergartner. 
a careful study of this magazine previous to attending a 
kindergarten training school will help you greatly. If 
you are a primary or a rural one-room teacher you -will 
find departments that will especially interest you while 
the whole contents of the magazine will bring the spirit 
of the great kindergarten movement within the range of 
your spiritual vision. 

The magazine is not published for profit. The fact that 
it appeals to a small class excludes it from the large gen- 
eral advertisements which are the chief source of profit to 
the average magazine. While the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine is the best possible advertising medium for kin- 
dergarten supply houses, training schools, etc., there are 
not enough of these to turn a profit. The magazine has 
always been appreciated by kindergartners and its circu- 
lation has 9pread beyond the United States, until it now 
circulates in the following provinces and countries: Bra- 
zil, Germany, Austria, China, Japan, Syria, Turkey, New 
Zeeland, Mexico, Australia, France, England, Scotland, 
Wales, and all the provinces of Canada. But there is no 
profit in subscriptions. It costs for printing and postage 
alone 6oc per year for each subscription sent out and when 
editorial work, bookkeeping, office rent, etc., is added of 
course a loss is certain; but the editorial work and office 
rent will not be greater for a circulation of 10,000 than for 
5000, hence we have decided to push for a big circula- 
tion, and thus accomplish more for the kindergarten cause 
at but little additional cost. We want you to help us in a 
way that will cost you little and accomplish much. For one 
dollar we will send you the magazine not for a year but for a 
year and a half. However, we do not want you to accept that; 
but to have the magazine sent to your address for one year, 
and we'll tell you what we would like to have you do with the 
remaining six months' subscription; Do you know some kin- 
dergartner teaching in a small city or village, Isolated from 
kindergarten influences and in danger of dry rot; or some pri- 
mary or rural teacher who can be helped by the magazine? if 
so make her a Christmas present We will send It beginning 
with the Christmas number and ending with the school year, 
June, 1909, without extra charge and if you send us 25c. addi- 
tional we will extend it to one full year of ten numbers. Thus 
you will help the cause which every true kindergartner 
holds dear and help yourself as well. We want to help bring 
tbe blessings of kindergarten training to all the children of 
America. 

These offers are all special and will be withdrawn 
December 25th, 1908, after which the straight rate of $1.00 
will be made for the balance of the season. 



Send all subscriptions and business communications to J. H. Shults, Manistee, Mich. All 
matter pertaining to the editorial department, to the Kindergarten Magazine Co., 59 W 
96th St.. New York. 



VOL XXI— NOVEMBER, 1908— NO. 2 



The Kindergarten- Primary Magazine 

Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96th Street, New York, N. Y. 
EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

Jenny B. Merrill, Ph. D., Supervisor Kindergartens, 

Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond 

E. Lyell Earle, Ph. D Managing Editor 

Harriette M. Mills New York Proebel Normal 

Mari Ruef Hofer Teachers' College 

Daniel Sneddon, Ph. D Te.aehers' College 

Bertha Johnston New York Froebel Normal 

Ernest N. Henderson, Ph. D. ..••Adelphi College, Brooklyn 

John Hall, A. M University of Cincinnati 

Walter F. Dearborn, Ph. D University of Wisconsin 

Ernest Farrington, Ph. D University of California 

Ray V. Strickler, Illustrator, Hillsdale, Mich. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 27S River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. 
Single copies, 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
and Mexico. For Canada add 20c and for all other countries 
in the Postal Union add 40c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of discon- 
tinuance is received. When sending notice of change of ad- 
dress, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Remittances should be sent by draft, Express Order or 
Money Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Com- 
pany. If a local check is sent, it must include 10c exchange. 

All Communications should be addressed to the Manistee 
Office. 

J. H. SHULTS, Business Manager, Manistee. 

Copyrighted, 1908, by The Kindergarten Magazine Co. En- 
tered as Second Class Matter in the Postofflce at Manistee, 
Michigan. 



THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE KINDER- 
GARTEN TO ELEMENTARY 
EDUCATION.* 

(Charles McKenny, Principal State Normal School, 
Milwaukee.) 

THE law of adjustment is a fundamental 
law of life. It is interesting to note 
how easily and almost automatically 
we settle into new environments. Like the 
chambered nautilus we stretch ourselves in 
our new found homes and know the old no 
more. 

These remarks are pertinent to the present 
occasion. The modern school is such a promi- 
nent fact in the life of today, educational litera- 
ture is so abundant, educational gatherings 
like the present are so frequent and modern 
views of the child are so generally accepted 
that we are prone to forget how recent they 
all are. 

To us, impatient to s'ee our ideals actual- 
ized, reform seems to move at a snail's pace, 

*Address delivered at the I. K. U. convention in 
New Orleans, 1908. 



but to the historian who shall write the story 
of the present age she will seem to have sped 
on with the fleetness of a hare. How recent 
are notable educational events. The first city 
superintendency dates' from 1837. Today there 
are more than ten thousand such officials. 
The first American normal school was estab- 
lished in 1839 an d i n x 852 there were but six. 
Today there are one hundred eighty. So far 
as we have records, there were one hundred 
and seventy-eight high schools in 1850. 
Today there are more than seven thousand. 
The first kindergarten was established in the 
United States in 1855. At the present time 
the grand total, including both public and 
private kindergartens, is at least five thou- 
sand. Today one-fifth of our entire" popula- 
tion is enrolled in our schools. 

The unprecedented advancement implied 
in these facts has taken place during the life- 
time of a man who still vigorous and efficient, 
is the present speaker of the National House 
of Representatives and a candidate for the 
highest office in the gift of the American 
people. Now, what has caused this remark- 
able progress in so brief a period as the life of 
a single man? 

As we stand by the lower Mississippi 
sweeping on in its majestic course to the sea, 
we reflect that this mighty flood of water is 
the united currents of many rivers, small and 
great, that have their sources in widely sepa- 
rated sections' of the central basin. Analogous- 
ly this noble stream of human thought and 
endeavor which we call modern education is 
the composite of numerous movements and 
tendencies having their origin in many in- 
stances in widely separated causes, yet so 
uniting their influences that it is often impos- 
sible to measure the dynamic re.sults of any 
particular one. 

First of all, educational progress has been 
due to the marvelous development of the re- 
sources of the country, the consequent in- 
crease of wealth and the elevation of the 
standard of living. The growth of our factory 
system has built up our cities till nearly fifty 
per cent of our population are living under 
practically urban conditions. Generally speak- 
ing, the children of the cities have not been 
needed nor allowed in the industries and have 
crowded into the schools, lengthening the 
school year and increasing the number of 
years of school life. 

Another primary factor has been the Amer- 
ican doctrine of individuality. It is impossible 
to overestimate the potency of this doctrine in 
the expanding life of America. Religion, poli- 
tics, industry, education, each and all have 



38 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



been profoundly modified by it. The theory 
that so far as public education is concerned 
every child should have an equal chance with 
every other child has played a large part in 
diversifying our schools and building up our 
elective courses, and has made the public hos- 
pitable to any proposition that enlarges the 
possibilities of the oncoming generations. 

We must also take into account as a vital 
influence the successive waves of academic 
enthusiasm which during the last century 
passed over the country and which led to a 
renaissance of interest in now this and now 
that realm of human thought. Literature, 
science, history and sociology, drawing, music, 
have all occupied the center of the stage at 
different times and have left their impress 
upon the courses of study from the kinder- 
garten to the graduate school, and we are now 
in the midst of another season of awakening 
which seems destined to modify our educa- 
tional courses in the direction of vocational 
subjects. 

I have sketched this general background of 
educational progress that we may have a 
clearer perspective and a surer standard of 
judgment as we pass on to consider the con- 
tribution the kindergarten has made to the 
grand result. 

Without question, the greatest contribu- 
tion to human progress is the discovery of a 
fundamental principle which will illuminate 
and regulate conduct. Through such prin- 
ciples man secures' control of nature and turns 
her energy to his advancement. Who can 
measure the blessings which have come to the 
race from such discoveries as the laws of 
chemistry, the germ theory of disease and the 
application of anesthetics and antis'ceptics to 
surgery? The greatest good fortune that can 
befall any age or country is the possession of 
men of genius who by the discovery of such 
laws shall strike out new pathways for human 
progress. 

Such a genius was Frederick Froebel, the 
last and greatest of that splendid quartette of 
educational reformers, Rousseau, Pestal ozzi, 
Herbart and Froebel who discovered child- 
hood, dynamited the old educational ideals and 
methods, created schools for the children of 
the common people, elevated the study of edu- 
cation to a science, established the kinder- 
garten and it seems to me laid down for all 
time the general principles along which educa- 
tion must proceed. 

My theme tonight is the contribution that 
the kindergarten has made to elementary edu- 
cation and this leads of necessity to a discus- 
sion of the principles underlying the kinder- 
garten procedure, — in short to Froebel's edu- 
cational philosophy. In discussing Froebel's 
educational principles I shall avoid the more 
abstract elements of his philosophy as not 
suited to this occasion. I shall have nothing 



to say of unity, symbolism, or the ultimate 
constitution of the universe. I shall speak of 
those principles only which have won recog- 
nition and acceptance from educators of all 
shades of philosophic creeds. 

Froebel might well have chosen as his cen- 
tral text or principle, that beautiful line from 
the prophesy of isaiah, "A little child shall 
lead them," for the center of his whole educa- 
tional system is the nature of the child. Like 
Jesus, he set a little child in the midst. 

From his profound and sympathetic study 
of the child, Froebel conceived his first great 
principle, namely, that education, on the part 
of the child, is a process of unfolding of his 
native powers and capabilities. In other words, 
the education of man is the evolution of the 
child. i i 

This ought not to sound strange to twen- 
tieth century teachers. Evolution is a familiar 
word to our ears. We may not know its 
methods, but we believe in the principle. 

But in Froebel's day evolution was not a 
household word, although it was advocated 
by leading scientists and philosophers of his 
day. Darwin's' epoch marking origin of species 
was given to the world nearly a generation 
later than Froebel's Education of Man. The 
honor of first suggesting the general principle 
of evolution does not belong to Froebel, but 
his is the glory of having first applied it to 
education. 

Although at first Froebel's conception of 
the child does not seem of startling import, a 
little reflection and some acquaintance with 
the history of education will make it stand 
out as one of the most far reaching and revo- 
lutionary principles ever introduced into edu- 
cation. 

To begin with, it places upon the organizer 
of schools and courses of study and upon the 
teacher of every grade the supreme obligation 
of knowing the child. To know the child one 
must see him in relation to the past ; must con- 
ceive of him as the culmination so far, of 
creative activity, the heir of all the ages, sum- 
ming up in himself the results of the long line 
of life struggles on this planet ; must see him 
in relation to the present, a self-active being 
with contrary and antagonistic impulses, en- 
deavoring to adjust himself to his complex 
environment ; must see him in relation to the 
future ; a being who one day is to take a place 
in human society and by his life to add or sub- 
tract from the sum total of virtue, truth, mercy 
and love in the world ; must see him in relation 
to the three great environing influences which 
shape his life, nature, man and God. 

Now, what practical application has such 
fine philosophy upon the daily school routine? 
Much every way. In the first place a concep- 
tion of the forces which have shaped human 
nature will help to a right understanding of 
the child of today. It makes a vast difference 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



39 



whether a teacher looks upon fighting, Selfish- 
ness, laziness and deceit among her children 
as evidence of total moral depravity, or as 
inherited tendencies passed on from ages when 
they were advantageous in adapting their pos- 
sessors to their primitive environment. In- 
spiration will come to the teacher who can 
project herself into the future and see her boys 
and girls, men and women, makers of homes 
and factors in the great human struggles of 
their day. Only by so viewing them will she 
be able to feel the sobering responsibility and 
the glory of her work. Only by so doing will 
she rightly estimate the import of the drifts' of 
character and tendencies of disposition which 
begin to reveal themselves even in infancy. 
The forward and the backward look give us 
perspective to rightly view the present. 

Not only does knowing the child imply 
seeing him in all these various relationships, 
but it follows naturally that if education is* 
an unfolding of the inherent powers of the 
child that the teacher must have an intimate 
knowledge day by day and month by month of 
the development of the child. She must catch 
the tendencies and powers at their flood. She 
must realize that there are times and seasons 
in the unfolding of human nature. There are 
periods of full tide and also periods when the 
tide is at ebb. If there is one thing above 
another that modern psyschology has empha- 
sized which is of vital interest to education it 
is this, — that inherent tendencies if they are 
not fed and nourished when they awaken in 
the child, will die from lack of nutrition. One 
of the saddest facts in human life is that of 
arrested and one sided development. Men 
and women who might have been sweet- 
spirited, large minded and generous, are sour 
and narrow, unloving and unlovable, simply 
because their better impulses were not nour- 
ished into strength. 

The love of beauty, virtue, sympathy, in- 
dustry, service, love, religion are to be found 
in every normal child. So also are the nascent 
abilities that make for the intellectual life. It 
is the function of home, church and school to 
nourish these nascent powers into strength and 
permanence and the school curriculum and 
school procedure should be such as to minister 
to every worthy tendency of the unfolding 
nature. How sadly has education failed. O, 
Education, Education, what crimes have been 
committed in thy name. 

The one-sided, inefficient, unlovable and 
unloving lives about us, the hatred of school, 
the dislike of school studies, the dislike for 
teachers', the numbers who leave school at 
tender years, all testify to the lack of adjust- 
ment of the schools to the needs of many 
children. 

In saying this I am not pronouncing 
against the school nor declaring public educa- 
tion a failure. I am simply saying that we 



have not yet attained though we have been 
pressing toward the goal. 

If man is to be complete and symmetrical 
the evolution of the child must be complete. 
You can never get more into manhood than 
you develop out of childhood. This' means 
that from his infancy the full circle of the 
child's powers shall be educated, nourished, 
developed. To use a current phrase, "the 
whole child must go to school.'' How trite 
this sounds. How commonplace. Yet this 
ideal was never stated in a vital manner nor 
worked out in a practical way till stated by 
Froebei and worked out in the kindergarten. 
How far from this ideal was the school of our 
childhood. How little was there to develop 
the appreciation of art, music, nature; how 
little to cultivate self expression through 
drawing, manual arts or dramatics. In the 
school of that day the thre^ R's were crowned 
and all bowed to their sceptre. 

We have made progress in fifty years. In 
the best schools of today, the Song, the story, 
manual arts, nature excursions and games 
have their place, not as recreation, not simply 
to lighten the program, but as educative 
agencies essential to the full development of 
the expanding life of children. And progress 
must continue till what is true of the best 
schools will be true of all schools. 

Froebel's conception of evolution of the 
child's powers as the end of education is in 
direct contrast with the two ideas that con- 
trolled the school of the olden time. So far 
as psychology influenced the practice of the 
old school, its aim was discipline. The old 
school taught that the mind was an aggrega- 
tion of more or less independent faculties; that 
there was such a thing as general perception 
and memory and reason. It held that it was 
possible to so train a man to think, that he 
could think equally well on all problems; that 
his memory could be equally accurate in re- 
membering all classes of facts. Mathematics 
were exalted as studies which trained the 
faculty of reasoning. Classical languages 
were held in high esteem because they were 
supposed to train the power of memory, of 
attention and of discrimination. It was even 
held that the powers of mind, acquired in the 
mastering of Greek and Latin ace ents were 
the best possible equipment that a man could 
receive for studying the natural sciences. Al- 
though the new psychology has demon- 
strated the unsoundness of such views they 
still linger in the popular mind and sorry am 
I to say, in the minds of many within the pro- 
fession. There are hundreds today who be- 
lieve that arithmetic is the most serviceable of 
all subjects' in the school as a means of train- 
ing reason. 

Modern psychology declares that there is 
not reason but reasonings ; that a man may 
reason well in mathematics and be a dunce in 



40 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



history; that a man may be able to generalize 
on scientific data and be stupid in mathematics. 
It maintains also that there are, in the words 
of James, not memory, but memories. A 
memory for names, a memory for historical 
facts and dates, a memory for mathematics, a 
memory for science and so on through the 
category. On the basis of modern psychology 
there is no justification for a narrow and in- 
tensive course of study in the elementary 
schools, but every warrant for the broad and 
rich curriculum which shall appeal to and 
nourish the many sided nature of the child. 

The second ideal of the olden school was 
knowledge. "Knowledge is power." How 
often one hears that quoted even today. It 
was a favorite copy of the writing books of the 
olden time. At best it is but a half truth. 
Mere knowledge is not power. Knowledge in 
encyclopedias, knowledge in libraries, knowl- 
edge in lexicons, knowledge in text books, 
knowledge in the head of an inert, inefficient 
individual, is not power. A fact never is 
power. It may be a weapon, a tool, a means 
to an end in the brain and hand of some man 
or woman. Power is an attribute of mind, it 
is not an attribute of facts. The Froebelian 
idea of education is never discipline or infor- 
mation, but power, — power in every worthy 
direction, — power to think, to feel, to appre- 
ciate, to do. How limiting and deadening was 
the old conception of education, which was so 
largely merely storing knowledge in the human 
mind, or sharpening to keenness the mental 
powers in limited directions. How broaden- 
ing and stimulating is the Froebelian idea of 
education, which stands for the expanding of 
the human being in every worthy direction. It 
is life to the teacher; it is life to her pupil. It 
is salvation to the race. 

The second fundamental principle of Froe- 
bel's educational philosophy is this : — The 
evolution of the powers of a child is through 
self activity. This is the basic principle of the 
kindergarten. Now self-activity is a catching 
phrase. It has a distinguished sound, but what 
does it mean in the plain terms of practical 
home and school life. If education were or- 
ganized and administered according to this 
doctrine what would result? 

On one occasion, Jesus, to teach a great 
religious truth, pointed to the lilies and said, 
"Behold the lilies how they grow." But how 
do the lilies grow? What is the process of 
their unfolding? They grow through the oper- 
ations of forces resident in the lilies them- 
selves. Through root and leaf elements of 
food are taken and within the cells of the plant 
by a subtle chemistry which we can explain 
but not understand, these food elements are 
transformed into stalk and bud and flower. 

And what may the gardner do to assist the 
growth of the lily? Simply furnish the proper 
environment, soil, food, temperature. Having 



done this he may rest, — he can do nothing 
more. 

As grows the lily, so grows the child 
through activities resident within him. What 
can the teacher do to assist the unfolding child 
nature? Furnish the proper environment, no 
more. But that is much, very much indeed, 
for environment includes all the surroundings 
of the child, intellectual, aesthetic, ethical, 
social and religious which are needful to nour- 
ish his many sided nature. 

There are many implications in this law of 
self activity which are worth our consideration. 
First, it means that the child's mental develop- 
ment is through the activity of his own powers. 
Through no vicarious effort can a child's 
powers unfold, and this applies to all of the 
three prime processes involved in mental de- 
velopment, — acquisition, assimilation and ex- 
pression. 

In acquisition, the child's own experiences 
are the ground of all his' knowledge. The 
teachers' experience will not suffice. The child 
must see and hear and handle. Probably no 
more fundamental mistake is made in educa- 
tion today than the failure to base teaching 
upon the actual experiences of the. child. How 
many a girl is shedding tears tonight over 
problems in arithmetic of which she has no 
comprehension. How many children are learn- 
ing facts in history and geography which have 
no basis in their own experience. Who cannot 
recall definitions in geography the meaning of 
which came only with years of life? There 
comes to my mind now the definition of 
plateau learned in the grades so long ago. "A 
plateau is an elevated plane or the flat top of a 
mountain". I remember reciting it, but I just 
as distinctly remember that it had no meaning 
to me. A flat top of a mountain. I had never 
seen a mountain. I had never seen large hills. 
1 had absolutely nothing out of which unaided 
I could construct a picture of a mountain with 
a flat top. In a school in a noted American 
city a geography class was discussing the char- 
acteristics of the Mississippi valley and a vis- 
itor asked a member of the class if she had 
ever seen a valley, large or small. The child 
replied that she had not. Yet her home was in 
a conspicuous river valley. This is a type of 
what may be found today in too many schools. 
The remedy lies in recognizing the absolute 
necessity of experience as the basis of acquisi- 
tion. 

The process of acquisition implies a per- 
sonal acquaintance with the elements by means 
of which new data may be interpreted. A 
great step is made in any school when the 
children are taken to visit neighboring groves, 
parks, hills, ravines ; when they are asked to 
note the action of water upon the soil ; when 
they are taught to observe the weather, phases 
of the moon ; the position of the sun at differ- 
ent, seasons of the year; when the flowers and 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



4i 



birds are brought into true relation with one 
another and with their environment, and when 
clouds? and steam and dew have meaning to the 
child, because he has not only seen them, but 
understands them ; when children go to fac- 
tories, stores, power houses and docks that 
they may see the meaning of commerce and 
the source of the food supply which appears 
on their tables from day to day. It was a great 
lesson in social life when an educator took his 
son to the hold of a ship to see the stokers 
stripped to the waists heaving coal under trie 
great boilers which generated steam to propel 
the vessel through the water at eighteen miles 
an hour. How different seemed the beauties 
on deck in their relation to the stokers below. 
I fear that the kindergartners themselves 
are not always careful to base their teaching 
upon concrete experiences. I have sometimes 
thought that they expected the child to gen- 
eralize from too limited data. I fear they 
often overwork symbolism and creative self- 
activity. 

Content is of more value than form. Ra- 
experience is better than the over refining r 
limited data. The best kindergartens and the 
best elementary schools represent today the 
nearest approach to the realization of Froebel's 
law of self-activity. Between them and much 
of our kindergarten and elementary school 
work there is yawning a wide abyss. 

But I must hasten on to say that self- 
activity is the basis of the assimilative process 
by which new knowledge is related to the old 
and old knowledge is seen in new relation. It 
seems almost unnecessary to discuss this phase 
of the subject, the truth is so evident. The 
difficulty is not in believing that assimilation 
is wholly an individual matter due to the self- 
activity of the child, but in not being certain 
that assimilation really does occur. Verbal 
memory is so active in childhood and yields 
such explicit statements as to deceive the very- 
elect. Often cautious and painstaking teachers 
are prone to take the deliverances' of memory 
as evidence that the assimilative process has 
taken place. So long as the only test of assim- 
ilation is oral or written language, the possi- 
bilities for such misunderstanding are very 
great. It is" only by the use of other modes of 
expression as drawing, manual arts and dra- 
matics that the teachers can secure a check on 
the possibilities of taking memory for assimila- 
tion. 

The third phase of the educative process is 
expression. The end of all life is adaptability 
and adaptability means conduct. All the 
powers of the mind from perception through 
volition have but one end and that end is 
action. We see this clearly illustrated in the 
life of the lower animals. Here sensation and 
action are one. In childhood there is little 
intervening reflection between perception and 



action. In the words of Uncle Remus it is 
"Tetch and go." 

When we look at it aright every idea has a 
motor tendency wrapped up in it. If we should 
ask children to define a hundred articles' we 
should be struck by the fact that they were 
defined in terms of what is to be done to them 
or done with them. The whole attitude of the 
child's mind is a motor attitude. Froebel 
seized upon this great truth and made it the 
center of his system,- — education through self- 
activity. To him expression, that is, self- 
activity, was the means by which the child's 
nature could be read and understood. It was 
the means by which he came in contact with 
the outside world and became acquainted with 
its facts. It was the means by which the 
powers of his mind developed strength and 
definitness. As a consequence, the kindergar- 
ten which he instituted places emphasis upon 
and gives scope to the child's tendency to self- 
activity. 

Froebel saw that the most complete expres- 
sion of the child's inner self and the method 
by which he conquered the outside world and 
made it his, was through play and kinder- 
garten procedure may be defined as regulated 
play. The joy, the spontaneous self-direction, 
the co-operative spirit by which children edu- 
cate themselves outside of school are given a 
place in the true kindergarten. The song, 
rhythm and music, dramatics, drawing, manual 
arts, while championed by other educational 
forces, have been consistently advocated and 
successfully practiced in the kindergarten from 
the first as a means through which the play 
impulse of the child may find adequate expres- 
sion. 

I have taken for our consideration tonight 
two of Froebel's educational principles which 
seem to me the most far-reaching and practi- 
cal. Time will not allow me to speak of others. 
The contribution which the kindergarten 
has made to elementary education has been 
through its exemplification of Froebelian prin- 
ciples of education. With all its shortcomings 
it has been the one institution that has kept 
the lamp before the shrine of its ideal trimmed 
and burning. It has believed in its mission and 
with the faith and zeal of a propagandist it has 
sowed the seed of its gospel. Directly and in- 
directly it has been a factor in the educational 
progress of the last fifty years, the modi- 
fication of the elementary course of study 
by which it has become broader and 
richer with material which appeals to child 
life has been in no small part due to the kinder- 
garten, which through its stories and songs, its 
drawing and constructive work, its games and 
dramatics has shown that the education of the 
child may be furthered by other agencies than 
the alphabet and the multiplication table and 
that the road to knowledge for the child need 
not be steep and thorny. 



42 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



THE KINDERGARTEN FESTIVAL. 

By Jane L. Hoxie. 

FOUR important festivals are held in our 
child garden during the year. On 
Thanksgiving Day we commemorate 
our heroic forefathers. At Christmas Tide we 
celebrate the birth of the Savior of mankind. 
On Washington's birthday we do honor to our 
heroes and our patriots, and on May Day we 
celebrate the birth of new life, the revival of 
all nature in the spring. Aside from these 
four great festivals, others of minor import- 
ance are commemorated, but with less atten- 
tion to detail and with less effort to make last- 
ing impression upon the plastic minds and 
hearts of the little ones. 

In the early fall, in preparation for the 
first of these great events, if we are country 
bred, we hie away into the woods and fields. 
Here we revel in all nature ; in the growth and 
development of plants and trees, in the ripen- 
ing processes of seeds, in the maturing of 
fruits and vegetables. We watch the south- 
ward flight of birds, who leave their empty 
nests deserted in the trees. We learn how all 
the animals prepare to meet the coming win- 
ter with thick new coats of feathers or of fur, 
with stores of hidden food, with snug warm 
beds in burrows, caves and hollow trees. We 
watch the little buds for next year's growth 
form on the twigs and branches. We learn 
how nature paints the leaves, disseminates the 
seeds, puts all the flowers to sleep. We joy 
in all the odors, sights and sounds that make 
the autumn time the crown and glory of 
the year. 

If we are city born we cannot go thus hap- 
pily away among the birds and blossoms, but 
must content ourselves with buds and flowers, 
Avith fruits and seeds culled from their native 
setting, with visits to the parks and markets, 
with glimpses from our windows of the migra J 
tory flight of birds, with observations of the 
autumn habits of animals as seen in pets and 
dwellers of the zoo. 

We learn that not only flowers and trees, 
insects, birds and animals make ready for the 
winter, but that man also has a work to do. 
He gathers in the fruit. He stores away the^ 
vegetables. He husks the corn. He threshes : 
and he grinds the grain. He toils and moils 
that we may all be fed when, wrapped in 
ermine robes, old earth dreams through her 
winter night. 

Then we tell the story of those dauntless 
heroes, the Pilgrims and the Puritans, who 
breasted the unknown waves and faced the 
hazards of an untried land for conscience sake. 
A little Pilgrim maid, a miniature Priscilla, 
walks in our fancy sedately amid the strange 
vicissitudes of this new life. We see her leave 
her English home. We go with her to Hol- 
land. With her we board the Mayflower and 



set sail across the deep. With her we wonder 
at the ocean's winds and waves and watch the 
antics of the unknown monsters of the sea. 
With her we laugh and dance and clap our 
hands when little Oceanus, sea born infant of 
a hardy Pilgrim dame, looks up and smiles. 
We land at last with her upon old Plymouth 
Rock, and through her eyes we gaze upon the 
great unbroken forest, the savage beasts and 
dusky natives of this strange new world. 

Then comes the story of the first Thanks- 
giving Day. That day on which our staunch 
progenitors poured forth their gratitude for 
lives that had been spared, new friends that 
had been granted them, a harvest that was 
plentiful. They knew that God would keep 
them safe through all the winter's night. They 
wished to give him thanks for life, for health, 
for food, for shelter and for friends. 

We, too, have thanks to give. This very 
fall the harvest has been plentiful. Already 
are the barns stacked high, cellars o'erflow 
with fruit and vegetables, and lavish hoards 
crowd every nook and corner of the granaries. 
None need go hungry, but every creature may 
be fed. All through the year we have been 
housed and fed, clothed, warmed and loved. 
How shall we tell our gratitude for autumn's 
gifts, how show our awe, our reverence — and 
our trust in Autumn's God? How, but to give 
from out our lavish store to those less happy 
and less fortunate than ourselves? We have 
listened to Dame Nature's tale. We have pon- 
dered well the story of our Pilgrim Fathers, 
but this is not all. There is yet another story, 
■ — a story of little children like ourselves and 
yet not like ourselves ; for we have happy 
homes, a mother's love and care. Our limbs 
are straight. Our backs are strong. We have 
clear eyes and ready hands. We can run and 
dance and skip all day long in the sunlight 
and the air. Not so with these poor waifs, 
huddled in orphan homes or stretched on beds 
of pain in children's hospitals. With shining 
eyes we hear this storv to the very end. Then, 
oh ! how eagerly, we rummage out our most 
capacious baskets. With what joy we fill 
them to the very brim with treasured books 
and toys, with dainties that would otherwise 
have crowned our own Thanksgiving feast. 
Here we place the big fat turke} r , bought with 
the hoarded pennies from our banks. Here we 
stow the cups of jelly, made with our own 
hands, looking like rubies shining in the sun. 
Here Ave put the golden oranges, the rosy- 
cheeked apples, the glossy nuts, the red and 
white candies that Ave, ourseh^es, haA T e pur- 
chased Avith such anxious care. Hoav merry 
we are Avhen at last our baskets OA r erfloAV. We 
clap our hands. We whirl about in an ecstacy 
of happy anticipation at the thought of the joy 
those other little ones will feel AAdien they re- 
ceive our bounty. But our croAvning happi- 
ness is not reached until we don our caps and 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



43 



hoods and sally forth to bestow, ourselves, 
these tokens of our gratitude, these messages 
of good cheer upon those unfortunate little 
ones, so like ourselves and vet how different. 
Back to the kindergarten we come at last, with 
full hearts but with empty hands. We dance, 
we laugh, we sing, for have we not made 
others happy? 

N ow for our own merry making in the 
kindergarten itself. This is celebrated in end- 
less ways. Favorite among these is the visit 
to grandmother's. The old lady, herself, in 
the person of a sedate six-year-old miss, at- 
tired in a white kerchief, cap and apron, re- 
ceives her guests, who come all together in an 
enormous sleigh, drawn by prancing steeds 
caparisoned in glittering harness and many 
tinkling bells. Needless to say, this fiery team 
is composed of lively youngsters selected 
from our midst. The members of this sleigh- 
ing party sing lustily as the 1 *' glide along, — 
"Over the river and through the wood to 
grandmother's house we go." This visit to 
grandmother's culminates in the serving of a 
Thanksgiving luncheon, dispensed by some of 
our own number, which consists of tiny pump- 
kin pies made and baked in the school kitchen 
by members of the class. The morning closes 
with a story of long ago told while sitting 
around the fireplace as corn is popped >or 
apples and nuts are roasted in the ashes of 
our wood fire. Sometimes, however, a grand 
frolic with the pumpkin man, as the children 
delight to call our Jack-o'-lantern, is preferred 
to the story and the open fire. And then with 
full hearts, conscious of the blessings of food 
and warmth and shelter, of health and happi- 
ness, of mother love and care, the little ones 
scatter to their homes. 

Echoes of our Thanksgiving frolic have 
scarcely died away in the distance ere a new 
motif is sounded. Faintly, at first, but rapidly 
gathering volume, it bursts at last into a joy- 
ous rollicking chorus. Santa Claus is abroad 
in the land. The season of loving and giving 
is here. 

Early in December we make excursions 
into the northland where, all the year through, 
jolly old St. Nicholas works with a will upon 
Christmas toys. We investigate his pack and 
his pockets. We ride over the housetops be- 
hind his eight fleet reindeer. We peer with 
him down the flues of sooty chimneys. We 
never tire of gazing into his twinkling eves or 
wondering at his ruddy cheeks and at his 
hoary beard. We write long letters to this 
jolly saint, filled with our urgent needs and 
dearest wishes, which we trustingly post in 
stove or fireplace. We take our fill of the old, 
old legend, ever new. Gradually it dawns 
upon us that this dear old saint must have 
other helpers besides the brownies ; that per- 
haps the world is filled with his helpers ; that 



everyone may be a Santa Claus to somebody; 
that John and Polly and Fred and Helen may 
all be Santa Clauses ; that each one of us may 
be a Santa Claus. Then the spirit of getting, 
getting, always getting is metamorphosed into 
the spirit of giving, loving and giving, doing 
something for others. The ecstatic shivers of 
delight with which we have been wont to greet 
the thought of this mysterious Santa Claus 
are intensified tenfold as the spirit of unselfish 
love crowds out the anticipation of our own 
gain and pleasure. Our brain teems with ideas 
and our fingers fly to execute its bidding that 
father and mother, grandfather and uncle, 
brother and sister may each and all be glad- 
dened and surprised by what a wee Santa 
Claus of five or six can do to make them 
happy. 

As time goes on and the day of the Christ- 
mas Festival approaches the thoughts of the 
children are gradually led to the spiritual 
meaning of this season. The legend of the 
Christ Child, in all its beauty, is recounted and 
the sweet old story of the Babe in the manger 
is told again and again, until finally the true 
significance of this day of days lies revealed 
and its commemoration assumes a new and 
solemn meaning. 

Our home people are bidden to this festival. 
The invitations are written upon pretty holly- 
decked Christmas bells which we have made 
all by ourselves. Our great forest-giant of a 
tree, decked out with shining wreaths and 
chains of our own construction and hung with 
the gifts we have fashioned so lovinglv, stands 
with outstretched branches to receive our dear 
ones. When all have arrived, gathering round 
our tree, we sing to these best loved friends 
our joyous Christmas Carols. For them we 
play our merriest games. To them we tell 
our favorite Christmas stories. The crowning 
moment of our happiness arrives when we take 
from our tree that which our own hands have 
fashioned and place it ourselves in the out- 
stretched palm of a loved one. Neither do we 
forget, upon this day, those less fortunate 
than ourselves, and many of our toys arad 
goodies find their way to homes whose occu- 
pants, but for us, would dream of Santa Claus 
in vain. 

Anon a sterner note is sounded and the 
toilers of the world appear. The workers who 
sweat in field and factorv, who labor upon the 
mountain top and in the bowels of the earth, 
become our dailv companions. We learn to 
see that each individual has a task to perform, 
which he, and he alone, can accomplish ; that 
the honest labor of each one of us is needed 
to make up the perfect whole of our civiliza- 
tion. The occupations of the carpenter, the 
mason, the blacksmith, the shoemaker, the 
farmer and the miller all take on new signifi- 
cance as we become conscious, for the first 



44 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



time, of the true dignity of work. Our muni- 
cipal servants, the postman, the policeman and 
the fireman, now become objects of more vital 
interest than ever before, as we talk of their 
duties and imitate their labors. Our great 
public servants, the mayor, the governor, the 
president, assume paternal significance. Last 
of all comes into view our heroes (our patriots 
and our soldiers). The colossal figure of 
Washington, the preserver of our liberties, the 
father of our country, looms above all the rest, 
and the spirit of our patriot's day festival is 
due to his inspiration. We wish to celebrate 
his birthday because he was a great and good 
patriot, willing, like manv others, to give his 
life, if need be, for a just cause. The early 
truthfulness, bravery and obedience of Wash- 
ington are brought especially to the notice of 
our little ones, and some of the thrilling ad- 
ventures of his pioneer and soldier life are 
recounted in simple, unaffected language. 

In preparation for this celebration we make 
garlands and badges of red, white and blue ; 
we manufacture miniature flags, we adorn pic- 
tures of Washington with the national colors, 
we fold soldier caps, we learn to keep step to 
martial music. On patriot's day, attired in 
our badges, wreaths and caps of red, white and 
blue, holding flags in our hands, with beating 
drums and flying colors, we tramp to the mar- 
tial strain of "Soldier Boy," "When Johnnie 
Comes Marching Home," and "Dixie Land." 
We sing the few strains of "My Country" that 
we have been able to learn. We march into 
camp for the night. We rise with the reveille 
in the morning and march with quick step far 
away where our country and our duty call. 
We shout with enthusiasm at the names of our 
heroes, our country and our flag. We listen with 
interest ever new to child-like tales of bravery 
and heroism. At last we gather round our flag 
and, as we give three lusty cheers for the red, 
white and blue, our hearts are stirred with the 
germ thoughts of a patriotism which shall 
later inspire us, if need be, to perform true 
deeds of valor. 

The tramp, tramp, tramp of our martial 
host has scarcely died away in the distance ere 
a new theme is sounded, for lo ! the winter is 
past and gone ! The water of unfettered 
brooks now sparkles on its way, the notes of 
feathered friends now echo in the tree tops, 
the sap leaps anew in the branches, bud and 
flower burst into bloom. All nature awakens 
from her dream. May is at hand. Our May 
Day festival approaches. We have watched 
the springing of the grass, the opening of the 
buds, the return of the birds, the coming of 
that new verdure with which old Earth vearly 
covers her wrinkled bosom. We have planted 
our gardens. We have set free our captive 
bees "and butterflies. We have beheld the 
revival of those creatures, big and little, to 



whom the winter is but one long, drowsy 
night. We have hailed with rapture each bud 
and leaf and blossom, each springing grass 
blade, the flutter of each pair of wings, the 
hum and whir of insects, the leaping of new 
life in pond and stream, the shy movement of 
each timid creature 01 the wood and field. 
How shall we give voice to the ecstacy that 
fills us, that ecstacy with which all nature 
thrills and pulsates? That joy which says 
more life ! more life ! and yet more life ! How, 
but to sing with the birds, to skip with the 
lambs, to dance with the sunbeams over the 
earth's fresh carpet of green. So we sally 
forth decked out in many colored garlands, 
carrying our May pole with us, singing as we 
go. Upon a broad expanse of green, in park 
or country, we take our stand. All day long 
we frolic in the sunshine, a happy band of 
children doing homage to the spring. 

Thus it is our purpose that these four 
chief festivals shall stand as culminating 
points, as climaxes toward which we bend our 
energies, as special days that shall radiate the 
spirit of gratitude, of good will, of patriotism 
and of joyous new life and strength with 
which we endeavor to infuse the entire work 
of the year in this, our garden of happy chil- 
dren. 



NUMBER IN THE KINDERGARTEN. 

Harrlette H. Freeland. 

PESTALOZZI says : "It is my opinion 
that if school teaching does not take into 
consideration the circumstances of 
family life, and everything else that bears on 
man's general education, it can only lead to 
an artificial and methodical dwarfing of hu- 
manity." 

Another prominent writer states the follow- 
ing : "The general problem of the kindergarten 
is not radically different from that of other 
schools." If schools fit for citizenship in the 
broadest sense then the problem presented to 
the kindergartner as she considers the essen- 
tials and non-essentials in the training of the 
young citizens so early entrusted to her is not 
one to be lightly set aside. 

Froebel studied Architecture, Surveying, 
Forestry, Crystallography. We see the mature 
man when he deals with mathematical sub- 
jects, and in many instances he seems a math- 
ematical enthusiast. 

Again and again we read, "no formal in- 
struction for children of the kindergarten age" 
and then we find exercises amounting to little 
short of problems planned for these same chil- 
dren. Froebel truly had keenest love and in- 
sight into childish lives or it would never have 
been possible to use these exercises success- 
fully. 

The all-important promotion day comes for 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



45 



the kindergarten child and we step across the 
hall with him. 

Is it a wholly new realm he enters? Let us 
cheerfully prophesy that the good work begun 
in the kindergarten is continued in the grades 
and much of the subject matter already 
familiar gives keener zest and appreciation for 
the stories he now begins to make truly his 
own and for the new work to which he is' in- 
troduced. In the good old school days so often 
praised in song and story to have omitted 
"Number Work" in the first school years 
would have caused unbounded wonder. 

Today the educationalists agree with 
psychologists that reason plays a s'mall part in 
the first years when perception, memory and 
imagination hold fullest sway. Close your 
eyes and at once you can picture diagram 
after diagram illustrating this. You might 
question if some of these were not exaggerated 
if it were not for your practical knowledge 
gained from actual living with little children. 
In the final analysis' there is nothing like 
"illustrating by an example." 

The four year old child is delighted to 
count; fond parents have encouraged, often- 
times taught him this accomplishment, and, 
by the American and foreign parent alike, it is 
considered a credential for entrance to that 
school life which is to make or mar the man 
to be. Older brothers and sisters many times 
furnish what they consider a liberal education 
before the child enters kindergarten. Then 
proudly introduce the younger member of the 
family and among the accomplishments re- 
hearsed invariablv counting and the fact that 
he can "make his numbers" hold prominent 
place. 

Give your class papers to draw some defi- 
nite objects and after the attempt you are 
often surprised at the success with which he 
acids' a straggling line of figures. 

Our small people also count in the games 
they are constantly playing at home and in the 
street. 

The youngest children and the foreigners, 
coming directly from "the ship," who have in 
no sense found themselves, some kindergart- 
ners claim know nothing of numbers. If this' 
is true, they learn most rapidly simply from 
association with the children using it in every 
day fashion at their work and play. 

Refer to the first quotation in this paper. 
We will do nothing to stunt any child's 
growth. When the latent power becomes 
active we will do all we can to assist the de- 
velopment. 

Since number work is not recognized as a 
part of the curriculum until so late in the 
grades and because we believe the time can be 
better spent in work and play dealing with 
subjects better adapted to children from four 
to six, we have n» specific work in number in 
the kindergartea course. 



On the other hand number is by no means 
omitted. Concretely we are constantly using 
it, and it would be impossible to plan one 
period of our day without it if the child is 
allowed to express in the circle the material 
given out and collected, his blocks, the num- 
ber of times his ball is rolled, tossed or 
bounced. This without suggestion or direc- 
tion. Games are played involving the use of 
the number sense such as: 

The baker delivers his orders as requested, 
the children go to various shops on errands 
bringing a specific number of things, often 
they count to see if change is correct. Play- 
ing store has an added charm in the game 
period with a "grown up" friend to help out 
when one is not quite sure what comes next. 
Each child is entitled to so many pushes when 
swinging. 

Some of our Newark kindergartners are 
doing especially good work in rhythm as 
shown bv the children's ability to take entire 
charge of the marches. The independence with 
which many children "clap" the song they 
desire to sing and promptly recognize it when 
some one plays for them. The response in ball 
games when they count as the piano plays, and 
the pleasure derived from the rhymes and 
songs giving definite number direction. 

Number is certainly the foundation of 
rhvthm, and the noises made by very young, 
children often take rhythmical form so that we 
are able to say this is the beginning of music. 

Some kindergartners require the children 
when recommended for promotion to count to 
twenty. In many instances they count to one 
hundred with little assistance, and there is a 
rhythm in counting together that reminds 
one of the "five times five are twenty-five," 
sune in the days of old. 

Simple problem work if used wisely is a 
delieht to the child who begs for "hard 1 things" 
for his portion. Make a walk so many inches 
long. A wall so many inches high. Build a 
platform four inches long and two inches wide. 
"What shall I build for you?" 

This work is recommended only where it 
can be introduced to advantage. Some classes 
would not be ready for it during their kinder- 
garten career, but when the number sense is 
more developed and the child keenly alert, 
work of this character is beneficial if used as a 
treat rather than for steady diet. 

Whether we will or not, children both in 
school and out are learning number, using it 
correctly, and this comes from no abstract 
teaching but from the natural development of 
the number sense in the child's mind. 

In conclusion do not understand me to ad- 
vocate anv method formal teaching of number 
in the Hnderfrarten. Only incideatal number 
reeosTutiom aad use. The number s»as« «r 
faculty awakens early ia life. Way a©t reseg- 



46 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



nize and develop it as soon as the child mind 
seems to appreciate its power? 

In answer to those who condemn number 
teaching earlier than the third year grade, we 
say, we only argue for incidental teaching and 
are quite content to leave some things for the 
High School and College Curriculum. 



MOTHERS' MEETINGS AND READING 
CIRCLES. 

By Jennie B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

Note. — Kindergartners will find a list of simple 
topics for Mothers' meetings in the Kindergarten 
Magazine for March, 1908. Among these topics is 
the one selected for this month's article. 

RUNNING ERRANDS. 

Mothers may be surprised to hear that such 
a simple matter as running errands has been 
commended upon by great writers upon educa- 
tion, as Rousseau, Pestolozzi, Froebel and 
others. 

It is certainly an eminently practical sub- 
ject for consideration at a mothers' meeting. 
The following questions may be sent to several 
mothers known to be actively interested in the 
meetings for report : 

i. How young a child have you ever asked 
to do an errand for you? 

Will you tell us what the errand was and 
whether the child was pleased to do it for you? 

2. What are some of the advantages to 
the child in running errands for mother? 

3. What care should a mother exercise in 
selecting errands for very young children? 

4. What training of the child's mind is 
secured in 

(a) Listening to the directions for an 
errand. 

(b) In carrying these directions out. 

(c) In reporting back to mother. 

5. Should a child always report back con- 
cerning the accomplishment of an errand even 
when no direct answer is sent? Why? 

The following quotation from Mrs. Borlis' 
excellent chapter on "Ethical Training" in 
her book entitled "Preparation of the Child for 
Science," may be read to the mothers : 

There comes a stage in every child's life when 
he is anxious to he sent on messages, and this phase 
can be taken advantage of to train him in one or 
two habits which it is difficult to acquire at a later 
age, and the lack of which hampers the development 
of the scientific faculty. 

When a child is two Or three years old, you ask 
him, "Would baby like to take a message for moth- 



er?" When you find him willing, you say: "Put 
down that toy (or whatever he may have in his 
hand) and come and stand in front of me; put your 
hands straight down, head up, look me right in the 
face and say: 'Please, Anne, a spoon.' Say it again. I 
am going to send you to Anne to get a spoon. What 
are you going to say to Anne? Now, say nothing 
else; don't talk, don't play on the way, for fear you 
forget. Now tell me once more what you are going 
to say to Anne." When the child comes back with 
the spoon, you say to him, "Now, go back and say, 
'Thank you, Anne.' What are you going to say to 
Anne? Well, now, go and say it." When he comes 
back the second time, you ask him what he said to 
Anne. If he cannot remember, or is not clear 
whether he said it properly, you send him back to 
try again. As soon as he brings a clear and crisp 
report of having given his message properly, you at 
once restore whatever he may have had in his hands 
before you began. 

This habit of withdrawing all possible sources of 
distraction before business begins, and restoring 
whatever you deprived him of directly the business 
is completed, is of importance. All these precau- 
tions help to induce the habit of knowing when a 
duty is fulfilled, an incident closed. 

Next day the message may be, "Please, father, 
a pencil," or "Please, nurse, a pinafore, but it is 
well while varying the object, to keep the routine 
exactly until it becomes quite easy and mechanical, 
until the mere fact of being called for a message 
throws the child bodily and mentally into the atti- 
tude of attention. After that you may tell the child 
that whenever you send him he may say, "Thank 
you" to the person who gives it to him before bring- 
ing it to you; but he is still not to talk of anything 
else when on his way. Just at first you will have to 
explain to the household that they are not to tempt 
the child to dawdle or talk when sent on a message, 
but as soon as he is old enough you may tell him 
that if any one speaks to him when he is on his 
way, he should say, "I am on a message for mother; 
I will come back to you when I have done what 
she told me." 

In discussion the kindergartner will readily 
lead the mothers to see the value of this early 
work which not only amuses the child but 
trains him to accuracy in listening, in execut- 
ing and in reporting. It indirectly helps in 
training to obedience and promptness. It 
creates a feeling of responsibility and taxes 
the memory just enough. 

It is not the wise mother who laughs at 
these little beginnings. They represent "the 
ounce of prevention," prevention of inatten- 
tion, carelessness, and forgetfulness in doing 
errands or in assuming responsibility which 
make so much discord later on. 

Ask mothers to test this method and report 
on the results at another meeting. 

Caution them not to overdo the matter. 

It should be a pleasure, not a burden. Drop 
it if it is not until a favorable moment. 

There should be no tears over such a mat- 
ter with so young a child. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



47 




for a 



scup, 



CHARACTER IN THE RAW, A GLIMPSE 
OF A CITY PLAYGROUND. 

MABEL E. MACOMBER, BROOKLYN 

JUST come in the Park, been 

waitin' two hours for a swing." 
"Miss Jar-r-vis, a boy's throwin' 

sand on my baby." 
"Teacher, I had a scup and it 

was a girl's, and a girl asked me 
and I gave her twenty-five, and 
she won't get off." 

"Good morning, Miss Jarvis; how do you 
like my baby? Ain't he sweet? Can't you 
get him a swing?" 

An injured knee having been duly washed 
and plastered, the teacher had just returned to 
the playground. It was a busy day, without 
the usual helpers, so that all drill or class 
work was suspended. A group of children 
with raised hands pressed about her. Listen- 
ing to all, she decided that the sand throwing 
was the only serious trouble, and immediately 
went to the scene of disorder. Boys were 
allowed to build castles and ramparts only on 
condition of unquestionably good behavior. 
The little toddlers' eyes must not be endan- 
gered by careless monsters, even if their 
guardians, the big sisters, should snatch a few 
moments of absolute enjoyment on a swing. 

The questioners dispersed by the visit to 
the sand-box, the teacher was no sooner 
seated on a portion of the space devoted to 
"cake baking" where she thought to watch 
undisturbed, a special group of troublesome 
girls who seemed only to enjoy teasing other 
players, and breaking rules, when a new 
group formed around her, each with upraised 
hand. There being no necessary complaint, a 
little lesson was given them on the value of 
patience and self-control, and the "pie-board" 
was quiet for perhaps fifteen minutes. The 
group of girls in question now took advantage 
of her interest in the evolution of a sand bake- 
shop, so that when Miss Jarvis again turned in 
their direction, each had secured a swing and 
were having a royal good time. But the in- 
evitable tale bearer was on her way, and a 
tearful story of kicks, and summary jerks, by 
which the rapid change in swing ownership 
was effected, was poured into the ears of the 
children's friend. The teacher's rising and 
advancing a few steps had the desired effect, 
as a row of empty swings, and a rear view of 
skirted forms climbing over partition benches, 
plainly testified to the delighted tattler. She 
did not deserve a swing, however, and by a 
series of motions, understood only between 
teachers and children, the next joyful pos- 
sessors were indicated. 

"Miss Jar-r-vis, can you play in succes- 
sion? Sadie's playin' tennis in succession." 

"Miss Jarvis, the bean-bag's up on the 
roof." 



"Miss Jarvis, Jimmie won't let us play 
Crokette; he takes the hatchets and knocks 
the balls around." But the teacher could not 
wait to hear more, for while taking mental 
note of the transgression of the tether ball 
rules, the uplifted bean bag, and the small boy 
in the croquet inclosure, she had seen a more 
important evil brooding in a corner where 
Katy sat exchanging coarse jests with a group 
of youths outside. How to save Katy was the 
great problem. She used to revel in the inno- 
cent pleasures of the playground, only giving 
trouble through a certain rudeness of manner 
and occasional quarrels with her playmates. 
Now she had the "boy craze" and was not 
content unless surrounded by a group of ad- 
mirers, whose rough companionship had 
coarsened the girl. Even the policeman of 
the neighborhood felt the need of keeping a 
fatherly watch over her. 

"Skidoo ! 23 for yous'e ; there's the cop," 
the teacher heard as she approached, having 
asked the officer to walk in that direction. 
Katy seized a swing and jumped on, not notic- 
ing the teacher's approach from the other side, 
as she tried in this way to escape the attention 
of the patrolman. This was one of the times 
for the teacher to be blind if she wanted to 
retain her influence over the child ; so Katy 
was ignored while some of the owners of the 
upraised hands were satisfactorily answered 
and matters generally set straight till Katy of 
her own accord came to Miss Jarvis to ask 
her advice as to some way of earning money. 
In return for a promise to give all the aid 
possible, Katy offered to help in keeping the 
playground in order. "You must be very sure 
to speak politely and not to strike any one," 
was the parting injunction as a group of girls 
approached. 

"Good-morning, Miss Jarvis ; won't you 
play a set of tennis with us? Janet and I 
want to play against you and Francis." 

"Why! Isn't Francis the very best player 
we have? How can you two succeed against 
us?" replied the teacher. 

"Oh ! of course we can't, but Janet and I 
are going to play in Central Park to-morrow 
with our brothers, and we want to practice 
hard," so Miss Jarvis agreed, but with the 
necessary admonitions, and answers to ques- 
tions, and even short excursions to the teeter 
ladders, and to any spot needing investigation, 
also keeping an eye on Katy as much as pos- 
sible, while playing, it was no wonder that 
Janet and Sophy had succeeded in keeping a 
deuce game going for an unusually long time 
Avhen a sound of excited voices behind her 
attracted the teacher's attention. She turned 
to see Katy engaged in a hair-pulling contest, 
and approaching heard all talking at once. 
"She took my little sister off the swing." "She 
wouldn't give no-body a ride." "She don't 



4 8 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



own the swings." "This is a free country." 
Placing a disinterested child in possession of 
the swing, the teacher moving away, drew the 
crowd from the dangerous proximity of neigh- 
boring swings, the disputants still exchanging 
excited words, and threats. Katy, on careful 
inquiry, it was proved had acted only in self- 
defense ; so Rosie was ordered to cease hostili- 
ties or else leave the playground. She 
haughtily chose the latter course, while her 
adversary was admonished to be more careful 
in the future. 

Katy having "got the satisfaction" now 
ruled with a high hand, so that frequent 
complaints reached Miss Jarvis, as she stood 
watching two curly-headed enthusiasts play 
their entrancing though all but forbidden 
bounce ball-game — 

"I lost my ribbon, one game ; 
I lost my ribbon, two games ; 
I lost my ribbon, three games ;" etc., 

each downward pat of the ball with its suc- 
cessful turn to another pat constituting a 
"game" ; the words often most elaborate, are 
repeated sing-song fashion, to test compara- 
tive skill in "keeping up". 

When one small maid had convincingly 
demonstrated her superiority, the ball was 
turned over to a sly miss of six years, who had 
been patiently waiting for a chance at the 
treasure, and a small girl sent to bring Katy. 
But the messenger returned Katyless. "She 
won't come over ; she says you to come over." 

The teacher went and found Katy busily 
punishing a refractory child by a series of 
slaps on her face. "They won't mind me," she 
apologized ; but as she had broken one of the 
conditions of her monitorship, this had to be 
taken from her. Now the trouble began and 
things happened so quickly, the teacher could 
not quite remember afterward just what did 
occur. Katy, no longer a high potentate, and 
maddened by the loss of "satisfaction", had 
immediately, by sheer physical strength, ob- 
tained a swing, and wishing to show her utter 
disdain of all authority, had stood and 
"pumped" with skirts flying high in the air, 
while her masculine friends again collected on 
the outside and delighted her with their re- 
marks. Feeling completely out of the pale of 
the teacher's control, and fairly drunk with 
rage, all the dare-deviltry in her nature came 
tothe front, so that a reproving look from the 
teacher met with the response: "You can't 
make me get off, I'll stand if I like." This 
showed a spirit dangerous to the playground, 
as nothing: is more contagious than insubordi- 
nation. No officer or other helper in sight, the 
teacher seized the swing and brought it to a 
standstill so suddenly that even the invincible 
Katy was surprised into temporary submis- 
sion, and before she e©uld csllect herself had 
obediently hastened outside the playground at 



the teacher's order. Once outside, however, 
the realization of her defeat swept over her, 
stirring the already roused temper into a blaze 
of fury. Standing on a bench, all the coarse- 
ness and toughness of her very fiber was re- 
vealed, in a series of exclamations, insulting 
names, and even curses for the poor teacher. 
As the defender of law and order was spied 
walking in her direction, Katy sent a parting 
shot : "May you drop dead before you leave 
this Park!" — at the same time threw a stone, 
which, however, was badly aimed, and fled up 
the street. 

"'Ah !" sighed the teacher, "now I under- 
stand. He was reviled, yet reviled not again." 
A bad outlook for Katy's redemption ! 

A more reliable monitor, Mary Stein, was 
fortunately found, so that the circle of raised 
hands about the teacher was soon materially 
lessened and the game of lawn tennis con- 
tinued. It seemed a hopelessly deuce game, 
but the excitement of the little scene just over 
had told on the teacher's nerves, and she 
finally lost. 

"Oh, we won Miss Jarvis and Francis," 
said the pleased players as they departed for 
dinner, "and now perhaps we can win Harry 
and George." 

Katy did not come into the playground for 
a whole month, but could be seen on the out- 
skirts at her old pastime of flirting. The case 
seemed hopeless ; she had apparently out- 
grown any feeling of attraction toward more 
innocent amusements. 

Finally, one Saturday afternoon, Katy 
appeared, and patiently stood till the teacher 
had replied to : 

"My baby's crying; I been waitin' all day 
for some blocks." 

"Have you got a needle? A girl tore my 
dress and I'm afraid to go home." 

"Can't I play tennis ball? A girl's played 
two hours and hasn't got a point." 

"That's a lie. She only just got the stick." 

"Teacher, I got a rope on the pin-wheel 
and a girl took it out of me." 

Then very humbly Katy asked if she 
"could come in and take charge of something." 
Very hesitatingly she was placed in charge 
of a garden swing, and the rules explained to 
her. Love of authority had gotten the better 
of her pride, and now she tried to maintain 
her position by really faithful work. 

Convinced by watching that Katy had 
really reformed, Miss Jarvis hastened to weed 
out some of the small boys who could not be 
allowed to invade the overcrowded girls' do- 
main on Saturday, replaced a battered tether 
ball, supplied colored papers to a girl who was 
anxious to play kindergartner, and was busily 
adjusting the order of succession to the cro- 
quet field, when she was summoned to the 

len swing. There were Katie and Rosie 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



49 



seated calmly monopolizing the swing to the 
exclusion of its diminutive rightful possessors. 

"There was no one to get on," she ex- 
claimed, jumping up and pointing to the clear 
space usually crowded with small and big 
sisters. That the children had been frightened 
away, the teacher well knew, but pretending 
not to see through the ruse, a more trust- 
worthy girl was placed in charge, while Katy 
was asked to look for the owner of a lost baby. 
Instantly the teacher discovered the clue to 
Katy's character. "What a shame !" ex- 
claimed Katy, gathering the child in her arms. 
"No, don't cry ; see, we will go find mamee !" 
But though her walks among the crowded 
benches were unsuccessful in locating any 
protector, so eager was Katy to please the 
child that happy smiles had quite chased away 
the tears, before the search was finally given 
up and Katy with her charge rested on a 
bench. That afternoon must have been long 
remembered by the little one, for never could 
she have more devoted or varied attention. 
When the anxious mother at length appeared, 
excitedly inquiring for her "darling", Katy 
was loth to give her up. "You don't deserve 
to find her already ; and I've a good mind not 
to let you have her." But the mother was too 
delighted to notice the scolding and hugged 
her baby ecstatically. 

This proved to be a happy ending to any 
anxiety about Katy on the part of the teacher 
for the mutual attraction between Katy, the 
baby, and the lady, resulted in a permanent 
arrangement whereby every moment of Katy's 
time was not only profitably, but pleasantly 
employed. 

By sports like these are all their cares beguiled. 
The sports of children satisfy the child. 

— Oliver Goldsmith. 




A KINDERGARTEN TERRARRIUM. 

LIXEON CIvAXTON 

NE of the common feelings in re- 
gard to introducing beasts, and 
bugs and crawling things into the 
kindergarten is that they are unde- 
sirable because of their natural 
propensities to creep under things 
and either disappear altogether or reappear in 
such an unexpected place and manner that 
they frighten the teacher or some timid child 
with the suddenness of it. Then, too, the cru- 
elty of depriving these helpless things of their 
natural environment and proper food must not 
be lost sight of. 

Still keeping these objections in mind, a 
kindergarten may be the permanent and suit- 
able home of many creeping things if a terrar- 
rium large enough be provided. The teacher 
will find that it is with a terrarrium as it is 



with many other things. She does not know 
what she can do until she has tried. 

The larger boys of the school are generally 
most willing and helpful in this matter. In 
some schools they construct the whole box 
either in the manual training class or after 
school. Then they take great pleasure in 
stocking it and caring for the animals. The 
size of the room must, of course, regulate the 
size of the box, but it should be as large as 
the space in the room will permit. If the box 
is small, it must be the home of fewer animals. 
Five feet by three feet by three feet is none 
too large if the room is big enough for it. 

The bottom of the box should be lined with 
tin or zinc. A hole in the zinc is necessary for 
drainage. Around the bottom are nailed 
boards from 6 to 8 inches wide to support the 
earth. A frame work of narrow, strips is 
erected on this. Cover the frame over the top 
and sides with wire net fine enough to prevent 
the things from escaping. A door should be 
made in a convenient place. If instead of net 
a pane of glass be used in the door, the chil- 
dren can see better, but a net will answer 
every purpose. It is better to provide the door 
with a lock as the children from the upper 
grades take a real interest in the terrarrium, 
which should be encouraged, but for the 
safety of the animals the children should not 
be permitted to handle them at will. Dark 
green paint finishes the box. 

The bottom of the terrarrium must be cov- 
ered with small stones to permit the water to 
drain off. Then filled with good soil to a 
growing depth. The terrarrium must be 
placed where it will get both sunshine and 
light, but is protected from draughts. It will 
add to the beauty as well as the utility of the 
box to have it well provided with plants. 
Ferns, ivy, geraniums, inch vines, umbrella 
plants all grow easily and so are fitting for 
this puroose. Wild flowers found in walks 
or used for nature lessons will take root if suf- 
ficient earth be left on the roots. These in 
many cases have thrived in the terrarrium and 
have even produced seeds to the delight of the 
children. i 

Scatter shells and large stones about the 
box. The animals enjoy hiding under the 
stones. In one corner sink a deep pan for 
water. The animals will use this for drink- 
ink, bathing, and swimming. The water must 
be kept sweet. Putting too much food in it 
is a common cause of sour water. Water 
plants and snails help to purify it. Still, occa- 
sionally, the water should all be removed and 
the rocks from the bottom washed thoroughly. 
An aurium perched on the rocks so that the 
sun shines through it, is an attractive addition, 
but should not be used unless space is plen- 
tiful. 

Now that the box is ready for tenants what 



50 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



living things will stay in it? The aquiri-ist 
will tell you of many wonderful creatures and 
will provide you with them, too, but first see 
what the walks in the neighborhood will do. 
The big boys will know where to find the 
natives of the soil. Certain it is that tads, 
frogs, toads, turtles, caterpillars and bettles 
can be secured in many districts. It is well to 
take a box on every walk, for some of the 
greatest treasures are found when least ex- 
pected. Frogs' eggs in the spring are possi- 
ble. These have developed into frogs in the 
class room and have then been taken to some 
body of water by the children, who enjoyed 
letting them hop away to bigger waters than 
they had provided. In the fall the cocoons 
found may be tied to the plants and twigs in 
the box. If the moths or butterflies appear in 
the spring they may be kept happily for their 
few days of life, during which time they may 
even lay eggs where the children can see them. 
If they live for some time they may possibly 
be of the longer lived species and can be 
allowed to fly "far, far away," while the chil- 
dren watch them and sing a happy good-bye. 
If a few caterpillars are placed in a glass bottle 
with leaves it is quite certain to result in one 
or more "soft cocoons" being spun. Those 
that are allowed to wander almost freely may 
take longer to settle down, but possibly some 
of them will make their nests in a spot where 
the children can see them. A tiny chick was 
introduced into one of these small farms one 
spring day and was allowed to wander freely 
for about a week. In one corner a box filled 
with cotton served for his bed. About five 
o'clock he was tucked away for the night. 

As for the attractions to be found in the 
shops, there are many varieties of turtles rang- 
ing from the size of a penny to the size of a 
plate. A turtle as large as one's hand is not 
too large for the box, but anything larger de- 
stroys the plants in crawling around. Then 
there are the brown camillians that actually 
change to green while resting on the green 
leaves. The children never tire of watching 
this marvel. The fire-salamander is fascinat- 
ing with his brilliant coat of black and orange, 
the ants and lizards of different colors, with 
their funny antics, add greatly to the pleasure 
of the children. A small alligator may be of 
the collection. 

There are a few things to be guarded 
against. Animals that will bite are not desir- 
able, because they must be handled more or 
less for the children to be personally acquaint- 
ed with them. Such animals as would eat any 
animal that you already possess must be omit- 
ted from the collection, no matter how inter- 
esting their ways. Too many animals must 
not be secured for the space in the box. The 
aquiri-ists tell us more animals die of over- 
feeding when in confinement than from too 
little food. But a few conferences with the 



people who make a business of this sort of 
thing will teach all that is necessary to know, 
ihey have the foods required at very reason- 
able prices. The animals are surprisingly in- 
expensive. Some of these shop keepers are 
pleased to visit the school and suggest in the 
constructing and stocking of the box. Others 
will rent at low prices such animals as would 
be desirable visitors, but not permanent resi- 
dents. 

It is well known that during the winter 
months many of these creatures burrow into 
the earth, there to remain till old Sol warms 
up again. But experience will show that at 
any time an animal may disappear for weeks 
at a time and then reappear glistening and fat. 
The salamander took such a trip late in Au- 
gust one season and returned about the middle 
of September, prettier than ever. 

A kindergartner, or any teacher for that 
matter, will see after once trying, that the 
time, trouble and expense of fitting up such a 
box are more than equalled by the interest of 
the children. The lines of work that natur- 
ally connect themselves with the animals, 
plants, shells, etc., of the terrarrium are num- 
berless. The considerate control on the part 
of the children so as to not frighten the crea- 
tures when they are placed in the circle for 
observations is well worth securing. More 
cordial relationships between the younger and 
older children of the school are established. 
Then, too, who can tell but that a second 
"Sonny" may be the result of your efforts to 
bring these things closer to the children's 
lives ? 



ITEMS OF INTEREST IN CONNECTION 
WITH THANKSGIVING. 

(Reported by public kindergartners of Manhattan, 
The Bronx and Richmond.) 

During November we went to the grocery 
store, buying fruit and vegetables for our 
Thanksgiving work. Another day we made 
biscuits and took them to the bakers, waiting 
until they were baked. The baker was very 
good to me, showing everything that was to 
be seen, and when we asked the price of the 
baking, said that he would not let us pay for it, 
as he did not often have as much pleasure as 
our visit has given him. 

The central object of interest was the farm 
yard scene in the sand tray. The fruit, grain 
and vegetables have been gathered in, and on 
Thanksgiving Dav the dolls of the doll house 
dined with the prandmother at the farm house. 
— E. B. C. 

Objects of interest in the kindergarten dur- 
ing November : A growing sand tray scene of 
the barn yard and barn yard animals. Also 
dolls, large and small, to represent farmers, 
helpers and family. A toy mill, in which real 
wheat was ground to flour. A dramatic play 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



51 



of "Pedro and the Pumpkin", with Indian cos- ; 
tumes and accessories. A little party follow- 
ing the making of real butter in the kinder- H 
garten room, and a Thanksgiving party and 
entertainment for the children's parents and 
little friends.— R. A. 

Thanksgiving party on Wednesday, No- 
vember 29th, for which the children popped 
corn on the gas ranges at school. The chil- 
dren were so delighted with the process that I 
have heard of several mothers buying corn- 
poppers for the children to use at home. We 
opened a can of pear preserves, prepared and 
cooked at school by the kindergarten children, 
and greatly enjoyed tasting our own preserves. 
-M. J. H. 

At our Thanksgiving celebration we each 
brought a piece of fruit which we wrapped 
separately in colored tissue and packed into a 
large peach basket, decorated with yellow and 
green tissue paper. This basket we sent to the 
little children in a nearby hospital, and were 
delighted on our return to receive such an 
appreciative letter of thanks for it, telling us 
of the pleasure our offering gave the little 
ones.— A. M. M. 

On Wednesday, November 27, the A. M. 
kindergarten children invited the P. M. kin- 
dergarten children to a Thanksgiving party. 
There were 55 children present and a festive 
spirit prevailed. Our two Jack-o'-lanterns 
smiled a broad welcome to all. The tables 
were covered with autumn leaf table cloths 
and napkins, and our paper plates were tinted 
green at the edge and decorated with a Jack- 
o'-lantern in the center. The children had 
made these and each one tok home one as a 
souvenir of the close of the festivities. We 
sent a box of fruit to the hospital children. 
— E. M. W. 



AIM OF NATURE STUDY. 

Anna I. Weisenburg. 

a. To encourage careful observation. 

b. To encourage moral truths. 

1. Nature's orderly ways. 

2. Nature's protection of life. 

IN placing emphasis on nature and its study, 
the first question to the teacher is, how 
to obtain the materials for its study. The 
first means toward this end is the school 
garden. Here can be had by means of some 
care and attention, leaves and plants sufficient 
for many a lesson which wil lencourage the 
child's observation of form, size, etc., and 
encourage the love of beauty by means of 
botany. Neighboring rocks and defts will pro- 
vide mineral specimens and the transparency 
of the mica, the glitter of the quartz, the vari- 
ous colors will be an unending source of in- 
terest. In this connection can be emphasized 
manual training by making a cabinet to hold 



•*all specimens, the pupils doing the work. 
I Brooks and streams will provide larvae, snails, 
j worms and dragon-flies and many other living 
specimens for the study of animate nature and 
an occasional hour can be spent in dissecting 
these or mounting insects for the cabinet. The 
excursion provides means of capturing butter- 
flies and material not to be had in the vicinity 
of the school. Then, too, the seasons bring 
their store of material. In the winter the snow 
crystals can be observed and drawn ; the spring 
brings the birds on the trees and we can see 
how carefully nature protects them from cold 
by observing their coverings, folding and posi- 
tion ; the autumn has its racoons and with the 
microscope can be observed seed-vessels and 
their designs. 

In its teaching, it is well for each pupil to 
keep a note-book and once a month these 
should be read aloud and questions from all 
the pupils encouraged, with stories from the 
teacher. The practical value of this study can 
be emphasized by the reading to the children 
of newspaper items and agricultural reports, 
with accounts of experiments such as the cul- 
tivation of clover by means of bees as ferti- 
lizers. After observation, drawing from 
memory should be cultivated, always encour- 
aging questions for the seasons of positions, 
etc. Give brief accounts of the lives of famous 
naturalists and their achievements, so as to 
awaken desire for investigation and experi- 
mentation. 

The aim of nature work is, then, to awaken 
in children the idea of close observation and 
encourage experimentation and investigation. 
The children soon notice the economy of na- 
ture and her orderly ways, each bud and flower 
coming at the right time and in the right place. 
In the study of birds and small animals can be 
encouraged the idea of studying them alive, so 
developing respect for the sacredness of all 
life. To study nature to its best advantage, 
therefore, object teaching is more benefit than 
books, and exery teacher can easily find ma- 
terial if she, herself, will be as observant as the 
children. 



CHILD NATURE EN RELATION TO 
KINDERGARTEN TEACHING. 

THE study of child nature is essential 
to all true Kindergarten teachers, and 
to be wholly successful they must un- 
derstand the principles which underlie the 
work of the great educational reformer of 
Germany. Froebel studied children closely 
to find out their tendencies. He watched them 
at play and at work, and the more he watched 
them, the more sure he felt, that the develop- 
ment of human beings' is governed by law, 
just as the growth of the plants and the crys- 
tallization of minerals is so governed. After 
studying children for fifty years, he came to 



52 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



the conclusion that the most important period 
of human education is before the child is seven 
years old. Hence the work that teachers' have 
to do in educating little children is more im- 
portant, not less important, than the work of 
the teachers who educate older boys and girls. 
Froebel's chief idea was that a child should 
develop naturally, just as a plant does. He 
believed that little children are like young 
plants. If a seed is planted in good earth and 
watered, it germinates and a young plant ap- 
pears. If the plant receives sunshine and mois- 
ture it puts forth leaves, flowers, and fruit, 
and grows into a strong and beautiful shrub 
or tree. But if the seed fall on stony ground 
or is left without moisture or light, it either 
dies or the plant grows up stunted and un- 
healthy. Froebel declared that the same is 
true of infants and little children. They must 
be placed in such surroundings and be treated 
in such a way that they can develop in ac- 
cordance with their nature. Now, therefore, it 
becomes our duty to consider what is the 
nature of a child. 

1. Love of Pjiay. — In the first place a 
healthy child is almost always at joyous play. 
Play is to children what work is to grown-up 
people. 

2. Bodily Activity. — A healthy child de- 
lights in bodily activity. During almost all 
his waking hours he kicks, crawls, runs', jumps, 
climbs, pushes, pulls and handles. By this 
means his body becomes strong and he gains 
control over his muscles', and his limbs. 

3. Mental Activity. — The child's mind is 
constantly at work. This wonderful world is 
new to him. The sights and sounds about him 
fill him with wonder and curiosity, and he is 
never tired of finding out about them, by 
means of looking, listening, smelling, tasting 
and handling. As he grows older he constant- 
ly questions his elders about his surroundings. 

4. Love of Doing. — The child has a great 
love of doing and making. He is constantly 
busy, collecting bits of wood, sand, stones, 
cloth, paper, etc. With these he will make 
what he calls a hous'e, or a doll or a fire. 

5. Imitation and Representation. — He 
takes a great pleasure in imitating and repre- 
senting what he sees and hears. In his games 
and songs he acts little plays, in which he rep- 
resents the words, actions' and sounds of people 
and of animals. He will also try to draw pic- 
tures of people, animals and things. 

6. Character and Conduct. — A child has 
capabilities for good and evil at an early age. 
He soon shows tendencies which must be 
checked, such as anger, selfishness, untruth- 
fulness, and also capabilities which must be 
carefully encouraged, such as love, candor, 
courage and reverence. 

7. Sociability. — The child loves the society 
of other children. If a lonely child is brought 
into the company of other children he imme- 



diately brightens up and becomes happier, 
just as little Froebel did when his uncle Sent 
him to the day-school. .Children also love the 
society of animals, such as dogs, cats and par- 
rots, and animals seem to like to be with chil- 
dren. 

In' a well-conducted Kindergarten all these 
natural characteristics of children are satisfied 
and developed. The purpose in a Kindergar- 
ten is not to cram the verbal memory, but to 
develop all the powers of a child ; to ensure for 
him a strong, healthy, capable body, mind and 
character. 



T is reported that the Governor of one 
of the central states had received 
$25.00 for delivering an address to the 
graduating class of a Manual Training 
High School. The bill presented by the 
Governor was accompanied by a voucher 
showing that the money had been drawn 
on a warrant of the School Board. Ad- 
dressing the young people in the public 
educational institutions of a state may not 
necessarily be regarded as one of the 
essential functions of a Governor. But an 
address given in the capital city precludes 
the need of traveling expenses, and if such 
a speech were given by the state's chief 
magistrate it would seem that a man of 
genuine patriotism and generous feeling 
would be fair to regard the price of such an 
address as included in his annual salary 
from the state he serves. We trust that 
the School Board and the citizens and the 
children felt that they received their 
money's worth in inspiration received. 



The stealing of a school house would 
seem to be a task of large proportions but 
the people of Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, com- 
plain that the four portable buildings which 
they were promised have disappeared and 
they claim that the four now being used 
by a school in another section of the city 
are those which are due them. Hundreds 
of children are on half time for lack of 
school space. 

A POSTAL GAUD DEVICE 
An ordinary window shade and a package of 
gummed "stickers," together with your post cards, 
makes the required material. When 3 r ou wish to 
display a series of cards relating to the History, 
Reading, Language or Geography lesson fasten the 
required cards to the shade by means of the 
stickers, in the order you wish to have them. The 
cards can easily be removed and others put in 
their place. G. W. So. Kaukauna, Wis. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



53 




T the Playground Congress 
in New York City Dr. 
Myron T. Scudder advo- 
cated the need of outdoor 
play grounds in the country 
as one means of keeping rural young peo- 
ple at home. He believes that one reason 
why young people migrate from the coun- 
try to the city is because they seek in the 
one place the social enjoyments lacking in 
the other. He suggests the establishment 
of athletic fields and playgrounds in the 
farming regions and the formation of 
country school athletic leagues. 

In response to this plea, some people 
claim that the country boy obtains suf- 
ficient athletic exercise in the performance 
of his daily "chores" around house and 
barn and in the hayfield. Also, that he is 
two fatigued after his daily work to engage 
with any great spirit in athletic sports. 

It may be said in reply to these state- 
ments, that in athletic games different sets 
of muscles are employed and in such dif- 
ferent ways and with such a different spirit 
that the reaction is quite different. 

In the old days, before the Shakers dis- 
carded their so-called "dance," the men 
would come up from their work in the fields 
fatigued to the utmost degree, as were the 
women from their household tasks. They 
would sink into their seats as though fur- 
ther action were impossible. But the 
Elder would give out a hymn and all the 
Brothers and Sisters would join in the 
singing, gaining in spirit with each inspir- 
ing stanza. Little by little the hands, arms 
and head would begin to sway and beat in 
time, and soon, simultaneously, all would 
rise to their feet and begin a light, tripping, 
tiptoe step around the room. The tiptoe 
movement would soon grow into more 
rapid time till it became a skip and before 
the exercise was over, body, mind and 
spirit were thoroughly relaxed. 

We are not advocating the introduction 
of a Shaker dance into the playground 
movement but simply cite the above in- 
stance to show that fatigue of body and 
dullness of mind due to routine work does 
not preclude much relaxation, joy and 
physical good to be gained from active ex- 
ercise of another kind. 

Will not the teachers in the rural schools 
give us some light upon this topic? Ask 
the parents of your children. Discuss it 
with each other and write to the 
editor. B. J. 



QUERY COLUMN 

Any teacher, whether she be a subscriber or 
not, may send to the editor of this department, 
(Miss Bertha Johnston, 1054 Bergen St., Brooklyn, 
N. Y.) such questions relating to child psychology, 
school management, discipline, use of kindergarten 
materials, etc., as smuggest themselves in daily 
practice. These questions will be printed one 
month and readers are urgently requested to send 
such answers and counter-questions as their own 
daily experience and observation dictate. The 
editor will also from time to time propound such 
questions as circumstances appear to warrant. 

i. Kindergarten has not yet opened for 
the day and two youthful kindergartners 
are in conversation, while a few of the chil- 
dren cluster around them. When, "Isn't 
Flossie a dear!" says one director to the 
other. "What pretty curls she has ! and 
such sweet blue eyes. She is positively the 
cutest child I ever saw!" The entire group 
of children, including Flossie, are attentive 
listeners when this exclamation is made. 

Query: 

a. Does the child deserve praise for 
mere prettiness or winsomeness? 

b. What does the teacher lack who thus 
openly criticises a child or indiscriminately 
praises it or expresses admiration? 

c. What is the probable effect upon 
Flossie of such criticism? 

d. What is the natural effect upon the 
listening children who may be neither 
pretty nor attractive but long none the less 
for love and appreciation? 

e. What Mother Play has a bearing 
upon this topic? 

2. In cutting an Italian lemon in half, so 
green were some of the seeds that, al- 
though the lemon was large and firm, it 
was at first supposed that the fruit must be 
moldy inside. Closer observation showed 
that the seeds were sprouting and the green 
was the green of the plumules which were 
splitting open the cotyledons. How can 
this be accounted for? 



The new education must stimulate the 
development of the individual and still 
keep that which was good in the old social 
order. If too large emphasis is placed with 
the student upon adjustment to present 
customs, progress is likely to be very slow; 
if, on the other hand, the development of 
the individual is probed to the extreme, the 
social order itself is endangered by the lack 
of co-operation between the individuals 
composing the state, as for example the 
Greek nation. 

D. A. Sargent in American Physical Edu- 
cation Review. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 




PROGRAM PREVIEWS FOR NOVEM- 
BER. 

Selected by Jenny B. Merrill, Ph. D. 

NOTE. — It has been my ambition as a super- 
visor of kindergartens to preserve the individuality 
of kindergartners wnile securing, at the same time, 
a growing unity of purpose and action. 

Too much direction in details will of necessity 
cramp originality. 

THE note of unity in the outline programs 
presented below is very apparent, while 
the method of presentation preserves 
the soul of the writer. 

I call attention to one or two prominent 
features illustrated by these programs : 

1. Miss Elder's preview illustrates the 
power of a careful analysis of a subject. It 
probably covers more ground than possible, 
but is very suggestive on this account to pri- 
mary teachers as well as to kindergartners. 

2. Miss Franke's paper gives a short, run- 
ning account covering similar matter with 
charming glimpses of practical work. 

3. Miss Van Atta does not forget the 
great value of continuity and hen-ce shows us 
the relation of the November program to that 
of the previous month. She furnishes a fine 
list of stories and games. 

4. Miss West's preview helps the spirit- 
ual note uppermost and further illustrates the 
principle of continuity by looking ahead and 
indicating the relation of the November work 
to that of December. 

No one preview is superior to the other in 
my estimation, but each one is delightfully 
characteristic of its author. 

PREVIEW FOR NOVEMBER. 

Sibyl Elder. 
Keynote for the month's work — Thanksgiving. 
1. For the Bounties of the earth. 

a. What the Baker has. 

He makes his bread from flour — from wheat — 
from the earth. 

b. What the Grocer sells. 

Butter made from milk — from cows that live 
on grass or grain — from the earth. 

Eggs laid by hens — that feed on corn — from 
the earth. 

Vegetables all grow in the earth. 



II. 



What the Butcher provides. 

Beef from cattle — grain — earth. 

Mutton from sheep — grass — earth. 

Pork from hogs— corn — earth. 

Turkeys ) 

Chickens) from corn — earth. 

Ducks ) 
What the Clothing store furnishes. 

Wool garments from sheep — grass — earth. 

Cotton garments from cotton plant — earth. 
But earth to produce all these things requires: 
) plow. 

a. The Farmer to) sow. 

) reap. 

) care for live stock. 

b. Rain to moisten the earth. 

c. Sunshine to make things grow. 

God sends the rain and the sunshine, so we 
must thank God for all. 
For our Homes. 

works to provide food, 



3. 



For the father who 

clothes, and shelter. 

For the mother who cares for the children's 

needs. 

For loving brothers and sisters who help each 

other. 

For the kindergarten that helps the children to 

make the home brighter. 

For what the City gives us. 
Police to protect us. 
School doctors to look after our health. 
Firemen to keep our homes from being burned. 
Schools to give us an education. 
Lights for our dark streets. 
Parks in which to play. 
Notes. 

Shall teach them verses from some of the 
Psalms of Thanksgiving. 

Shall bring in specimens of fruits, vegeta- 
bles, etc. 

Shall pop corn on the Kindergarten stove and 
make a jack-o'-lantern from a pumpkin. 

Shall give each child a little flag. 

Shall have sCme toy animals as well as pictures 
when we talk about the sheep, turkeys, etc. 

Shall show specimens of raw cotton and wool. 

Shall not go into the manufacturing of anything. 

Shall not talk about the history of Thanksgiving 
Day. 

Central object of interest for November — a doll's 
house to be furnished by the children. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



PLAN FOR NOVEMBER. 
Lydia B. Franke. 

During November one underlying thought will 
be thankfulness — our many blessings. We will take 
up "For the fruit upon the tree" very simply, line 
by line, devoting to it just a very few minutes 
each day. 

We have planned to lay out a farm with house, 
barn, chicken-coop, pigeon house, dog kennel and 
duck pond, and hope to have a horse, cow, dog, 
flock of sheep, chickens and ducks. 

After speaking of the farmer and his tools and 
work, the farm and its products and creatures, we 
will take up the miller and baker. We will finish 
with "The First Thanksgiving," told as a story, and 
a little Thanksgiving feast of which a special feature 
will be apple sauce or some little thing cooked on 
the gas stove by the children. 

Our fingers will be busy making barn, chicken- 
coop, kennel, etc., of stiff paper or cardboard, cutting 
out fences, modeling fruit and vegetables, fringing 
doilies and cutting out plates for our little feast. 
We will paint our barns and some of the vegetables, 
draw and cut out tools, etc. 

Gifts — Fifth (principally) building farm house, 
barn, etc. 

Sticks — To represent fences, tools, etc. 

Occupation — Folding, cutting and paintings — 
(fruits and vegetables). 

Our special object of interest will be' our farm 
and the inside of a barn (an old soap box) with bins 
and bags for corn and grain, clay barrels of apples 
and vegetables, stall for horse, tools In a corner, etc. 

PREVIEW OF NOVEMBER'S PROGRAM. 

Helen Van Atta. 

After considering the preparation for winter 
made by the family in the home, and the pet ani- 
mals (the dog, the cat, and the canary), we talked 
about the migration of the summer birds, learned 
the song and talked of the birds that do not go. 
Following this we took walks to the Park to observe 
the deserted nests, the condition of the trees in their 
preparation for their winter sleep, the ripened and 
falling leaves and the formation of buds for next 
year's growth. The talks were based on observa- 
tions and further impressed by songs, stories, games, 
pictures and occupations. 

This month we will continue our talks on the 
general subject of "Preparation for the Coming Cold 
Weather" by beginning with the preparation as seen 
in the storing up of resources by plants, animals, and 
man. The squirrel will be the central object of in- 
terest for some little time. His home, his store of 
nuts gathered and hidden away for the long, cold 
winter; his difficulty in finding food when snow is 
on the ground, his heavy fur coat which protects 
him, etc., will be some of the topics of interest to 
the children. A stuffed squirrel will be enjoyed if 
a live one cannot be obtained. 

The farmer and his harvest time will follow. 
The gathering and storing of fruits, grains and veg- 
etables. The transportation in boxes, barrels, etc., 
by means of wagons, boats, and railroads. 

The farmer's share in our Thanksgiving dinner. 

Thanksgiving, the holiday when lather is at 
home, and all dine together. Have the children 
express feeling of gratitude by giving them an oppor- 
tunity to make some one else happy by giving or 
making something for some one. 

I. A few of the stories will be: 

"A Nutting Party" Child World Magazine 

"A Thanksgiving Story" Kgn. Mag., Nov., '92 
Anecdotes or true stories observed and re-told. 

II. Songs and Games: 

1. The Squirrel Poulsson, Smith II 



2. How the Corn Grew 

3. The Orchard 

4. The Train 

5. The Wind 

6. The Pony 

7. Over the River 

8. Thanksgiving Song 

9. Sense Games 

III. Nature Materials: 



55 

Poulsson 
Manuscript 

Manuscript 
Dozen and Two 

Song Echoes 



iv.Ua.: 



etc. 
pump- 



iruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, 
i>ox aeilt wotu country contiximi 

lull, coin auu oliier vegeia.ui.eo. 
11 possible, a reui squirrel or rabbit will be 

gotten. 

IV. Constructive work in audition to progressive 
v/oiK. vvitn gilts auu occupations: 

Wont witn paper auu paste-board illustrating 
tne preparation ior TnanKSgiviug amner. 

V. Thanksgiving Party: 

x-iates, napkins and rings made by tne chil- 
dren, corn popped, JacK-o -lanterns ior real 
lun at close or party. 

PREVIEW FOR NOVEMBER. 

Inez W. West. 

This month we are going to try to feel the spirit 
of "Thank you," to snow we nave it Dy actions as 
well as by words. We are going to know wny we 
siiould feel '"Thank you - ' lor tne farmer, miller, 
baker, carpenter, blacksmith, cobbler, miner, and 
tnus to ail others who are "working together" day by 
aay for us all. "No man liveth to nimseif alone. " 
Vv e each have our place. Children have eacn a place 
in the home, in the kindergarten. We are glad of 
our country, our great big home. We will sing 
"Thank you to God many times for his goodness. 
The first Thanksgiving was a "Thank you ' day to 
God for a plentiful harvest. The people at the first 
Thanksgiving remembered their neignbors, the In- 
dians. Many people like to remember others at this 
time now. "Be ye kind to one another." Perhaps 
we know of some one to heip to make a glad day for 
them, with fruit, vegetables, even a flower does 
much good. Cultivate the spirit of giving. Scatter 
kind words, smiles, do helpful errands. Give our- 
selves in many little ways to make some one else 
happy. Thus we will lead on to the December 
thoughts of toys, Santa Claus, the Christ Child — the 
results of labor, care, thought, and love for the chil- 
dren. "Freely ye have received, freely give." 



THE MOTHER IN THE HOME. 

Bertha Johnston. 

THE ideas suggested for the last number 
centered in part around the baby. We 
will next think of the other members, 
which are important parts of the family whole, 
beginning with the mother, for "many make 
the household, but only one the home." We 
want to think not only of the many things that 
mother does for us, but also of some of the 
things which we may do for her. 

In many households, mother must share in 
all of the home tasks — in others she does less 
of the actual work, but her maternal care is 
shown, none the less, in the wise nurture she 
gives to her children. 

Suppose we follow a sequence with the 
gifts, with the mother-of-all work in mind. 

With the third, fourth, fifth or sixth gift 
depending upon the experience and skill of the 



56 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



group, start off, with home which shelters the 
family, i. e., the gift as a whole. 2. Transform 
this into the stove at which mother cooks the 
breakfast and on which she heats her irons. 
3. Make the table which she sets ready for 
breakfast for her hungry family. 4. After 
breakfast, mother may need to wash the chil- 
dren's clothes — make, then from the table, 4, 
the two tubs of the city house, or the wash- 
bench of the country house. 5. Is the sewing- 
machine with which mother makes the clothes 
for her active little ones. 

Let the kindergartners make these forms 
with the blocks, and then she can, at the table, 
dictate or suggest according to the special 
needs of her children. But whatever the 
method employed, be sure that the spirit of 
quiet pleasure in the work is not absent. 

THE MOTHER AS BUYER. 

The Consumers' League holds that one of 
the most important functions exercised by the 
modern woman is that exhibited by her in the 
capacity of consumer or purchaser. The dis- 
penser of the family funds should know how 
to buy and where to buy with true economy. 
She should know good quality in meat, veget- 
ables, fruits, and in the fabric she buys, as in 
the ready-made garments. The League insists 
also, upon the Consumer's responsibility as to 
the conditions under which garments are made. 
She should buy, as far as is possible, those 
articles made by firms which pay their em- 
ployees at reasonable rates; treat them fairly, 
and afford sanitary shop conditions as to light, 
ventilation, etc. The facts unearthed by the 
Consumers' League strikingly exemplify Froe- 
bel's principle of interdependence. More than 
one case of scarlet fever in the homes of the 
wealthy has been traced to the handsome cloak 
or gown, which, in the making in a tenement 
home, was used to cover for a while a little 
tenement house patient. 

The aims of the Consumers' League and 
what it has thus far accomplished would form 
a suitable topic for discussion at a mothers' 
meeting. With the children, however, who 
love to play store, it will be sufficient to accom- 
pany mother in imagination, to the shop, the 
grocery, the clothing store, etc. — and think of 
how thoughtful she is in buying the pretty 
suits for Nellie or Max, or the good oatmeal 
or potatoes for the daily meal. Nearly all chil- 
dren of six and over have the actual experi- 
ence of being sent to the store on errands. 
Two of Froebel's Mother Plays are rich in 
suggestion for the kindergartner in regard to 
the educational opportunities offered in the 
shops. See the "Target" and the "Toy-Shop." 
But in carrying out the present line of thought 
it is the mother as purchaser which is to re- 
ceive most emphasis. 



First Gift- 
Mother is going to put up some plums, 
some green apples, etc., for winter use. 
Which of the balls will best represent the 
plums? Let one child be the mother and take 
another child to the end of the table where the 
balls are held in a basket, and go through the 
form of buying. With the youngest children 
this will be a good test of color knowledge. 
Let the children match the balls with their 
dresses or shirt-waists. Mother goes shopping 
and takes a green or a yellow car. Make cars 
of chairs and attach different balls. She buys 
a balloon for the baby. Which color? 

Second Gift — 

Build a grocery store (group-work) of the 
second Gift boxes, and arrange the cubes and 
cylinders as barrels, kegs, boxes, etc. Let the 
children tell which shape represents best the 
flour and apple barrel, the keg of white grapes, 
butter, cheese, etc. Which will do to repre- 
sent the box of crackers, tea, etc. ? What shall 
we play the balls represent? The apples and 
other fruits, potatoes, etc., on account of gen- 
eral resemblance in size, shape, etc., although 
somewhat disproportionate to size of flour bar- 
rel. On account of activity of balls, several 
could be hitched to boxes as grocer's horses, 
or could represent grocer's lively cat. 

Another day, the Second Gift Box can be 
turned into kitchen furnishings — the stove, the 
flour-roller, etc. Play that we cook the good 
things mother buys at the grocer's. The ball 
can represent the tea- ball with which she 
makes a good cup of tea. Use Second Gift 
beads for dishes. 

Tablets — ■ 

1. With tablets make the oil-cloth that 
mother buys for kitchen floor. 2. Arrange 
triangles, etc., in form of square or oblong, 
and then play cut out as cookies. Let circles 
reoresent pancakes or cookies, and have a fine 
time baking them on play stove. 
Sticks — 

Outline table, stove, etc. 

Beads — 

String beads to represent the cranberries, 
etc., with which mother decorates the house 
at Thanksgiving time, or the peppers, etc., 
hung up in the country attic to dry. 

Let the cylinders represent the jelly and 
canned goods mother puts up for winter use. 
Play putting up fruit with stove made of sec- 
ond, third or fourth Gift. 

If the children live in the country or the 
city; if they dwell in a mill district, or a can- 
ning or a farming or a dairy region, the given 
environment will suggest modifications of the 
above, and new lines of thought, all of which 
may center around the mother in the home. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



57 



With chairs, mark off a play-house corner 
where, with dollies, the home life may be dra- 
matized. If the kindergarten possesses a doll- 
house screen, so much the better. 

OCCUPATIONS. 

Clay. 

Model vegetables mother prepares for the 
immediate meal or uses in preserving. 

Model dishes, plates, cups, saucers, used in 
the home. Set the third or fourth Gift table 
with such little dishes. 

Card-board. 

Cut out, fold and paste a box measuring 
about 3x2x1 inches. Turn upside down and 
make into a stove, by cutting a hole in the 
top for a stove pipe, into which insert a roll 
of paper, as the pipe itself. Cut openings for 
oven door and grate. Color black and paste 
black parquetry circles on for lids. 

Take an oblong 4x2 inches. Let the chil- 
dren experiment, cutting into it from the nar- 
row ends, two slits, leaving narrow pieces 
which may be bent down into legs. The pro- 
jecting ends may be called the leaves of the 
table. It may take several attempts to get 
them to approximate in length, but therein lies 
the value of the lesson. After a table is made, 
let the children play with it, or they may 
make chairs to place around it. Make the 
chairs by slightly modifying the proportions 
of the table, and cutting off one leaf, while 
turning up the other for a back. 

As many mothers must wash and iron the 
children's clothes, the wash-tub may be made 
of the stiff paper cut into shape and pasted to 
a circle as a base. If you have not made such 
a little tub when in training, it may require a 
little experimentation to make the part repre- 
senting the staves, of just the right curve, so 
that it will incline from top to bottom as wash- 
tubs do. Little children may not be able to do 
this, so that the teacher may need to make a 
model outline. After the strip for the upper 
part is cut out, bend it up from the bottom 
edge about % inch. Cut this bent edge into 
many narrow slits, bend them up so that they 
may overlap, if necessary, and paste to the 
circle which is to form the bottom of the tub. 
Make the little tub more realistic by cutting 
handles into it. 

Wash-board — 

Take a small piece of corrugated card- 
board for the zinc part, and paste it upon a 
cardboard frame. Get a real washboard for a 
model and let the children work out their own 
little toy copies. 

Cutting, I. — 

1. Cut out paper dolls. 

2. Cut out the clothes that mother washes 
and irons-r-st«ekings, skirts, etc. ; attach to 
line which may be fastened t© four-inch sticks 
and inserted in sa»d box. 



3. Take tissue paper, cut into oblongs 
about the size of a lace collar, fold this piece 
several times and cut from it tiny oblongs, 
triangles, etc., to give a lacy effect. Open out 
and take home to mother for a play collar. 
Some unsympathetic or un-understanding pa- 
rents may be inclined to treat with scorn such 
an offering from tiny fingers — hence it may be 
wise, in mothers' meetings, to suggest that 
when a child does take home such a piece of 
his handiwork, some words of appreciation arc 
in order for the effort implied. If, in this case, 
the mothers are likely to be unimaginative, let 
the children speak of the result as a pattern 
for a collar, and in playing house or visiting 
thev can don them. Compare results and lead 
the children to see the effect of repetition and 
symmetry and balance in design. 

Fold and cut out a square of one color, 
and paste the result, if pleasing, upon one of 
a harmonious tone for a rug for the doll-house ; 
or an oblong can be made, as a stenciled effect 
for the wall of. the doll-house sewing-room, 
where the mother spends so many hours. 

Play going to store to look at different 
rugs, stockings, shirts, etc. (cut out by chil- 
dren) which we may wish to buy. 

Cutting, II. — 

Make other rug designs for mothers' in- 
spection by folding squares of paper, cutting 
off angles, etc., and then re-arranging the cut- 
off corners around the central body, pasting 
them thus when a pleasing effect has been 
obtained. 

Weaving — 

Rugs can be made for doll-house of the 
paper weaving, as well as the oilcloth weav- 
ing. Also a coverlet, to put over mother when 
she takes a nap. 

Folding — 

Fold shawl, table cloth, cup and saucer, 
etc., chair, sofa, wash bench, etc. 

Fold and paste several little books, for doll- 
house, emphasizing how mother tells stories 
and reads to children. 

Songs — 

In the Hubbard Song Book is a song which 
although it really describes how the children 
help in the home, is appropriate here. The 
refrain runs, "We little children are busy, yes, 
there is work for us all." 

The Patty Hill book has a good sewing 
machine song. 

Games and Plays — 

Some table plays have been suggested. On 
the circle, part of the kindergarten room can 
be arranged with chairs as the store, and 
mother can take a long, weary trolley ride to 
buy necessaries for the home. On her arrival 
home let one child offer a chair, while another 



58 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



gets an imaginary cup of tea, to refresh her. 
Such little plays will help the child to realize 
a little the desirable reaction between parent 
and child. He will probably not remember to 
always do the thoughtful things at home, but 
by dramatizing it thus simply, some impres- 
sion is made upon the child heart. 



THE CLOCK. 

Bertha Johnston. 



At this beginning session of the school year 
many kindergartners find it advisable to devote a 
little time to the Clock, the Tick-Tack Mother Play, 
to give the little ones some slight appreciation of the 
importance of punctuality, of being in kindergarten 
promptly in order that no time be wasted, but every- 
thing be done at the right moment, here, as at home. 

In the circle talk the children can be helped to 
see that health, and happiness and efficiency depend 
largely upon the regularity of the hours for sleeping, 
eating, working, playing. How does a child feel the 
day after he has been up very late? If he eats candy 
and cakes, or even much good bread and butter be- 
tween meals, does he have a good appetite for the 
wholesome meat and potatoes of the regular meal? 
If he plays when he should be working or studying, 
what are the results upon himself and others; or if 
he postpones the errand upon which mother sent 
him and doesn't bring back the yeast or the flour 
or the eggs at the right time? If he is late at 
kindergarten, does it affect only himself? 

THE CLOCK. 

How do the birds and animals know when to go 
to bed or get up? Sunrise and sunset. How does 
the farmer know when to plant or reap? Signs of 
the seasons. 

Is there, in kindergarten or home, anything 
which helps us know when is the time to do cer- 
tain things? 

Talk about the kindergarten clock. The im- 
portant features are, of course, the face, with the 
dial figures and the hands; and, with many clocks 
the visible, swinging pendulum, which charms the 
child, as does the regular "tick, tock" of the clock's 
voice. 

What does the kindergarten clock tell us? When 
to go to the circle, when to go to the table, etc. 

In order to give special help for special needs, 
many different kinds of clocks have been invented. 
Talk over the particular characteristics of the alarm 
clock, the cuckoo clock, the great church clock, or 
that of the town hall; the large, stately hall clock, 
the serviceable kitchen clock, the dainty parlor clock, 
and the little pocket clock called a watch. 

Do we always need to look at the clock to tell 
the time? No. many or most clocks have a bell at- 
tachment which every hour, or at even more frequent 
intervals, will strike and tell the time. Indeed, the 
name "clock" comes from a word which means 
"bell." Some clocks will have chimes and others 
call out "cuckoo, cuckoo," to please the little chil- 
dren. 

PLAYS. 

We can play go to the store to buy a clock and 
let the children represent in their own way the 
various kinds. See if we can guess the kind intend- 
ed. Some may not be going, others are, the pendu- 
lums swinging with great regularity. Ask the store- 
keeper to wind up the striking part and let a child 
guess the time by counting the strokes. Many ex- 
ercises in counting may properly be given at this 
time. 



out the morning. Let him sit by the teacher and 
when the time comes to go to, or leave the circle, 
to march to the tables, etc., let the teacher whisper 
to the clock, who will stand up and call "cuckoo, 
cuckoo," the children obeying the call. 

Or, make on the circle, on tough paper, the face 
of a clock, fasten it to the triangle, give in charge of 
one child, and at the special hour or half hour let 
him move the hands at a whispered suggestion, and 
then strike the triangle the required number of 
times. 

See Vol. XIX, page 13 (1906-7) Kindergarten 
Magazine for little poem-play, the cuckoo clock. 

Play elevator-starter in big office building or 
department store who times elevator boys. 

GIFTS. 

First— 

1. Have a rhythmic game, the children all 
swinging the balls in time, like pendulums. 

2. Play the balls are hopping, flying birds; if 
there is sunshine in the room let one child draw 
down the shade gradually, to represent sunset, and 
then let the birds nestle in the hands for a long 
night's sleep and rise again when the shade goes up. 

3. Play the balls are babies and sing them to 
sleep with some lullaby when sleepy time comes. 

4. Play train, and let one child stand at a giren 
place and hold up the green or the red ball to let 
the engineer know whether it is safe to pass, which 
will depend upon whether another train has been 
on time. 

Second Gift- 
Turn one box into a clock with the cubes and 
cylinder for frame and face, and the sphere for pen- 
dulum. Let the boxes of the other children be turned 
into train or trolley and one or two may be auto- 
mobiles. At a given time and place, the train has 
right of way and the other vehicles must wait till it 
passes. We will look at our watches to see if they 
agree with the clock, for we do not wish to miss 
a train. 

The Second Gift may also represent a boat which 
will leave dock just when the clock tells it to do so. 
Building Gifts. — These may be made into the town 
hall with its large clock that can be seen a long 
distance off. To the main building attach a tower 
upon which may be pasted a circle to represent the 
face. A sequence may be made of the third and 
fourth gifts, as follows, using the one on which the 
group of children are best qualified: 

1. The Gift as a whole is the home where 
dwells the family. 

2. Then, in turn, may be made the shelf and 
resting on it the alarm clock which awakens Father 
in the morning, so that he will not be late to busi- 
ness. Or the stove upon which mother cooks break- 
fact, looking at the clock as she puts on the oatmeal 
or potatoes. 

3. The tables around which sit the family at 
breakfast while the children keep a lookout on the 
clock as they wish to be early to kindergarten. 

4. Tne blocks may represent the children on 
the kindergarten circle. 

5. Transform them into the baby's bath-tub or 
cr.o, for while the older children are at kindergarten, 
at just the right time, mother gives baby its nap. 

6. The table at which the boys and girls study 
when study-hour comes; or the fence of the garden 
in which they rake or pick up leaves at the right 
time. 

8. The home again. 

Sticks — Outline the Roman figures of the clock 
face. 

NATURE. 

Speak of morning-glories and other flowers that 
have regular times for opening and closing; also of 



Let one child represent a cuckoo clock through- marvelous routine of day and seasons. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



59 



OCCUPATIONS. 

Cut from advertisements, pictures of clocks and 
watches. Let each child make a booklet illustrated 
with such pictures. 

Let each child have such a watch face and then 
paste it to a circle of cardboard to stiffen, and let 
him carry it and refer to it in play through the day. 
If a child is unnecessarily slow or unpunctual, re- 
mind him by referring him to his watch. 

Make a clock for doll-house by pasting a kinder- 
garten circle upon a fourth block. Stand upon doll- 
house mantel. 

Cut a circle of paper, and let the teacher draw 
upon it the dial figures in strong lines, which the 
children can prick in. Attach hands which are mov- 
able and suspend in window so that light will shine 
through pricking. 

Drawing — 

Draw pictures of clocks, of trains, etc. 
Folding — 

Looking up the geometric series, fold the irreg- 
ular pentagon which will give a form resembling a 
clock frame with a triangular top. Paste a circle 
here for clock face. Use in doll-house. The clock 
form may be made by folding tunnel and then fold- 
ing square into sixteen small squares; then, keeping 
two sides folded in, turn down upper corners so as 
to make apex at top. We will not give space for 
detailed dictation as kindergartner should know 
how to give that clearly and briefly. 

Having made folded square into sixteen smaller 
ones, by cutting away some of the squares the facade 
of a town-hall with its tower for clock will appear. 
This can be pasted on a card with a calendar be- 
neath, or doors can be cut into it and calendar 
placed inside. 

A Time sequence can be followed with life form 
series thus: (1) Salt-cellar used three time a day 
at meals. (2) Tadpole which we see usually at 
spring-time. (3) and (4) Birds which know by some 
mysterious way when it is time to fly away to other 
climes. (5) Table cloth all nicely folded ready for 
mother to use when she gives her five o'clock tea 
at which she uses, (6) her pretty tea-cup and saucer. 
1 1 ) Windmill which has no set time for working, 
but does so when the wind dictates and so can not 
be depended on. (8) Double boat which leaves dock 
just on time. 

Miscellaneous — 

Take any small cardboard box or make one. 
Paste on it face of clock. Just beneath face, cut 
out a sauare through which the pendulum should 
show. Make the pendulum by attaching second gift 
bead or a pea to a string and fastening inside of box. 
.An alarm clock form for bedroom mantel can be 
made by pasting against a stiff circle a straight, 
narrow piece to serve as a grace. Put on mantel 
piece made when using sequence of fourth gift. 

Story- 
Let the kindergartner read the beautiful story by 
Thomas K. Beecher called "Keeping Time with the 
Stars." It is published in a miscellaneous collection 
of stories which he wrote for his Sunday school. 
He had in charge the windinsr and setting of the 
town clock of Elmira, N. Y., for many years. 

See "True Story of a Family Clock" in back 
number of Kindergarten Magazine. 



DRAWING, CUTTING. PAPER FOLD- 
ING AND PAPER TEARING FOR 

NOVEMBER 
LILEON CLAXTON. 

This is the month that Is full of historic connec- 
tions for the grades and local interests for the 



younger children; a month when we stop to think 
of the gift and the Giver; a time when we realize 
to whom our gratitude is due. Any formal ex- 
pression of thankfulness will not bring about the 
desired feelings. It is by bringing before the minds 
of the children their possessions and helpers that 
thankfulness springs up. This is a time when not 
only the farmer may be made an object of interest 
but the city children have helpers in the police- 
men, etc. Any such helper may be appropriately 



Pilgrim hub 





Indian 
■a-nd. 

pottevy 




TurHey 




""^P* Goose 



introduced into the November program. The post- 
man, however, is so naturally connected with val- 
entines that he may easily be kept till February. 

There is a great temptation to crowd the his- 
toric interests down into the kindergarten and 
lower grades because of the historic associations of 
this month. This, however, must be avoided. The 
month presents sufficient topics to the beginners 
without infringing on the work of later years and 
the oft-repeated complaint that the children are 
tired of Hiawatha and the May flower long before 
they reach the age of understanding, much of that 
work will not continue to be heard from the teach- 
ers of more advanced work. The little children 
are quite content to talk about the turkey and the 
pumpkin pies and leave the Pilgrim Fathers to 
their own devices and the grown ups. 

The animal life around which our interest cen- 
ters this month is the turkey primarily — incident- 
ally, the duck and goose. Some suggestions for the 
work in different lines follow: 
DRAWING 

1. Pilgrim huts. 

2. Pilgrim church. 

3. Pilgrim furniture. 

4. May flower. 

5. Indian wigwam. 

6. Bows and arrows. 



60 KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 

Vegetables _ C-a-noe 



Cavot 




7. Indian pottery. 

8. Turkey. 

9. Duck. 

10. Goose. 

11. Book Cover — Basket of vegetables . 

FREE DRAWING 

1. Farm animals in their houses. 

2. Barnyard scenes. 

3. Bins full of vegetables. 

4. Barrels of apples. 

5. Policemen at daily duties, such as helping 
folks across the street, taking lost child home, 
stopping a fast horse. 

6. Mayflower leaving England. 

7. Mayflower landing at Plymouth rock. 

8. Building of village. 

9. Indian life. 

PRACTICE DRAWING 
Cornfield with pumpkins in it. 
Vegetables. 

CUTTING 

1. May flower. 

2. Small boats. 

3. Wigwams. 

4. Canoes. 

5. Policeman's hat, gloves, stick. 

6. Vegetables — onion. 

potato, 
carrot. 

7. Illustrate stories. 

8. Cutting to the line as in previous month. 
Magazine pictures should be greatly improved by 
this time. The children should be able to cut 
straight-edge pictures true. 

9. Some simple combination of objects on one 
base might be attempted toward the end of this 
month. 



DRAWING AND CUTTING 



1. 


Pumpkin pie 


2. 


Ear of corn. 


3. 


Onion. 


4. 


Radish. 


5. 


Carrot. 


6. 


Turnip. 


7. 


Potato. 


8. 


Policeman. 



FOLDING AND CUTTING 



(Box 



1. Bins to store things for the winter. 
form). 

3. Poultry house; same foundation as de- 
scribed in previous article. Draw large windows. 

4. Folding and cutting for flower patterns of 
unique design might be introduced in November to 
prepare for snow flake work of the winter months. 
The work could be done by simply folding the book 
form and then folding the bottom of the closed 
book to the top of book and cutting off the open 
corners. 

5. Cutting strips for chains should have 
reached a pretty good standard. Some of the best 
might be saved for Christmas tree decorations. 

Mats and fringe. 

Simple vegetables — potato, onion. 

For tearing a mat a good size sheet of manilla 
paper should be selected; fold through one diame- 
ter; tear through the middle beginning at the fold. 
This leaves two portions held together only by a 
border, which is proportionate to the size of the 
mat. Tear each half as before. Tear each quarter. 
This will probably give the desired width. Care 
should be taken in tearing the strips to be woven 
into this mat that they are the same width as the 
strips in the mat. Colored strips are more desirable 
than manilla. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 




A FEW SUGGESTIONS FOR NO? 
VEMBER. 

N kindergarten, the central 
thought for November is that 
of a Thanksgiving, and the 
work of the preceding months 
has led little by little to Thanksgiving Day 
as a climax. 

It is to be doubted if the children of kin- 
dergarten age gather any very definite im- 
pressions when the story of the Puritans 
is told to them. And, indeed, the appoint- 
ment of a uniform day of Thanksgiving 
thoroughout our country is of recent origin. 
Until comparatively recently each state had 
its own particular day of harvest celebra- 
tion. 

But the children of all grades, especially 
those in the rural districts, can be led to see 
that, after the hay and corn and buckwheat 
and barley; the apples, and pumpkins and 
potatoes have been safely harvested by the 
farmer, and the peas and beans and fruits 
preserved by the housewife, it is quite 
natural for those who have toiled all sum- 
mer in field and orchard to be happy and 
grateful when the fruits of their labors are 
stored in barn and bin and they are certain 
of food during the winter. 

The city people may not at first thought 
be able to appreciate all of the bounties of 
Nature which man's labor has developed, 
but if the children try to think of the condi- 
tion of things during the terrible blizzard in 
New York many years ago, when for three 
days no trains could reach the city and even 
the stores of condensed milk ran low, they 
may be helped to realize that we have many 
things for which to be grateful. 

Let the children be told that all people in 
all countries have been accustomed to 
gather at the season of the ingathering of 
the crops to celebrate the harvest with song 
and dance and hymn of praise. 

The children in the grades may be told 
stories of the Puritans, their high purpose 
in seeking a new land, their hard winter, 
their sufferings, and their deep gratitude 
for what to us today may seem very meagre 
blessings. School histories will supply the 
details. The story told at the end of this 
article may be related to any grade. 

The kindergartner believes that, however 
unattractive in appearance or conduct, how- 
ever contrary or mischievous or malicious, 
a child may be, for a time, each one, never- 



theless, has in him the seeds of the Divine 
and it is her privilege to search for and dis- 
cover all of the sweet and natural and 
wholesome qualities of childhood, to elimin- 
ate the bad and to overcome evil with good. 
She is the Luther Burbank of the child-gar- 
den who can develop from the thistles 
of child-nature most unexpected fruits of 
lovableness, goodwill and self-control. 

Practical Suggestions. 

The rural teacher may be obliged to leave 
some of the little folks to their own devices 
while she is engaged with other classes. 
Perhaps she may make use of the following 
little plays: 

First Gift Ball. 

A circle game which the children love is 
called the quiet game. One child stands in 
the center of a circle of children and 
beckons to a little playmate who softly tip- 
toes to the center without saying a word 
and in her turn beckons silently to another, 
and so on until a change of play is desired. 
The children of the country schools might 
be trained to play such a game quietly, thus 
learning self-control, consideration for 
others, etc. It could be modified by having 
one child in the center hold up a ball, and 
then the child in the circle who holds one 
of corresponding color goes up to match it 
and if correct, takes the center place. She 
in turn holds up in dumb show another ball. 
The corresponding one is held up by the 
child who has it in his hands. If a child 
makes a mistake in matching, the other 
children must indicate it by shaking their 
heads vigorously. Before letting the chil- 
dren play such a game by themselves it 
might be necessary to play it several times 
under the teacher's direction. It could be 
varied as the children gain in knowledge of 
color by exhibiting the ball and letting the 
children hold up fruit or pieces of silk or 
cotton fabric which resembles the ball most 
in color. 

Second Gift. 

In country schools and kindergartens the 
Second Gift may be turned to account as 
the hay wagon, with the spheres for horses 
or the cubes for lumbering but useful oxen. 
Or the cubes of all of the children may be 
taken to build the large general barn into 
which the fruits of field and orchard are to 
be kept. In those parts of the country 
where machinery is used in harvesting a 



62 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



derrick crane or a threshing machine may 
be formed by an ingenious teacher. Some 
mechanical genius amongst the older boys 
may be called upon to help. 

If there is a sandbox in the room let the 
children talk over the need of good roads 
and some of the important things necessary 
in the making of good roads. The farmer 
needs smooth, well-graded roads in order 
to carry his product to market. A really 
good road is higher in the middle than on 
the sides to allow for drainage. The prob- 
lem of road-making is different in different 
localities. Rocky soil, sandy soil, clay soil, 
stony soil, each presents its own problem. 

Let the children make good roads in the 
sandbox, and try to solve different prob- 
lems. In some cases the ingenious ones 
may wish to try to rig up stone-breaking 
machinery with the Second Gift. 

Third and Fourth Gifts. 

Build the barns in which the grain and 
hay are stored. Make the hay wagon of a 
few of the blocks using others for the 
horses. Make the fences around the 
meadows which keep the cows in and the 
savage creatures out. See the "Mother 
Plays" of the "Garden Gate." Make also 
the watering trough. Do the animals feel 
glad and grateful for the cooling water thus 
provided? Perhaps a pump can be built or 
a well by such children as are familiar with 
them. 

With the Fifth and Sixth Gifts. 

Build the house which shelters the family. 
See the Mother Plays of the Carpenter. 
Are we grateful for our comfortable homes? 
Build the church to which we go to express 
our gratitude. Build the schoolhouse for 
which also we are grateful. 

Make the railway station and the trains 
which bear the produce, the hay and the 
milk and the potatoes to the cities and 
which carry the people who wish to revisit 
on Thanksgiving Day their old homes. 

Tablets. 

With the tablets form designs for stained 
glass windows or for the oilcloth or wall- 
paper with which the home is to be deco- 
rated. 

Tell how in the old days very often the 
clean white floor of the kitchen would be 
covered with sand and then a design made 
upon this with the broom. 

Make the sidewalk on either side of the 



road. Be sure that the paving-stones are 
placed closely together. Ask the children 
how the stones look in their own streets. 
Do they think that the men who laid them 
did it well? Did they take pains with their 
work, or was the foundation so poorly laid 
that the stones have sunk irregularly and 
have cracked. Children enjoy trying to 
step from one crack in a pavement to the 
other so after the stones are laid upon the 
table let them step from crack to crack with 
their fingers, making a little play of it. 
There can be a little counting lesson, count- 
ing both the stones laid and the number of 
cracks. Sometimes sidewalks are made of 
stones placed in a pattern. Let the children 
make such, of the tablets. 

Sticks. 

Let the children outline the house, barn, 
etc. Select all the sticks of one size and lay 
at the side of an imaginary railroad ready 
to be laid as ties. 

If the rural school teacher has no kin- 
dergarten sticks she may be able to prevail 
upon some of the older boys to cut burnt 
matches into one-inch and two-inch lengths 
for the use of the little people, or twigs can 
be taken from trees and cut into one-inch, 
two-inch, three-inch and four-inch lengths. 

Kindergarten Occupations. 

Clay. 

Model the various kinds of fruits and 
vegetables which are of simple form. The 
rural teacher can put a potato, carrot, onion, 
etc., before the child for busy work and let 
him form them, and set aside to show to 
her when she has finished with the par- 
ticular class she may have in hand. 

Give the child a squash seed, and a 
cucumber seed. Let him model several of 
each. Then let him make an oblong 
placque measuring y 2 inch high and 2x3 
inches in length and place upon this a series 
of the seed models }4 inch apart, as a 
design. 

Model the horse and oxen that have help- 
ed the farmer with his ploughing and reap- 
ing and the dog that has helped the shep- 
herd guard his sheep. 

Cardboard Modeling. 

Make small boxes to hold various kinds 
of seeds which may be gathered in the fall 
days. Save the seeds for spring planting. 
Make the boxes by cutting out of thin card- 
board or stiff paper an oblong measuring 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



63 



4x4 inches. Fold this square into 16 
smaller squares, thus : Fold the front edge 
to the back edge and crease. Open out and 
a crease will be seen bisecting the square 
from left to right. Fold the front edge till 
it coincides with this crease. Open. Fold 
the back edge so that it coincides with the 
middle crease. Open. Fold the left edge 
over till it exactly meets the right edge. 
Open. A crease will be seen bisecting the 
paper from back to front. Fold the left and 
the right edges respectively so that each 
coincides with the central crease. Open 
and the square will be found divided into 
16 small squares thus: 



1 ~\ ! 

i ! i 

; 1 — .—-v 

, •» ; t 1 



From two opposite sides of the square 
cut two slits one inch long, one inch from 
the sides. See plain lines. This will make 
four flaps. Bend up four sides one inch 
deep to form the sides of the box and bend 
and paste the flaps to make the sides firm. 

With such a box as a basis, but longer in 
proportion to the width wagons may be 
made for the carrying of the hay of the toy 
farm. Seeds also may form a part of the 
miniature load. Wheels may be of milk- 
bottle tops, or may be cut from stiff card- 
board. Fasten to body of the wagon with 
paste. Let the children play with these in 
the sand box. 

Nature. 

Gather seeds of small fruits of different 
kinds, melon, apple, rose-haws, cran- 
berries, etc., and string for decorations for 
room. Save till Thanksgiving Day and take 
home. Alternate the seeds, one kind with 
another, and also with straws, cut into one 
inch lengths. Dried corn alternates prettily 
with straws or cranberries. This gives 
practice in counting and in design. 

Collect leaves and let the children press 
and mount them on cards which can after- 
wards be made into booklets. 

Copy the leaves in pencil, in water color 
and in clay. Notice how those on one tree 
will vary in form and color, and get in what 



particulars those of one tree resemble each 
other. 

Give each of a circle of children, a dif- 
ferent kind of leaf. Let one child stand in 
the center of the circle and hold up one leaf 
in plain view; then the child in the circle 
who holds the companion leaf must hold it 
up and give its name. Modify this game by 
substituting nuts, fruit, seeds, etc., for the 
leaf. 

A Lemon, Apple, Orange, Pear, etc. 

Place a row of fruit, a lemon, apple, 
orange, pear, etc., on the table or floor. 
Let a child observe the row and then cover 
his eyes while another child removes one 
piece of fruit. The first child looks again 
and tells which kind of fruit is missing. 

In the sand of the sand box stick a num- 
ber of twigs, letting them appear about Yi 
inch above the sand. Hide also an apple 
and a pear letting the stems stick out half 
an inch. Let the children try to find the 
fruit from what they see of the stems. 

Paper-Cutting. 

Place a row of different kinds of fruit 
where it is in plain view and let each child 
cut free-hand a copy of one piece and see 
if the other children can tell what it is. 
These may afterwards be colored in chalk 
or water-color and used for place cards for 
Thanksgiving dinner. 

Cut turkey, cow, horse, every animal 
that helps make Thanksgiving. These may 
be used in playing with the gifts or with 
the sand box. 



Postal Cards. 



Souvenir postal cards, can be used with much 
profit by kindergarteners, primary and rural 
teachers. To illustrate: where local views have 
been issued, make a collection with the aid of the 
pupils and arrange on sheets of mounting board 
in groups; for instance, place the views of 
churches, public buildings, factories, stores, resi- 
dences, business streets, etc., each together. Let 
the pupils talk or write about the pictures, short 
sentences such as, "we go to this church;" "that is 
the library where I get my books;" "my father 
works in that factory;" "we buy our groceries at 
this store;" "our house is on this street," etc. 
Then tell short stories about, for instance, what 
churches, libraries, factories, stores, etc., are for, 
and tell about the use of court houses, jails, etc.; 
ask pupils to observe if the picture looks like the 
object represented. If any views are not recog- 
nized explain location, etc., and ask pupils when 
passing to observe whether the picture looks like 
the object intended to be represented. 




GAMES, PLAYS, STORIES 

RECITATIONS, MEMORY GEMS, ETC. 




THE FOLK GAME IN EDUCATION. 

MARIE RUEF HOFER, Columbia University. 

HE recent congress of the 
Playground Association of 
; : £j(£ America held in New York 
City revealed not only a 
substantial interest in the municipal and 
constructive features of the playground, of 
securing and equipping the same for city 
and country, but a very lively interest in 
what and how children shall play. This 
was shown in all the papers read and in the 
serious work of all the committees. Par- 
ticularly was the dramatic element of play, 
in folk games and dances and festivals, em- 
phasized. This was climaxed in the various 
exhibitions of games given for the benefit 
for those who attended the Congress. 
These exhibitions given on the green back 
of the Metropolitan Museum, the Van 
Cortland Park festival, and in a festival of 
free play and simple village games and 
dances given under the forbidding arches 
of the Brooklyn bridge. In each instance 
was the new tendency to freer dramatic ex- 
pression in folk games and dances shown, 
often carrying out the picturesque national 
effect by touches of characteristic color and 
costume. In the rendering of these games 
and dances by the representative children 
of all nations, such as can only be seen on 
our American shores was extremely sug- 
gestive material for reflection. Has the 
folk game come to stay? Is it an intrinsic 
element in our future educational life? 
What is its significance and place. 

The folk game in the kindergarten has 
thus far been viewed with considerable sus- 
picion, as a possible disturbing element to 
Froebelian principles. While all material 
of this kind requires explanation and ad- 
justment to the needs of little children, the 
more liberal worker would enter a protest 
against this continual fear of rudely jostling 
the Froebelian ideal from its pedestal. 

As read without prejudice Froebel's 
world was preemently God's world, with 
the emphasis laid on God. The earth, the 
air, the sea and all that in them is of life, 
and significance to the child, was his motto. 
The equal, happy, philosophical distribu- 



tion of these elements plus human spiritual 
vision, over the kindergarten program is 
surely the aim of every well trained kin- 
dergartner. The view point, it is, that 
brings the curse or approval of the gods. 
If the enthusiastic kindergartner be strong- 
ly inclined to Nature, or to rhythm or to 
art, her program will surely veer that way, 
and her children will best do that which 
is backed by this same enthusiasm. Cir- 
cumstances and environment may also 
point her sails. If the factory be the life 
pulse of her neighborhood, industrial in- 
terpretations must result, and her ingenuity 
will be taxed in breaking wholesome paths 
into the outer world of nature and art. If 
she be in love with the potato to the extent 
of seeing world relationships in the tuber, 
(this, it seems, was Froebel's peculiar 
talent, to read deeply into common things) 
she is to be congratulated instead of criti- 
cized on having "truly caught the spirit." 
There may be gross errors in judgment in 
this converting world forces into pedagogi- 
cal pabulum, but we are convinced from 
previous observation that our earth ball 
will not be jarred off its axis thereby, but 
will roll calmly onward in its course with- 
out material disturbance. 

In following the evolution of plays and 
games for a decade and more the writer 
wishes to put herself on record, that in the 
active experience of investigating and test- 
ing phase after phase of this evolution of 
play material, from the formal, prosaic 
representative game of the past, through 
Delsaritan bird flight, rhythmic mazes, 
often dangerously exaggerated, no more 
wholesome heresy has penetrated kinder- 
gartenism than the folk game and dance. 

In the first place it proves Froebel's his- 
toric attitude, both as regards play as a 
racial product and his games to be not a 
mere fantasy of the brain, but a funda- 
mental life product. All the so called 
original Froebelian games were those of the 
folk about him, as lie frankly tells us, and 
their subjects are old in the world order of 
events. Self activity inducing self-evolution 
through playful movements, social games 
drawn from world courtesies and ameni- 
ties; industrial episodes, racial experiences 
re-enacted; civic and national events 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



«5 



dramatized, social eminations crystalized 
in holidays and festivals. 

Contrary to popular belief Froebel did 
not invent the Knights. They lived in 
every castle and stronghold of his country- 
side, and their histories were scattered 
plentifully about in the plays of the German 
children. The magic ring made sacred by 
centuries of religious and festal traditions 
of the Germans found its rightful reincar- 
nation in the Kindergarten circle. "Would 
you know how doth the Farmer" has its 
familiar counterpart in every country, in- 
trinsically dear because wrought from the 
texture of native custom. 

Whether we stamp the harvest dance of 
the Russians or gracefully pantomine the 
"Avoine" of the French matters little. 
What a tribute to the fundamental qualities 
of Froebel's educational interpretations 
that he strikes not a shallow vein but a deep 
seam of genuine ore that makes real kinder- 
garten principles a binding unity in the 
world. Why should an Americanized kin- 
dergarten interpretation set the pattern for 
the whole world? Is not the next step in 
our national evolution the recognition of a 
common unity and the life of all countries 
and peoples its best illustration. Is not the 
present inundation of folk love of all kinds 
a significant pointing finger to a racial unifi- 
cation iminent in history and not a passing 
fad. The coming to our shores of the 
European peasant is not in vain if in con- 
tributing his traditions he reinforces this 
unity. The native gaiety and joyousness 
of his festivals may serve us for pasttime 
and recreation, but there is a deeper lesson 
to be learned which we gladly accept at his 
hands. If our next advance in education be 
a "progress backward" it is merely a 
straightening of girders, a tightning of bars 
and beams, a settling of foundations for the 
grander oncoming march of human 
progress. 

Educationally, the folk game represents 
to us the happy means by which we can 
study simple evolutionary processes, for 
which the kindergarten in the best sense 
stands. Whether this be in relation to 
physical development in the homely hop, 
stamp, spring, clap, by which we moderns 
can shake off nervous and eneamic tend- 
encies, or its outworking into group activi- 
ties of subject matter which makes up the 
bulk of kindergarten programs ; or an em- 
phasis of the dramatic element, shown in 
simple, forceful action in the expression of 



common human motives; or as the concrete 
representing of these in simple unities of 
time and space — form — it is all good. The 
only difficulty for the kindergartner will be 
where the dancing teacher and physical 
trainer, unacquainted with the thought 
connections of the kindergarten will use 
these plays and dramas as mere devices and 
fancy steps, with which to embellish the 
graces of their art. 

The following somewhat free interpreta- 
tion with additional experiences are offered 
in English. The first part of the game is 
played in a circle, the children joining hands 
and skipping first to the right and then to 
the left, acting out "clap their hands and 
sing." At "Who wants to know," children 
turn from side to side to their neighbors, 
bowing and asking question, once to each 
measure. Then marching forward they 
gesture with the right hand outward in 
sowing around the circle. Then all join 
hands and repeat, each time giving new 
activity. Mowing, grasp sythe and sweep 
inward. Binding, stoop and gather, twist, 
throw toward center. Flailing, grasp flail, 
throw backward over shoulder and front 
and down. Sifting, shake rapidly to and 
fro. Grinding, twisting of hands or arms. 
Stand with arms folded. 
The oats in the oat field the happy season 

brings. 
The farmer, the farmer he claps his hands 

and sings. 
Who wants to know, who wants to see, 
How we sow the grain so free. 
'Tis thus the farmer sows, as through the 

field he goes. Repeat. 
'Tis thus the farmer mows as through the 

field he goes. 
'Tis thus the farmer binds, as round and 

round he twines. 
'Tis thus the farmer beats his oats and rye 

and wheat. 
'Tis thus the farmer sifts as to and fro he 

shifts. 
'Tis thus the oats are ground as the wheels 

go round and round, 
'Tis thus the farmer rests when he has done 

his best. 



I hold in my memory bits of poetry learned in 
childhood, which have stood me in good stead 
through life in the struggle to keep true to just 
ideals of love and duty. — President Eliot. 



Everything that tends to develop the boy or 
girl into a desirable citizen is as much a part of 
the teacher's duties as to see that his problems in 
mathematics are correctly solved. 



66 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



A STORY FOR THANKSGIVING. 

How John Henry Borrowed Coals to Light the Fire. 
BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

Suppose you have been out at play till it 
grows very late and the rooms are quite 
dark as you go into your home, so that 
you cannot see to read in your favorite 
story-book what can be done to make the 
room bright and cheery? Yes, mama will 
perhaps take a match, scratch it upon the 
sand of the match-scratcher and — then 
what? Yes, she will possibly light the 
lamp or the gas and perhaps she may turn 
on the electricity. 

Perhaps again, it is a cold winter's day 
and you come into the room shivering from 
your last cold walk home from school. You 
come into the house and go straight to the 
open wood fire or to the radiator or to the 
large hospitable-looking stove. If the fire 
in the stove should go out during the night 
how would father, mama or the cook make 
a new one? Yes, she would place paper in 
the stove, then kindling-wood on top of 
that, and coals upon the sticks of wood and 
then — she would scratch a match, touch it 
to the paper and in a few moments the 
wood would be blazing and the coals also 
would catch fire. But suppose there were 
no matches in the house, or the neighbors 
had none, or the grocery store had run out 
or there were none to be had anywhere? 

I am going to tell you the story of a little 
boy and what he had to do one cold win- 
ter's day before men had ever thought of 
making the friction matches which we use 
now every day and think we could not get 
along without. 

It was the day before Thanksgiving and 
he had been thinking how good all the 
delicious meats and fruits and vegetables 
would taste which were to make the fine 
Thanksgiving dinner. Turkeys were to be 
roasted, and potatoes baked and squash 
boiled; the pumpkin and apple pies had 
been already made and the jellies and pre- 
served fruits were on the shelves in a fine 
array — and he and his brothers and sisters 
and the cousins who were to come in the 
morning, were to crack some of the nuts 
he had gathered in the bracing October 
days. And then they would gather round 
the large wood-fire and roast apples and 
chestnuts while uncle and auntie or grand- 
father would tell some splendid story of 
the Indians or sing some jolly song. Or 
some old-fashioned game would be played 
by the: young people while the old folk 



talked over times long past and good times 
to come. 

John Henry had been thinking for many, 
many days of the delightful holiday com- 
ing, and now — tomorrow it would really be 
here with all its fun and frolic. 

It was hard to go to sleep, thinking of 
all the fun of the morrow, but at last his 
eyes did close, and no sooner was he asleep 
than it seemed he heard his mother's voice 
calling to awaken him. "John Henry! .Oh, 
John Henry!" He sprang to his feet, 
although his room was cold, for there 
would be no long staying in bed on 
Thanksgiving Day. And then — what was 
it his mother was saying? — The fire had 
gone out? What, the fire out on Thanks- 
giving Day. No fire with which to roast 
the turkey, or bake the pudding, or boil 
the sweet potatoes ! No fire on Thanks- 
giving Day! 

John Henry was shivering with cold, but 
he was not thinking of that. 

What was that his mother was saying? 
He must dress quickly and go to neighbor 
Brownnell's half a mile away and borrow 
some coals. Thus only could the fire be 
re-lighted, for friction matches were little 
known at that time, and people who lived 
far from others were usually very careful 
to so fix the fire at night that it would keep 
until morning when it could easily be made 
to blaze, if desired. 

But the "hired girl" had been careless 
and the fire was out, and no flint or tinder 
box in the house to light another. 

So John Henry didn't spend much time 
in dressing. He took some cold breakfast, 
put on his high boots, and wrapped his 
muffler around his neck; put on the warm 
mittens his mother had knitted for him and 
started off to walk through the deep snow, 
half a mile to the neighbor's. He carried 
a kettle for holding the coals. 

It was a cold walk and the half mile 
seemed a long one, but at last he reached 
Mr. Brownnell's while the family were at 
breakfast. 

Mrs. Brownnell and the small boys and 
girls bustled around and made a place for 
John Henry at the table and he found that 
he was quite ready to eat a second break- 
fast of hot pancakes and maple syrup. 

Then Mr. Brownnell took some hot, live 
coals from the fire, put them in the kettle, 
covered them with just enough ashes to 
keep them from burning up before John 
Henry reached home, and showed the boy 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



6? 



just how to hold and swing the kettle so 
that the fire should not go out. 

Then John Henry started for home and 
the walk seemed even longer than before 
for the ten-year-old boy. Suppose the fire 
in the kettle should go out ! How care- 
fully he held it! How carefully he tried to 
swing so that there should be just enough 
draught to keep the coals alive. 

But at last the home on the hillside was 
reached and the coals were still glowing a 
deep, clear red when they were taken out, 
and carefully placed in the fireplace be- 
neath the huge log. Then they were care- 
fully fanned, and soon the log was blazing 
and fire could be carried from it into the 
kitchen by means of a long pine splinter 
split from a log in the wood pile. And soon 
the turkey was roasting and the potatoes 
baking and cauliflower boiling and the 
prospects of a good dinner were all that 
could be wished for, and John Henry and 
his family were thankful not only for food 
and shelter and clothing, but for fire as 
well — the fire that kept them warm, and 
cooked their meals and helped them in so 
many, many ways. 

THANKSGIVING STORY. 

Elizabeth G. Peene. 

ONCE upon a time, not very long ago, 
there lived down on Chriplie street, a 
little boy named Nathan. He went to 
kindergarten every day. He liked to work 
and play, but he remembers two days he liked 
better than all the rest. One was the day the 
children took their chairs out in the garden and 
had a party with chestnuts, and th eother was 
when the kindergarten had a Thanksgiving 
party with apples and white tissue paper table 
napkins, and sang their new Thanksgiving 
song: 

Oh, come, dear little children, come, 

Your grateful thanks to sing, 
For all the warm coats, mits and shoes 
Ere winter's storms begin. 

Nathan told his mama all about the fun 
when he went home and asked her if he 
could have a party in his house. He wanted 
to ask Hymen to come, and Rachel and Baby 
Mary. His mother said she would see. So 
early on Thanksgiving morning, Nathan 
jumped out of bed, dressed himself and ran in 
to ask his mother again if he could have the 
party. She said that when he had taken the 
peelings down to the garbage can, she would 
give him two pennies to buy apples for a party. 
You should have seen Nathan hurry. The 
dish of peelings was heavy, so he couldn't go 
downstairs very fast, but he ran all the way 
up again, — then ran to the back flat on the 



third floor and asked Hymen, Mary and 
Jxachel. lie ran to tne pusn cart and uougut 
lour apples, ran home again as last as lie 
could and began to get ready tor the party. 
j.i.e took a ciiair and stood it in tiie center ui 
tiie kitchen tor a table ; he took blocks ol wood 
and put them for chairs. He wanted a table 
clotb, but didn't know what to use, so his 
mother gave him clean wrapping paper. He 
covered the table and patted it nice and 
smooth. He was just going to cut the apples 
when a Knock was heard at the door. Natiian 
gave one jump, opened the door, and there 
stood Hymen, Kache and Mary, hand in hand, 
Uieir hair all wet and brushed so smooth, their 
faces clean, and baby Marv had a bright blue 
new dress. Nathan thought they looked so 
fine that he stood there saying, "Ah ! Ah I" 
instead of saying, "Come in. His mama in- 
vited them in and when thev saw all the little 
table ready for the party, they all said, "Ah! 
Ah!" and stood quite still. Nathan wanted 
them to have lots of fun, so he got his paper 
doll out for Mary, and she hugged it and didn't 
want to do anything but nurse it all the time. 
Hymen rolled his wagon up and down the 
kitchen, and Rachel took the picture book, but 
didn't say "Thank you." Nathan told her to 
say "Thank you." Soon everything was ready 
for the party. They sat up nice and straight 
on their stools, and Nathan showed them how 
to fold their hands, and he sang his kinder- 
garten Thanksgiving song for them. He 
passed them the apples and they smiled and 
laughed and giggled and talked and had such 
a fine time ! Baby Mary kept saying, "Thank 
you, thank you." They gave mama a piece of 
apple, and they gave Poll a piece, too, and 
they laughed at Polly, for she said, "Thank 
you." They gave doggie a piece, and he said, 
"Bow wow," which is "Thank you" for a dog. 
When they finished the party, they didn't want 
to go home. Mary hugged her dolly and kept 
whispering, "Thank you, thank you, thank 
you. Nathan and Hymen played lots of dif- 
ferent things, and Rachel looked at the boys 
and nursed babv Mary until their big sister 
came for them. When baby Mary was going 
to bed that night she was sleepily saying — 
"party — dollie — thank you — thank you." 



How One New York Kiudergartner Observed Thanksgiving. 

The day before Thanksgiving we had both 
classes together and we had a very pleasant 
morning with our songs, stories, games, and 
many of the children told Mother Goose 
rhymes. Nearly each child contributed some- 
thing toward a basket of fruits for the little 
people in St. Vincent's hospital. We had two 
large peach baskets filled with apples, oranges, 
nuts, etc. The children were much delighted 
to see the beautiful baskets that they were 
sending away. — M. E. P. 



68 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



BOOK NOTES. 



The Brooklyn Public Library publishes a very 
excellent list of books for boys and girls approved 
bv it for use in the children's rooms. It does not 
pretend to be either a finding list or to be complete 
as to the books found in the children s rooms but it 
gives the branch librarians a "definite idea of what 
books they may freely order for the shelves of their 
children's rooms." The compiler, Miss Hunt, super- 
intendent of the Children's Department, includes 
such titles as she believes will help "in carrying out 
the purpose of the children's library, namely, that 
of being a nursery for good citizenship".- The need 
of attracting all classes of children, those from a 
cultured home and environment and those of limited 
vocabulary and experience, has been kept in mind. 
Some of the selections may therefore be lacking 
in literary quality, but all have some distinct merit 
which entitles them to a place here. Such a list 
should prove serviceable to librarians in other cities, 
and parents, also, may well find them useful. The 
Brooklyn system includes twenty-three libraries. 
Frank P. Hill is Chief Librarian. 

CORNELL RURAL SCHOOL, LEAFLET HOME 
STUDY COURSE. How many New York teachers 
are aware of their privileges in regard to these two 
helpful monthly journals, published by the N. Y. 
State College of Agriculture, and to be obtained 
gratis by all teachers in New York state? The 
former is in two installments, one for children and 
one a supplement for the teacher. The spring num- 
bers of 1908 for the children tells how to organize a 
farm boys' club, and the May issue describes the 
organizing of a girls' club. The teachers supplement 
for April is a garden number and is practical in its 
many suggestions. Alice G. McCloskey is editor, 
with Professors G. F. Warren and Charles H. Tuck 
as advisers. 

The Home Nature Study Course is edited by 
Anna Botsford Comstock and John W. Spencer. In 
the April-May number are directions for tree plant- 
ing, with much information as well concerning 
frogs and toads with their wonderful transforma- 
tions. Directions are given for making an aquarium 
and there is a lesson also upon the strawberry, and 
one upon the blackbird. These valuable leaflets are 
published at Ithaca, N. Y., under the auspices of 
Cornell University. 

GRASSHOPPER LAND, by Margaret W. Mor- 
ley. The brief foreword states that this book is 
written not for children, but for their grandfathers 
and grandmothers, who were once boys and girls in 
the country and may be in danger after all these 
years of forgetting about grasshoppers. It is quite 
safe to say, however, that children will read the 
book with great delight. Miss Morley has a style 
all her own, and in her merry, familiar talk she 
carries one straight into the heart of nature. By 
the clever use of simile and metaphor she puts her 
scientific statements into picturesque language 
which captivates the reader's attention, and intensi- 
fies his interest in the lively little insect that is so 
alluring to all children. We give a few sentences 
to indicate the general literary quality. 

"No doubt the sense of smell was originally 
developed to enable animals to smell out their food, 
to find their friends, and to detect their enemies. 
Man has found other ways of meeting these needs, 
so his sense of smell is on the wane, though it still 
continues to be, as just said, the most acute faculty 
that he has. . . . Although the grasshopper's feelers 
were not designed as mere ornaments, yet, like our 
noses, they add immensely to the personal appear- 
ance of the family, and it could easily be imagined 
that vanity dictated the graceful way in which they 



are waved about if one did not know the very prac- 
tical nature of those delicate append-ages." 

Then follows a description of the antennae as 
seen under the microscope. As the title suggests, 
the study is not confined to the grasshopper alone, 
but to grasshopper land, hence comparisons are 
frequent between the grasshopper and relatives more 
or less times removed, as, for instance, the chapter 
upon "harmless frauds," which tells about the walk- 
ing stick and walking leaf. One chapter "the Diary 
of a Locust," tells the history of the locust from his 
viewpoint. But as interesting as any are those pages 
devoted to the migratory locust of the East and 
his ravages, and the different methods by which man 
has in ancient and modern times fought against the 
terrible scourge. An extract from Pliny tells how, 
in the Granaicke region with Barbarie, ordained is 
it by law, every three years to wage war against 
them, and so to conquer them. In China and in 
Africa, emperor and sultan have organized men to 
fight them. The story of the Island of Cyprus shows 
how interdependent are the lives of men and of even 
the apparently insignificant insect world. Cyprus 
was a "happy, thriving and beautiful land" until 
1571, when it fell under the rule of the Turks. For 
two hundred and fifty years thereafter it was a 
wilderness, because under a corrupt government no 
effort was made to destroy the locusts that freely 
ravaged the land of every growing thing. But when 
Cyprus was ceded to England, a simple device, dis- 
covered by a certain Count Mattei, which had never 
been used by the Turks, was put into operation in 
1883, and in one season, by the means of a system of 
55,000 pits and fences, 195,000,000,000 locusts were 
destroyed in one season. The device consisted of 
walls and the plague has never again become 
unmanageable in the lovely island. The chapter 
upon locusts as food is another side to the question, 
and we learn that in some parts of the world the 
locust is eagerly welcomed as a source of food, and 
is regarded as a tidbit. In Oriental countries they 
are highly regarded as food even when not a neces- 
sity, and in others they are the staff of life of the 
people. There are various ways of preparing them 
for food as described. The volume is copiously illus- 
trated with delightful pen and ink pictures showing 
the insects in all kinds of pistre. We close with a 
few words of the author which take one directly into 
the country fields: 

"Think of crossing a close-cut New England 
meadow late in August without stirring up a com- 
motion of whirring wings and hopping legs. Think 
of walking over the fields without hearing those odd 
little pattering sounds, like drops of rain, made by 
the hoppers as they spring up on all sides of us. To 
the fortunate dweller in locust-free lands summer 
would not be quite summer without the shrill and 
pleasant hubbub of the grasshopper folk." 

This book should be in every school library and 
will be a good companion for the summer vacation, 
both for young and for those who wish to renew the 
happy memories of youthful days. A. C. McClurg 
Co., Chicago. 

There is also a drawing from an Assyrian relief 
in the British Museum showing attendant bringing 
locusts and pomegranates into the King. 

THE BOY GEOLOGIST, by E. J. Houston, Ph. 
D. A story centering around the experiences at 
boarding school of two boys, one of whom has a 
strong interest in anything geological, and the other 
an equally decided leaning toward chemistry. Vari- 
ous incidents in school, boy-like, are described; and 
a good many interesting facts about geology and 
chemistry are given in describing the experiments 
and adventures of the boys and their friends. But 
the literary style is not particularly interesting. The 
boys address each other in stilted, formal language, 
and in this respect the story is forced and artificial. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



69 



We would be interested in knowing whether boys 
who have a natural inclination toward geology and 
chemistry would read the story for the sake of the 
information to be gained or whether they would pre- 
fer to get their facts directly from somci scientific 
book. Henry Altemus Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

The recent earthquakes at San Francisco and 
Valparaiso, and the eruption of Vesuvius are made 
the basis for a discussion of such phenomena and 
the fetish which an ev-slave negro had brought with 
him from Africa and which he uses to injure his 
enemies is found to contain radium, thus offering 
opportunity for a discourse upon that rare element. 
Incidentally information as to the course of action 
under certain emergencies, such as sunstroke, is 
given. 

PROSE EVERY CHILD SHOULD KNOW. Edi- 
tion by Mary E. Burt. The title to this volume at 
first thought sounds somewhat presumptuous, but a 
study of the contents justifies the editor in most of 
her selections. There are few, if any, that one would 
wish to omit, especially when, after reading the in- 
troduction, we understand the basis of that selec- 
tion. "It is a reading book for home culture, and a 
collection of recitations for school use". The book 
begins with a paragraph from Talmage which a 
three-year-old loved to recite, on "The Influence of 
a Clean Face", and it closes with several pages 
from William M. Salter on "Morality the Essence of 
Life." The greater number of the selections are less 
than two pages in length, and are thus short enough 
to be memorized. The authors represent fairly well 
the Academy of Immortals of all time. George 
Washington, and Aristotle, Fenelon, Lincoln, Mrs. 
Custer and Victor Hugo, De Amicis, Desmothenes, 
William Pitt, De Mirabeau, Marcus Aurelius and Ed- 
mund Burke, Plato and Sallust, George Eliott and 
Edwin Markham, etc., etc., are a few names from 
this galaxy of prophets. The extracts from the great 
speeches which have helped on the world's progress 
as they stirred men's hearts to righteousness and 
effort may well be learned by our growing children. 
The Declaration of Independence and the entire 
Constitution of the United States are given in full. 
Miss Burt rejoices that with the children who were 
her schoolmates she committed to memory these 
great documents. Crisp arguments for debate upon 
the leading questions of the day — money, labor, suf- 
frage, etc., may be found. Exactly why the extract 
from concerning the life of the father bee is given 
we do not understand. 

An unusual but interesting feature of the book 
is the little personal note introducing each selection, 
and often addressed to- some particular child whom 
the author has in mind when deciding to use the ex- 
tract. The volume will help the children to appre- 
ciate what are the real things in life — the things 
worth while. Doubleday, Page & Co., N. Y. $0.90 net. 

THE YOUNGSTERS OF CENTERVILLE, by 
Etta Anthony Baker. These are youngsters whose 
acquaintance any child, boy or girl, will be glad to 
make. The children are normal, wholesome real 
girls and boys. Their doings and their adventures 
are told in a breezy, jolly, sympathetic manner that 
is irresistible, and the manliness of the boys and 
the womanliness of the girls are brought out in a 
delightful manner by one who seems to have a thor- 
ough understanding of boy and girl nature. Illus- 
trated by Francis Day. Henry Holy & Co. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR CLAY WORK AND 
PROPER MATERIAL IN THE KIN- 
DERGARTEN AND PRIMARY. 

E k VERY one is familiar with the native in- 
i stinct of the child for handling plastic 
material. It is an instinct that persists 
practically throughout life, although its period 
of greatest intensity is during the plastic age 
of childhood. It is a culture epoch in the de- 
velopment of the race. 

There are, however, difficulties connected 




with the use of the same material by a num- 
ber of children. Hygienic difficulties, partic- 




ularly that in all probability have been very 
much exaggerated. 

In a recent visit to the Albany schools, the 
writer noticed the splendid results that were 
obtained by the use of a specially prepared 
material called Plasticine, that seemed to sat- 
isfy all conditions necessary for preserving 
plasticity of the material and for avoiding un- 
sanitary dangers. On investigation it was 
found that the material is vised very largely 
throughout the country in many Kindergarten 
and Primary grades. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



As a result of a series of tests conducted by 
a noted English chemist it was proved that 
germs could not live in this material. On 
being handled it was found to possess a de- 
cidedly pleasing, although very mild odor, en- 
tirely unlike the usual modelling materials, 
which, as every Kindergartner knows, pos- 
sesses a very unpleasing fishy-like smell. 



primitive colors without compelling him to 
"prepare them, which is really beyond his abil- 
ity at that age. Another great difficulty of 
the ordinary clay material we found was obvi- 
ated by simply taking a large piece of the ma- 
terial and rubbing it against the small particles 
that adhere to the hands. The small surfaces 
of the pieces immediately attach themselves to 



~\ 





It is always ready for use and is not affect- 
ed by changes in temperature, difficulties ac- 
companying the ordinary clay material. The 
color effect secured by the Albany schools was 




really marvellous. The material itself comes 
in five colors, which make possible the various 
blending of color necessary to teach more 
clearly the effect of color as well as of form. 




the larger, thereby cleaning the hands per- 
fectly. 

Some of the work of the children in the 
Albany schools took the form of permanent 
designs of plaster casts, the material lending 
itself very readily to this fixed form. 

We recommend this material to the schools, 
and any plea of false economy is onlv robbing 
the child of his right to a truly sanitary ex- 
pressive plastic material at the most plastic 
age in the child's career. 



What have I done today, and what am I going 
to do tomorrow for the moral and spiritual uplift 
of my pupils? 

Let us not forget that soul culture of the little 
ones in our charge is always the dominant duty we 
have before us. 



Large possibilities of self-activity and ad- 
antages were offered to the pupil by these 











"CRA Y L A" 
Arlists' and School Crayon 

CRAYOLA COLORS are per. 
manent and brilliant and can 
be blended and overworked. 
They will not blur nor rub off! 
No expeni-ive outfit is required 
in their ust! No waiting for 
colors to dry. No brushes to 
clean! No liquid colors to soil 
the hands and clothes! Try 
■ Crajola" for Stenciling and 
all educational color work. 

We shall be pleased to furu- 
ish samplts and particulars to 
teachers interested. 


BINNEY & SMITH CO., 

81-83 Fulton St., 
New York. 







A BAKER'S DOZEN FOR 



CITY CHILDREN 

New Book of Kindergarten Songs 

By ISABEL VALENTINE and LILEON CLAXTON 

1 wo Practical Kindergartners of the New York City Public School System 

With introduction by JENNY B. MERRIL, Supervisor of Kinder= 
gartens, New York City Public Schools. 



THIRTEEN SONGS written AS A RESULT OF YEARS of teaching 
THIRTFFN SONCiS that have been thoroughly tried and 

I I IU\I LLM ^»W v\J^> PROVEN IMMENSELY SUCCESSFUL. 
THIRTEEN SONGS EXPRESSIVE OF THE CHILD'S OWN EVERYDAY 

THIRTEEN SONGS READILY DRAMATIZED FROM THE CHILDREN'S 

. SUGGESTIONS 

THTRTFFN <sONf,S that city kindergartners must have and 
iniiM EjLiU ownvjo OTHER kindergartners should have 

THTRTFFN SONCS bright, cheery, new. with smooth flowing 

1 nilV lEjLilV JWI^VJJ HARMONIES AND SIMPLICITY OF RYTHYMA. 

The thirteen songs are clearly printed on good paper and bound with strong linen mak- 
ing a very attractive and durable book, just the thing for an EASTER GII<T. 

Add 5c extra for Postage 
If ordered sent by mail. 

We will send the KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE for one 
yearandacopy of "A BAKER'S DOZEN FOR CITY CHILDREN," 
$ 1 .55 prepaid, to any address in the United States on receipt of $1.10 

(Canadian or Foriegn subscribers add 20 cents or 40 cents respec- 
tively, for postage.) You may use this offer to renew your sub- 



Price 50 Cents ,* 



NOTE: 



for 



<fcl 1Q scription if you like. 



This offerrmay not appear again, so attend to it today. Address 

The Kindergarten -Magazine Co 

59 West 96th. Street, NEW YORK. 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 
WE ARE HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for Catalogue. 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 80=82 Wabash Avenue., Chicago, III. 





THE 

WORLD 

RENOWNED 




The many points 
ofs uperi ority 
were never better 
emphasized than 
intheSOHMER 
PIANO of today. 



It is built to sat- 
isfy I he most cul- 
tivated tastes : : 



The advantage 
of such a piano 
appeals at once 
to the discrimi- 
uating intelli- 
gence of t h <_• 
leading: artists. 



SOHMER & CO, 

WARER00Y1S-C0R. 5th AVE. AND 22nd St. 



NEW YORK 



Summer School 

OF THE SOUTH 

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE 

KNOXVILLE 

Seventh Session; Six weeks 
June 23-July 31, 1908 

Best summer school for teachers. 

Reorganized and enlarged to 
the increasing demands of pro- 
gressive teachers. 

Consecutive courses of two, 
three, and four years, with direc- 
tions and outlines for home study 
for those who desire it. 

Courses in Kindergarten, Pri- 
mary Methods, Music, Drawing, 
Manual Training, Nature Study 
and Biology, including Human 
Physiology and Hygiene, Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, Forestry, School 
Gardening, Geography, Geology, 
Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 
English, Literature, the Bible, 
Latin, Greek, German, French, 
Spanish, History. Economics, So- 
ciology, Psychology, Education. 

From- 60 to 75 public lectures, 
readings and aiusic recitals of the 
highest type. 

No charge except registration 
fee of $10. 

Official announcement ready 
about the first of March. Address 

P. P. CLAXTON, 

Superintendent. 



Try the American Kindergarten 
Supply House, Manistee, Mich. 
Price List free. 



See Announcement of our Christmas Gift, p. 70 



CHRISTMAS NUMBER 



Evan ^ , -tent 

EVASION, iu„ 




DECEMBER, 1908 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



The Right of the Child to a Proper 

Life Equipment - - E. Lyell Earle, 

The Kindergarten and Social Service Nettie P. Sehiverin, 
The Kindergarten a Culture Period in - * 



Life 

Editorial Notes - - - 

The I. K. U, at Buffalo 
A Christmas Symposium 
Suggestions on Christmas Month 
Suggestions for Occupation Work for 

Christmas Month 
Teaching History by Puppets 
Drawing, Cutting, Paper Folding and 

Tearing for December 
Kindergarten Gifts 
Two December Visitors 
A December Program 
Kindergarten Grand Opera, 



Julia A. Balback, 



Jenny B Merrill, Pd. 
Bertha Johnston, 

Bertha Johnston, 



D. 



Lileon Clapton, 
Bertha Johnston, 
Sibyl Elder, 
Helen D Denfigh 
("Mrs. E. Lyell") 

Auguste S. Earle B. M. 
Mari Ruef Hofer, 



Old Christmas Plays and Carols 

A Dialogue 

Verse from an old Bavarian Christmas Play 

Shepherd Song - - 

Santa Claus Magical Gift - , Bertha Johnston, 

Books For Holiday Gifts - 



71 

79 

80 

81 
81 
64 

87 

89 
91 

92 

94 
97 

98 

99 
103 
103 
104 
104 
104 



Volume XXI, No. 3. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



, Iff Iff 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 
WE ARE HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for Catalogue. 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 80=82 Wabash Avenue., Chicago, 111. 




THE 

WORLD 

RENOWNED 




The many points 
ofs uperiority 
were never better 
emphasized thap 
intheSOHMER 
PIANO of today. 



It is built to sat- 
isfy the most cul- 
tivated tastes : : 



The advantage 
of such a piano 
appeals at once 
to the discrimi- 
n a t i n g intelli- 
gence of the 
leading artists. 



SOHMER & CO. 

WAREROOMS--COR. Sth AVE. AND 22nd St. NEW YORK 



Lakeside Classics 

AND 

Books for Supplementary 
Reading 

Please send for descriptive list of Selec- 
tions from English and American au- 
thors and for stories prepared for all 
grades from third to last year in High 
School. 132 numbers In Lakeside 
series at prices from a cents to 35 cents, 
depending on amount of material and 
style of binding;— any book sent post- 
paid on receipt of price. 

Ainsworth & Company 

377-388 Wabash venue 

CHICAGO, ILL 



Louisiana School Review 

Is the only educational paper pub- 
lished in Louisiana. It shows the 
movement which is now sweeping 
over the state. That advertisers 
and readers appreciate its worth is 
shown by its steadily growing 
patronage. If you would reach 
Louisiana teachers or know what 
they are doing, patronize the Re- 
view. 

Business correspondence should 
be addressed to W. C. ROATEN, 
Bus. Mgr., Bernice, La., and edi- 
torial correspondence to E. F. 
Gayle. Lafayette, La. 



Educational Exchange & Realty Co. 

Educational journals and other 
periodicals bought and sold. Pub- 
lishers desiring to dispose of same 
will be put in touch with the right 
parties to effect a deal. Corre- 
spondence confidential. 

FOR SALE. — A well-established 
Normal School and College in 
prosperous condition. Worth fully 
$ou,000.00. Present owners will 
open books for inspection. Those 
interested must give satisfactory 
references as to having the neces- 
sary capital for so large an invest- 
ment. 

We have for sale also a business 
college upon most r easonable 
terms. Address 

EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE AND 
UEALTY CO., 

Lock Box 195, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Massachusetts Training Schools 

BOSTON 

Miss Laura Fisher's 

TRAINING SCHOOL FOR 

KINDERGARTNERS 

Normal Course, 2 years. 

Post-Graduate Course. 

Special Course. 

For circulars addrrsss 
292 Marlborough St., BOSTON, MASS. 

Kindergarten Training School 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars addresss 
MISS Ll'CY HARRIS STMONDS. 



MISS ANNIE COOLIDUE BEST'S 

Froebel School of Kinder- 
garten Normal Classes 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Kejrular Two Years' Course. 

Post-Graduate Course. Special Courses. 

Sixteenth Year. 

For circulars address 

MISS RUST, PIERCE BLDG., 

Copley Square. 

BOSTON 

Perry Kindergarten Normal 
School 

MRS. ANNIE MOSELEY FERRY, 
Principal, 

IK Huntington Ave., BOSTON, MASS. 

Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

134 Newbury Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

Regular Two Years' Course. 

Special One Year Course for graduate 
students. 

Students' Home, at the Marenholz. 

For circulars address 

LICY WHEELCCK. 

BOSTON 

The Garland 
Kindergarten Training School 

Normal Course, two years. 
Home-making Course, one year. 
MRS. MARGARET 3. STANNARD, 
Principal. 

19 Chestnut Street, Boston. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training Schools 

Two Years' Course. Terms, §100 per year. 

Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

SPRINGFIELD— LONGMEADOAV, MASS. 



New York Training Schools 



The Kraus Seminary for 
Kindergartners 

REGULAR AND EXTENSION 
COURSES. 

MRS. MARIA KRAUS-BOELTE 

Hotel San Renio, Central Park West 
75th Street, - NEW YORK CITY 



THE ELLIMAN SCHOOL 

Kindergarten Normal Class 

POST-GRADUATE CLASSES. 

Twenty-fifth Year. 

1C7 W. 57th Street, NEW YORK CITY 

Opposite Carnegie Hall. 



Miss Jenny Hunter's 
Kindergarten Training School 

15 West 127th St., NEW YORK CITY. 

Two Years' Course, Connecting Class and 
Primary Methods. 

ADDRESS 
2079 Fifth Ave., New York City. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF THE 

Buffalo Kindergarten Assoc'n. 

Two Years' Course. 
For particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
8C Delaware Avenue, - Buffalo, N. Y. 

Connecticut Training Schools 

BRIDGEPORT 
TRAINING SCHOOL 



KINDERGARTNERS 

IN AFFILIATION WITH 

The New York Froebel Normal 

Will open its eighth year September IS 
For circulars, information, etc., address 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal 

17U West Avenue, 
BRIDGEPORT, - - CONN. 

The Fannie A. Smith 

Froebel Kindergarten 

and Training School 

Good Kindergarten teachers have no 
trouble in securing well-paying positions. 
In fact, we have found the demand for 
our graduates greater than we can sup- 
ply. One and two years' course. 

For Catalogue, address 

FANNIE A. SMITH, Principal, 
Lafayette Street, BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



ADELPHI COLLEGE 

Lafayette Avenue, St. James and Clifton Places. BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 

Normal School for Kindergartners 

Two Years' Course. Address Prof. Anna E. Harvey, Supt 



Established 1896 



The New York 

Froebel Normal 

KINDERGARTEN and PRIMARY TRAINING 



College Preparatory. Teachers' Academic. Music 

E. LYELL EARL, Ph. D., Principal. 

HARRIETTS M. MILLS, Head of Department of Kindergarten Training. 

MARIE RUEP H0FEK, Department of Music. 



Eleventh Year opens Wednesday, Sept. 18, 1907 
Write for circulars. Address, 

59 West 96th Street, New York, N. Y. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Michigan Training Schools 



Grand Rapids 
Kindergarten Training School 



Winter and Summer Terms. 

Oct. 1st, 1U0K, to June 1st, 1909. 

July 1st to August 21st, 1909. 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL, COURSES. 

CLARA "WHEELER, Principal. 
MAT L. OGILBT, Registrar. 

Shepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



Maine Training Schools 



Miss Norton's Training School 
for Kindergartners 

PORTLAND, MAINE. 

Two Years' Course. 

For circulars addresss 

15 Dow Street, - PORTLAND, ME. 

Miss Abby N. Norton 



Ohio Training Schools 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



Kindergarten Training 

Exceptional advantages — daily practice, 
lectures from Professors of Oberlin Col- 
lege and privilege of Elective Courses In 
the College at special rates. Charges 
moderate. Graduates readily find posi- 
tions. 

For Catalogue address Secretary 
OBERLIN KINDERGARDEN ASSOCIA- 
TION, 
Drawer K, Oberlin, Ohio. 



Indiana Training Schools 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CIHCAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

Corner of Cedar and Watkins Aves., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded in 1S94) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten Course. 

MISS NETTA FARIS, Principal. 
MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



The Teachers' College 
of Indianapolis 

For the Training of Kindergartners and 
Primary Teachers. 

Regular Course two years. Preparatory 
Course one year. Post-Graduate Course 
for Normal Teachers, one year. Primary 
training a part of the regular work. 

Classes formed in September and Feb- 
ruary. 

90 Free Scholarships Granted 

Each Year. 

Special Primary Class in May and June. 
Send for Catalogue. 

Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker, Pres. 

THE WILLIAM N. JACKSON MEMOR- 
IAL INSTITUTE, 

23d and Alabama Streets. 



The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

14 West Main Street. 
DRAWING, SINGING, PHYSICAL CUL- 
TURE. 

ALICE N. PARKER, Frincipat. 

Two years in course. Froebei's theory 
and practice. Also a third year course 
for graduates. 

SPECIAL LECTURES. 



Kentucky Training Schools 



TRAINING SCHOOL OF THE 

Louisville Free Kindergarten 
Association 

Louisville, Ky. 

FACULTY: 

Miss Mary Hill, Supervisor. 

Mrs. Robert D. Allen, Senior Critic and 
Training Teacher. 

Miss Alexina G. Booth, History and Phil- 
osophy of Education. 

Miss Jane Akin, Primary Sunday School 
Methods. 

Miss Allene Seaton, Manual Work. 

Miss Frances Ingram, Nature Study. 

Miss Anna Moore, Primary Methods. 

Miss Margaret Byers, Art Work. 



New Jersey Training Schools 



Illinois Training Schools 
Kindergarten Training School 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 

Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities, 

For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave., Chicago. 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

at CHICAGO COMMONS, 180 Grand Ave. 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mis Amelia Hofer, Principal. 

THIRTEENTH YEAR. 

Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement. Fine equipment. For 
circulars and information write to 

MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

180 Grand Ave., Chicago. 



Chicago Froebel Association 

Training Class for Kindergartners. 

(Established 1876.) 

Two Years' Course. Special Courses un- 
der Professors of University of Chicago 
receive University credits. For circulars 
apply to 

MRS. ALICE H. PUTNAM, or MISS M. 
L. SHELDON, Associate Principals, 



1008 Fine Arts Building, 



Chicago, 111. 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. J. 



OHIO 



COLUMBUS 



Kindergarten Normal Training School 

EK1HTEENTH YEAR BEOINS SEPTEnBEit 25, 1907 

Frochelian Philosophy. (Jilts. Occupation. Stones, Games. Music and Dra 
Psychology and Nature Work taught at Ohio State University-two years' c< 



17th and Broad 
Si recta 



CHICAGO 

KINDERGARTEN 

INSTITUTE 

Gertrude House, 40 Scott Street 



Regular Course— Two Years. 
Post-graduate Course — One Year. 
Supplementary Course — One Year. 
Non-professional Home Making 

Course — One Year. 

University Credits 
Residence for students at Gertrude 

House. 



DIRECTORS 

Miss CAROLINE C. CRONISE 
Mrs. MARY B. PAGE 
Mrs. ETHEL ROE LINDGREN 
Miss FRANCES E, NEwTON 

Send for Circulars 



RELIABLE KlNDERGAfcTENGTRAlNlNQ SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Pennsylvania Training Schools 



Miss Hart's 

Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Re-opened Oct. 1st, 1908, at 1615 
Walnut Street, Philadelphia, The 
work will include Junior, Senic* 
Graduate and Normal Trainers' 
Courses, and a Mo Kin < n gar- 
ten. For particulars address 

Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, 
The Pines/ Rut ledge. Pa. 



The Philadelphia Training 
School for Kindergartners 

Reopens October 2, 1908. 
Junior, Senior and Special Classes. 
Model Kindergarten. 

Address 

MRS. M. L. VAN KIRK, Principal, 

1333 Pine Street, - Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pittsburgh and Allegheny 
Kindergarten College 

ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

Regular Course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. 
Seventeenth year begins Sept. 30, 1908 
For Catalogue, address 
Mrs. William McCracken, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avenue, PITTSBURGH, PA 

Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Under the direction of Miss Caroline M. 
C. Hart, will re-open September 26, 1907, 
at 1615 "Walnut St., Philadelphia. The 
work will include Junior, Senior, Gradu- 
ate and Normal Trainers' Courses, Moth- 
ers' Classes, and a Model Kindergarten. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART, 
The Pines, - - - RUTLEDGE, PA. 



California Training Schools 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING CLASS 

State Accredited List. 

Seventeeth Year opens September, 1907. 
Address 

Miss Grace Everett Barnard, 

1374 Franklin Street, OAKLAND, CAL. 



See Our Free 
Christmas offer 
on following 
Page 



Wisconsin Training Schools 



Milwaukee State Normal 
School 

Kindergarten Training Department. 

Two Tears' Course for graduates of 
four-years' high schools. Faculty of 
twenty-five. Special advantages. Tuition 
free to residents of Wisconsin; $40 per 
year to others. School opens the first 
Tuesday in September. 

Send for Catalogue to 
NINA C. VANDEVVALKER, Director. 



Washington Training Schools 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Columbia Kindergarten 
Training School 

2115 California Ave., cor. Connecticut A v. 

Certificate, Diploma and Normal Course 
Principals: 

SARA KATHARINE LIPPINCOTT, 
SUSAN CHADICK BAKER. 



Virginia Training Schools 



The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Richmond. Va. 

Alice N. Baker, Principal. 

Two years' course and Post 

Graduate course. 

For further information apply to 

14 W. Main Street. 



Georgia Training Schools 



Atlanta Kindergarten Normal 
School 

Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
639 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 

Normal Training School 

of the 
KATE BALDWIN FREE KINDERGAR- 
TEN ASSOCIATION. 
(Established 1899) 
HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 
the Training School and Supervisor 

of Kindergartens. 
Application for entrance to the Train- 
ing Schools should be made to Miss M. R. 
Sasnett, Corresponding Secretary, 

117 Bolton St., EAST SAVANNAH, GA. 

If your Training School is not represent- 
ed in these columns, kindly send us your 
copy, and let us put It among the others. 
Aside rom the advertising value, both 
your pupils and your graduates will be 
pleased to see your training school have a 
place among the others of America. 



1874 — Kindergarten Normal Instituti is — 308 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. >j|r**P** 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



Repton School 

Tarrytown=on=Hudson, New York. 
A School for young boys between the ages of 7 and 14. A few of 
our special advantages are: 

Specially designed, modern buildings, costing over $ 100.000.00. Numbers are limited 
to Forty, giving an average of Five boys in a class, thus ensuring every boy, practically in- 
dividualtuition 

A Physica Instructor, qualified in Europe, attends to the Swedish and other exer- 
cises, under the supervision ot the School Physician, who prescribes the exercise for each boy. 

A resident nurse, and hospital building. 

Fee for the school year $400.00—8500.00. 

Apply to THE HEADMASTER. 



A CHRISTMAS PRESENT FREE 

To Every Subscriber! Read carefully 

This is a straightforward, clean cut proposition: Every persons who sends 
us one dollar, the price of the magazine for one year, will receive the magazine for the 
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friend, and in such case we will let the free subscription begin with this number and end 
with the school year, June, 1 909. 

This is the season of giving, of self-sacrifice and of good cheer. The above is our 
gift to the kindergarten cause and your opportunity to help bring the blessings of 
kindergarten training to all the children of America without material expense 

to yourself, for this magazine goes forth as a missionary and pleads for the child who 
cannot plead for himself. To extend its circulation means to increase the interest in all 
things pertaining to the kindergarten. If you would prefer to have the entire amount go 
to extend the circulation of this magazine we will send it to three new names for six 
months each. Three Christmas presents for one dollar, presents that will be ap- 
preciated, that will help the recipient to do better work, will help the kinder- 
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Surely every kindergartner has one or more friends who will appreciate such a gift. 

This offer will be withdrawn Dec. 25, 1908. We suggest you send in your 
subscription now, to=day, lest you overlook it. 

This magazine is edited not by theorists, but by practical kindergartners, supervis- 
ors and training school teachers who are actually engaged in the work; who are meeting 
and solving the problems that you as a kindergartner or primary teacher are meeting; 
The magazine will be more practically helpful than ever. Can you afford 
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ner who did not improve every opportunity to gain knowledge pertaining to her pro- 
fession? Can you hope to really succeed if you neglect such an opportuni= 
ty? Is it not a fact that if you do not read a kindergarten magazine regularly you can 
not keep abreast of the times? Will you not go on unconsciously but none the less 
certainly missing information and inspiration so easily obtained that you will soon be one 
of the few not to possess it? Can this mean success for you? It certainly means 
under ordinary conditions failure sooner or later. You must keep alive or you cannot 
do the work as the world must have it done to=day. And if you cannot suc- 
ceed in that way neither can your friend. 

Our offer enables you to help her practically with little expense to yourself. Are 
you not willing to do SO at this glad Christmas season? 

Address, J. H. SHULTS, Business Manager Kindergarten=Primary Magazine, Manistee, Mich. 

Outline of U. S. History 

SUITABLE FOR THE GRADES. SECOND EDITION NOW READY. 

A SUCCESSFUL TEACHER SAYS: 
The Palmer Co., Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — During the passing term, I have used the Kingsley's Outline of United States History with 
my teachers, who were preparing to take the examination for licenses to teach in New York City. I am glad to say 
that we are satisfied with that book. It is more than a mere outline; it is in itself sufficient for review, without the 
aid of a large text-book. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Yours truly, T. J, McEVOY. 

The above-named book will be sent postpaid on receipt of 35 cents. 

THE PALMER COMPANY 

50 Bromfield Street, Boston, Mass. 



Ofye 3iin6ero(arten- Jp rimar ? Mtaga^ine 

VOL. XXI— DECEMBER, 1908— NO. 3 



The Kindergarten- Primary Magazine 

Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice frcm the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Booms, 59 West OGtli Street, New York, N. Y. 
EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

J«nny B. Merrill, Ph. D., Supervisor Kindergartens, 

Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond 

E. Lyell Earle, Ph. D Managing Editor 

Harriette Al. Mills New York Proebel Normal 

Mari Kuef Hot'er Teachers' College 

itaiiiel Snedden, Ph. I) Te.aehers' Collese 

Bertha Johnston New York Froebel Normal 

Ernest N. Henderson, Ph. D. . . • -Adolphi College, Brooklyn 

John Hall, A. M University of Cincinnati 

Walter E. Dearborn, Ph. D University of Wisconsin 

Ernest Farrington, Pli. D -...University of California 

Ray V. Strickler, Illustrator, Hillsdale, Mich 

All Communications shoald be addressed to tile 
Manistee Office. 

J. H. SHL'LTS, Business Manager, Manistee. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published oh the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. 
Single copies, 15c. 

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Remittances should be sent by draft, Express Order or 
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pany. If a local check is sent, it must include 10c exchange. 

Copyrighted, 1908, by The Kindergarten Magazine Co. En- 
tered as Second Class Matter in the Postoffice at Manistee, 
Michigan. 

THE RIGHT OF THE CHILD TO A 
PROPER LIFE EQUIPMENT. 

E. LYELL EARLE, 
President New York Froebel Normal.* 

As I sat here this morning listening to 
the addresses of the President of the Rhode 
Island Institute of Instruction and to the 
remarks of His Excellency, the governor of 
the state, who touched so clearly on the 
vital topics of education today and watched 
the impressions made on this large body of 
representative teachers, I was compelled to 
appreciate the importance of such matters 
as this for the betterment of education 
throughout the entire state. Rhode Island 
is one of the few states in which such a 
gathering is possible. Whether the 
teachers are realizing their full strength in 
such an assemblage, whether they are get- 
ting out of it the full value of their strength 
in forming and sustaining public opinion, is 
a question that must be answered by those 
of you who are on the ground all the time. 
Such a body of teachers represents the 
largest amount of organized intelligence in 
the state and when such intelligence is 

*Address delivered at Rhode Island State In- 
stitute. 



directed through united efforts toward 
definite results, there is scarcely anything 
within justice that you may not obtain by 
constant well directed effort. 

The topic that has been assigned me for 
a discussion this morning is one that must 
appeal to every true teacher and one that 
contains, in germ at least, almost all the 
problems of education that are demanding 
solution today. 

We are living truly in the golden age of 
education. Never in the history of the 
world has there been such wide spread in- 
terest in the subject of the education of the 
child. Never have nations expended such 
vast sums of money for the realization of 
this end. Throughout the world statesmen 
are giving the question of education the 
profoundest consideration. Philosophers 
are revising their theories of knowledge 
and their standards of worth. Scientists 
are investigating with the most fearless 
hand problems of physical and mental con- 
ditions for the purpose of furthering the 
well being of the child during the period 
of his formal education. The United States 
today is contributing for school purposes 
almost as much money as the rest of the 
world is expending in public instruction. 
Buildings that rival in splendor the palaces 
of the ancient world and surpass in 
academic equipment the dreams of the 
most enthusiastic pedagogues welcome the 
child as he leaves the home for his first 
formal step into education and impress him 
with the vastness and importance of the 
course upon which he is about to enter. 

Normal schools and city training schools 
are centering their attention on the practi- 
cal aspect of education, and colleges and 
universities are revising their faculties and 
planning their courses, to a very conscious 
extent, for the furtherance of the educa- 
tional equipment of its graduates. 

But while we are, indeed, living in the 
golden age of education, which does not 
necessarily mean that the pedagogue is re- 
ceiving a large or adequate share of the 
golden shekles, while all of this activity, 
interest and expenditure are manifest 
around about us, we cannot deny that there 
is a great deal of unrest in the educational 
world, that there is a great deal of dissatis- 
faction with the results of school education, 
at least among men who are meeting the 



72 



Kindergarten-primary magazine. 



hard facts of life in the commercial and in- 
dustrial enterprises of the clay. 

Men in business, who are accustomed to 
figure out to the fraction of a per cent the 
results of every penny of expenditure, are 
inquiring whether the large amount of 
money put annually into our great school 
systems is declaring an adequate and en- 
couraging dividend. For many years past 
the college graduate and the university 
man have been the butt of industrial ridi- 
cule. It had come to be almost a by-word 
that the success of a college man in busi- 
ness was an exception emphasized by the 
fact of its rare occurence. The longer a 
boy remained in school beyond the period 
of late infancy the worse he seemed to be 
equipped for doing things in the shop, or 
in the store, or in the office ; the longer it 
seemed to take him to find himself in any 
particular industrial activity, as if his ability 
to get along in life was inversely propor- 
tional to the length of time he spent in 
school, and to the relative success he at- 
tained therein. 

As a result of investigations made in 
shops and offices and department stores in 
New York State it was found that boys 
and girls leaving the elementary school 
after the legal age, and after having passed 
the so-called educational test were practi- 
cally helpless in specific knowledge that 
might help them in the particular work 
they were undertaking. Boys and girls 
who can do formal' decimals out of arith- 
metics when presented according to school 
method, would not know how to write a 
bill where applied decimals was an absolute 
necessity. In the making out of reports, 
the most unusual errors in spelling and 
sentence form were made by boys and girls 
who had a fair amount of accuracy in for- 
mal grammar and formal composition. In 
the shop and factory where manual skill or 
a working knowledge of tools was desir- 
able, it was found that the process had to 
begin and that the ordinary things that 
boys knew from their mere home life 15 or 
20 years ago, were entirely unheard of, 
were entirely lost to the public school boy 
of the present generation. When it came 
to the knowledge and application of ele- 
mentary principles of hygiene, sanitation, 
ventilation, etc., these boys and girls were 
entirely oblivious of the existence of such 
problems and had to be taught and directed 
in the most elementary lines of health. It 
was found, in a word, without going into 



more detail, that the school subjects were 
not functioning out in life, were not finding 
an expression or continuation in the 
activities of most boys and girls who go 
into business offices, factories, shops or 
other commercial work. 

The same complaint is raised as to the 
equipment for citizenship, as to the 
knowledge of the practical needs that go 
to make government an expression of the 
people's will, a corporation carried on along 
economic lines for the best interest and 
profit of its every member. 

I have often stood in the City Hall or 
Countv Building in New York City and 
watched the helplessness of men and 
women who came there for the ordinary 
purpose of paying taxes, witnessed the sigh 
of relief with which they placed their 
money into the hands of some astute poli- 
tician who had cleverness enough to study 
out the practical workings of government, 
illustrating how absolutely helpless most 
men are when it comes to even the ordinary 
functions of citizenship. I will not here go 
into the question of civic co-operation in 
the department of cities and state govern- 
ment such as a working knowledge of 
police and fire department, street cleaning, 
sanitation and drainage, where the millions 
of dollars of annual taxation go to and the 
thousand and one other questions that are 
vital to life and that I am sorry to say are 
so seldom touched on in our courses of his- 
tory, civics and economics even in the best 
schools of the country. 

Furthermore, women have not escaped 
the accusation that higher education has 
made them less fit for their true place in 
life as many of their supreme self-con- 
stituted lords and masters conceive this 
true place to be. The high school and 
college were blamed- for having established 
standards that were artificial, for having 
cultivated tastes that could not be satisfied, 
for having neglected courses that made for 
proper domestic economy and bliss, which, 
with many people, seem to be synonomous, 
and which left them practically unfit for the 
higher functions of life, of motherhood and 
mother nurture in the conduct of the home, 
and in the rearing of the family for the 
realization of the noblest and best ideas of 
life. 

On several occasions, I have been 
tempted to test the accuracy of the young 
mother's knowledge as to the properties of 
food stuffs and especial methods of caring 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 






n 



for the young child that love and nature 
have placed in her keeping. I recall par- 
ticularly one instance a few years ago, 
while sitting on the beach at the seashore 
and watching two beautiful children play- 
ing in the sand and the proud young mother 
sitting near. She might well be a repre- 
sentative American mother of today and I 
thought I would test some of my notions 
as to the accuracy of some mothers' 
knowledge as to what they are doing daily 
for their children. I began with the chil- 
dren as a path to the mother's attention and 
in a few minutes was engaged in conver- 
sation with her, praising her lovely boy and 
girl and leading her on to reveal to me some 
of her special methods in their training. I 
found her a graduate of one of our best 
women's colleges and a sane, modest 
mother truly devoted to her home and to 
her children. When we came to the ques- 
tion of food stuffs, she told me that she fed 
them "Force" mornings and other staple 
articles and I asked her if she did not know 
that "Force" was said to contain a chemical 
poisoning that in a short time acted on the 
nerves of the children, worse even than 
excessive use of coffee or alcohol. She 
seemed to be horrified at the thought and 
immediately vowed she would never again 
feed her children with "Force." I found 
that after lunch, at the hotel, she warned 
all the other mothers against this poisonous 
food and the result was that if I had not 
stopped the little scheme I had been test- 
ing, I might have found myself a fit subject 
for criminal prosecution by one of the food 
trusts that had originated or industrialized 
the preparation of what the child should 
eat. This is a simple case, but it illustrates 
the point that as a matter of fact none of 
us, and I am not reflecting here upon the 
devoted open hearted, earnest mother, that 
none of us is getting out of his course 
work the things that should be gotten 
therefrom, to make his work less a process 
of learning and more a process of applica- 
tion and result. 

In a word there is a feeling abroad, not 
only among business men and statesmen, 
but also among educators, that the schools 
today are not giving the child his best life 
equipment. That there is much to be done 
before the mere conferring of the gradua- 
tion diploma, whether it be of the grammar 
school or of the high school, or of the col- 
lege or professional school, will be at least 
a probable assurance that the graduate is 



properly equipped for some real life pur- 
pose. 

If then as educators, we are the first to 
admit that the child has a right to a proper 
life equipment, and that as a matter of fact 
he is not getting this equipment, we must 
determine where the responsibility lies 
and what particular agencies are not ful- 
filling their duty in the matter. 

People are, it seems to me, all too prone 
to place all the blame for all failures on the 
school. They seem to forget that there are 
other institutions whose duty it is to edu- 
cate in a large sense, they seem to forget 
that the home, and the church and the state 
even outside of its formal expression in the 
school are also necessary partners to this 
proper life equipment of the child. They 
seem to forget that the child, too often 
comes to school, physically unfit and moral- 
ly depraved, and in possession of a set of 
habits that have a strong start in wrong 
directions because of influences from the 
home and in the street, which influences 
are pretty sure to be working constantly 
against the onward and upward tendencies 
of the school. 

The school has the child only a certain 
number of hours of the day and cannot con- 
trol, to any extent, the conditions that pre- 
vail in the home or in the neighborhood, 
and does not always have the intelligent 
co-operation of the church or the civic de- 
partments of city or state that might and 
should be marshalled into sustaining the 
standards that the true school must set in 
every locality where it has become a proper 
life center. 

The school, therefore, is only partially 
responsible for the proper equipment of the 
child for life. But is it discharging fully 
even this partial responsibility? The ques- 
tion arises, how far should the school be 
merely a medium for transmitting and in- 
terpretating experience, or to what extent 
should it forecast the future and organize 
the child's powers toward meeting the very 
probable conditions he may have to face. 
As a matter of fact what has been the 
conception of the school history? Has 
it, perhaps, been the most traditional of all 
the great institutions that educate, with the 
exception possibly of the church in some 
places, and at some periods of its history? 
Has it not followed tradition rather than 
been a leader? Has it been concerned 
more with fossils than with life? Has it 
been over-weighted with books and the 



74 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



past, rather than busy with real things and 
the needs of the present? Has it been, can 
it be, or should it be, an originator rather 
than an imitator? An inspirer rather than 
an informer? A leader rather than a fol- 
lower? A pioneer in every great field of 
activity, rather than a late comer of the 
second and third generation, who can enjoy 
only the remnants of the great live things 
that have been, and of the great successes 
already achieved, and an admirer of great 
deeds that have been witnessed by the 
original delver in the virgin style of life? 

What is the conception of the true func- 
tion of the school today? What is the prac- 
tice? Let us see. There are those who tell 
us that it is the purpose of the school to 
develop harmoniously all the powers of the 
individual, so that when he goes out into 
life he will be equally equipped to face any 
condition that may arise, and embrace the 
first opportunities that present themselves, 
and be equally capable and successful in 
every possible walk of life. The followers 
of this theorv of harmonious development 
have erected institutions devoted to a 
classical literature and art, and to tradi- 
tional mathematics and history, to gradu- 
ate men and women who at least have de- 
veloped the power to appreciate the things 
that have happened, if they have not the 
power to see the things that are happening 
now and are really worth while, or the 
power to originate things that shall become 
the standard of excellence on the morrow. 

These leaders of harmonious develop- 
ment forget the great fact that biology 
teaches us that the very cellular structure 
of man renders him potentially incapable 
of doing all things or of learning all things 
to an equal degree of excellence; that his 
physical basis of activity is conditioned by 
the evolution of his original nature, which 
gives him capabilities that are strong in 
certain lines and weak in others in which 
it is physically impossible for him to attain 
to any great degree of excellence. But, 
even if it were physically possible, it would 
be socially useless, even if it were possible 
physically to attain this harmonic excel- 
lence to show that our students would be 
equally well equipped in all subjects, 
equally strong in mathematics, or litera- 
ture, history and science, the question 
arises here how has the race grown? How 
has it advanced from the primitive simple 
condition of life to the present higher com- 
plex state of man's social development. 



What is the difference between a pioneer 
settlement in the Klondike, and a great 
civilized city? In the Klondike, everybody 
is doing everything for himself. He is 
building his own house, hewing his own 
wood, . gathering his own harvest, making 
his own shoes, and cooking his own meals. 
While in a great center of civilization no- 
body is doing anything for himself. Every- 
body is doing something for somebody else. 
One man makes shoes for other people, 
another makes ties or builds houses, or 
makes matches or shoe strings, and in the 
making of this particular object in which 
he has specialized he secures enough to hire 
somebody else to do the other things for 
him and to give him a better product for 
less money and a larger amount of comfort 
and leisure than would be possible in primi- 
tive conditions. The race has grown, there- 
fore, not by harmonious development of 
every possible power of man, but by a pro- 
cess of fine specialization, by a selective 
process based on native instinct, and native 
tendency, and individual ability to excel 
along certain given lines. 

^ requently, I am sorry to say in our 
school work we start out on the old prin- 
ciple that true education consists in finding 
out what the child likes to do, and in mak- 
ing him do the opposite, that, after all, life 
must be considered, not being able to do 
what we would like to do, but being com- 
pelled to do what we hate. 

The child cannot be properly equipped 
for his true place in life by any such con- 
ception of education or by the more har- 
monious development of all the possible 
powers of body and mind that the in- 
dividual possesses. 

There are others who tell us that we are 
to look for our standard of life equipment to 
life itself. The solution is not to be found 
in more philosophy or an individual specu- 
lation. It is not to be found in the easier 
abstractions of philosophical sociology, but 
that we must go to biology as illustrated in 
the evolution of organic life for the true 
meaning and aim of education and for the 
true means and the methods for realizing 
this aim. The first great truth that they 
urge upon is that life has grown and per- 
sists, and reaches its highest development 
b" r a process of adjustment, by a process of 
selective adaptation. They show us incon- 
testably that adaption to life environment 
is a biological law. That unless the indi- 
vidual or the organism, whether it be the 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



snail that creeps along the sea rock, and 
takes on the hue and tint of the very sea 
and rock to deceive its hungry neighbors, 
or the young Russian bear that learns to 
stand for days hugging the leeward side of 
the tree to escape the overwhelming storm, 
or the human child which needs years and 
years of care to help it in the slow process 
of adjustment, that, unless the individual 
becomes quickly and properly fitted for the 
physical and other conditions that surround 
him he shall pay the inevitable penalty of 
death. From this law there is no escape. 
On this law rests the biologic sanction of 
compulsory education namely, that unless 
the child becomes quickly and properly 
equipped, fitted into the world, to life con- 
ditions about him, failure and relative 
death are the penalties. 

Most teachers are convinced of the im- 
portance of this great truth that education 
is essentially a process of adjustment to 
real life, but they seem to forget that there 
is a two-fold aspect of adjustment to be 
considered. That not every form of ad- 
justment is a selective adaption ; that the 
real vital adiustment must come from with- 
in, must have within it the element of per- 
sonality, of individuality, of self activity 
and choice on the part of the individual to 
any given situation that confronts him. 

The Navaho Indian who packs up his 
tent in the winter and goes from the Rocky 
to the Pacific Coast to enjoy the warm 
winter breezes of the Pacific and escape the 
bleak winds of the plains is adjusting him- 
self to his native environment. But in this 
case environment itself is the master. The 
white man who stakes his claim and builds 
his hut, and chops his wood and gathers 
in his small supplies, and faces alike the sun 
of summer, and the storm of winter, and 
rises master above the conditions, becomes 
a center of civilization and is illustrating in 
himself the true form of adjustment, the 
self active processes that go on in life and 
the self active processes that must go on in 
the school if the child is to be properly 
equipped for his real life work. 

I recall going into Fjord of Molde in 
Norway one beautiful summer morning, as 
we rowed into the crescent town that lies 
one-half encircled by the mountains. I 
was impressed with the quietness of the 
place. Big men, big women, and big chil- 
dren all looked around as if awed. They 
looked at us with quiet indifference and 
possible doubt and showed absolutely no 



signs of enthusiasm and very little interest. 
When I asked them what was up in the 
mountains, they said, "Nobody ever goes 
up there." One man even went so far as 
to tell us there were lions and tigers in the 
snow clad tops of the Norwegian Hills, a 
sad application of his geography as to local 
conditions. On reflecting as to the cause 
of this awe and almost terror in the attitude 
of this people, I was impressed with the 
yastness of nature, the tremendous import 
of environment which awe them into a 
most passive submission. Behind them was 
the avalanche which some of them may 
have seen sweep down the mountain side 
and crush their little huts and almost hurl 
them into the sea. Before them lay the 
ocean, that in an hour would often times 
become mighty in storm and swallow up 
from their sight their husbands and 
brothers who were out seeking from the 
deep a scant livelihood. Here was a case of 
passive adjustment to environment. Here 
was a case where nature was the master 
and man the conquered. 

The Russian slave whom I saw in the 
mines of Siberia was another example of 
this passive adjustment. The light came 
through a shaft about five feet square and 
the eyes of the condemned were turned 
permanently toward the column so that after 
vears of working in the mines their eyes 
become permanently crossed so that no 
matter how they faced their eyes always 
turned in the direction of that shaft of light. 
I learned from investigation that even after 
these exiles were liberated from the mines 
it took years and years before the eyes re- 
turned to their normal direction. Here is 
a case again of passive adjustment where 
nature and environment are the masters ; 
an illustration of the reason, perhaps, why 
so many fail when leaving school they go 
out into a new environment and are not 
able either to meet it or rise superior to it. 

You have all read the story of the Battle 
of the Giants, of how the pigmies of the 
rival states boasted of the prowess of their 
respective giants and how to settle their 
relative strength a contest was arranged 
between them. The legend goes, one of 
the giants proved himself mightier in 
wrestling than the other. He would seize 
his adversary in his arms, raise him high 
above his head and hurl him with terrific 
force to the earth. But, by a strange mar- 
vel, every time the apparently conquered 
giant touched the earth, he rebounded back 



7 6 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



with renewed strength and vigor so that 
the first giant began to tire of the constant 
effort of mastering his opponent and was 
about to abandon the conflict. Then a wise 
little pigmy came to him and whispered 
how he might conquer his foe and the next 
time he seized him in his arms, he raised 
him above the earth and with his terrific 
strength crushed him, bone and muscle in 
his arms and held him there mangled until 
he died. This legend illustrates what I 
mean by the importance of education, in 
having the child touch life, touch his en- 
vironment and to get strength from the 
contact instead of failure and death, as so 
many of us do. 

These all illustrate what I mean by a 
self active process of adjustment, they all 
show what I mean by touchnig life and 
getting strength from the contact. They 
illustrate the great saying of Spenser "To 
give the net product without showing the 
processes by which nature realizes that 
product is to invert the order of learning, 
is to deprive the child of the ability to touch 
life as it is, to imitate in his own profes- 
sional, industrial, commercial or other en- 
terprises, the life processes themselves 
which produce this successful net product. 

The child, therefore, will have a true life 
equipment, when the school has established 
within him the habit of self active mastery 
over his environment, has brought him into 
possession of the true inheritance of the 
race, and made it possible for him to use 
that inheritance to its fullest, and to trans- 
mit it improved to posterity. 

When we turn from this self active pro- 
cess of individual mastery over conditions, 
to the conditions themselves, we are met by 
another important consideration which 
may enable us to measure again the extent 
of proper life equipment. The school as 
a matter of fact seems to have been con- 
cerned more with the traditional aspect of 
environment rather than with the actual 
life about it, and the very probable life, 
that is already beginning to be for the stu- 
dents, who are soon to leave its protecting 
walls. The course of studies in most of our 
schools has been made up of the logical or- 
ganization of man's deeds in the past. It 
has taken their language, and literature 
and science and history, has glorified the 
best in these, and has called the child in to 
worship at the shrine of these past suc- 
cesses, and under entirely different condi- 
tions, has tried to force him to imitate them 



or to attain the same degree of excellence. 
It has wearied his little brain with language 
and mathematical symbols that have no 
content for him and for which he found no 
use in life. It has driven out the present 
and killed the living before admitting them 
within its walls for study, and has been so 
concerned with mastering a resurrection of 
the dead that it has little time for the quick 
or the needs that are even now quickening 
for the future. Is it not possible for the 
school to abstract from the traditional en- 
vironment of the race all that is of ex- 
cellence therein and find the expression of 
the excellence in terms of actual activity 
around about the child today. 

Is it not possible for the school to see in 
the flying machine the complex summary 
of every device that man has used to mas- 
ter his environment for locomotion and to 
subjugate the forces and energies of nature 
for his own welfare and happiness? Is it 
not possible in a course in chemistry to 
forecast a combination of sapolio and 
ammonia which will give a product of in- 
dustrial value that will be of more worth to 
the students and to the hqusewife, than the 
mere study of the actual sapolio or 
ammonia as they exist without any look 
forward into the possibilities of a combina- 
tion of these for their amplified use? 

Is it not possible in our courses of 
physiography, nature and science work, to 
take the class out into actual life to study 
the meandering stream, the pone plain, the 
talus slope, the evidences of glacial deposit 
and illustrate the great truth of causal rela- 
tion, of social dependence on physiograpic 
conditions, as illustrated in our railroad 
routes, in the great trade centers and in the 
possibility of commercial and industrial ad- 
vantages resulting from an accurate knowl- 
edge of actual geographic conditions round 
about us ? 

Is it not possible in our history, civics 
and economics courses to study the actual 
city and state departments, to visit them 
even for days at a time, if necessary under 
city supervision and the city expense ; in our 
course of manual training to go into the 
box factory, the jewelry shop, the gas 
house, the electrical works and cotton mills, 
and to studv first hand conditions with 
with which the boys and girls are to con- 
tend or modify for their individual comfort 
and the success of the community? 

All of these things must result in a 
proper attitude toward life ; in an industrial 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



77 



and commercial appreciation and will en- 
able our boys and girls to realize the de- 
pendence of every member of society upon 
every other member and to preserve the 
proper relative values among the great in- 
dustries that make for human betterment. 
How few of us stop to reflect on the most 
common place facts of life that are 
pregnant with meaning when properly con- 
sidered. The breakfast roll and the milk 
that are on our own tables in the early 
morning here called for hours of labor and 
industry and organized effort that deserve 
proper appreciation. There has been an 
economic saving in the process that makes 
for individual leisure and saves the family 
wear and tear and includes the possibility 
of home comforts. . In the cleaning of our 
streets, the patrol of our city, fire and police 
protection, in the social work done by or- 
ganized charity, by settlement workers and 
by generous men and women, in all of 
these can be found legitimate matters for 
effectual study in the public schools to get 
the pupils in the habit of seeing life as it 
is and of appreciating and estimating the 
values of the real things about them, rather 
than fostering a blind admiration for the 
things that are dead and past. 

Is it entirely beyond the province of the 
school to safely forecast the essential ele- 
ments of activities that will make for future 
success and to impress these in the actual 
activities of the school daily so that the 
child will be doing here and now in elemen- 
tal form, perhaps, what he must be doing 
soon? That he will be fitted by the school 
to continue living and not be compelled to 
unlearn or neglect all that he has been 
forced to do in the school? That he shall 
not be compelled to succeed in spite of a 
set of useless or harmless habits that arti- 
ficial school methods have forced upon him 
during the most valuable formative period 
of his life? 

What then are we doing toward this real 
equipment of our students for the real 
needs that they are to face. Let us take 
an example from the physical aspect of our 
education today. 

All of us have read of the fact that the 
Secretary of State, Elihu Root has been 
compelled twice recently to retire to a 
sanitorium for physical recuperation. Per- 
haps we did not pay much attention to the 
fact that this sanitorium is conducted by a 
retired prize-fighter and wrestler called 
Muldoon with whom Secretary Root would 



not have condescended to associate in any 
way, when he was in his intellectual prime 
or when Muldoon was the champion Greco- 
Roman wrestler of the world. And, yet, 
after 20 years intellectual service to his 
country, this man of wisdom and affairs 
is forced to give himself into the hands of 
a man uneducated, at least in the ordinary 
school sense, to build up according to prize 
fighting methods his physical strength, so 
that he mav be able to use his brain a little 
longer. 

Does it not seem a sad commentary on 
our physical education in the schools and 
universities, and on our way of living, that 
the Secretary of State is compelled to go 
to a retired prize-fighter to recuperate 
physically so that he may be able to do 
mentally the things that may still be of ser- 
vice to our country? 

Are we, particularly in our crowded 
cities, paying proper attention to the 
hygienic conditions of our school rooms, to 
lighting, heating and ventilation? Are we 
having proper medical inspection and 
supervision? Are we providing play 
grounds and recreation centers for children 
of the school age and beyond? Are we 
realizing the close dependence of intellec- 
tual and moral excellence on physical 
health and well being, and are we seeing 
the importance of the eye and the ear as 
avenues of entrance for the stimuli that are 
to arouse the brain to proper activity, with- 
out which true intellectual and moral 
growth cannot be emphasized? Are we 
sending our boys and girls out of school 
with body erect, chest expanded, muscles 
developed, with a physical character that is 
stamped on their very walk and posture 
just as truly as their intellectual character 
is stamped upon their expressions of truth 
and their moral character is impressed in 
their attitude toward right? The school 
owes indeed the child a proper physical, in- 
tellectual and moral equipment for life ; at 
least, it is its duty to see that it does not 
injure him during the times that he is con- 
fined to it, and that all the knowledge of 
modern science of hygiene, sanitation, 
drainage, the qualities of food stuffs and 
the interdependence of physical and mental 
conditions should be marshaled to the pro- 
tection of the child to the proper fitting him 
for his life work. It may not be possible 
for the school to forecast every con- 
tingency. It may not be possible to fit 
every individual for the actual work he will 



78 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



undertake and succeed in in life, but it is 
possible to make education a vital process 
of selective adaption, an imitation of the 
steps by which nature reaches her net 
product. It is possible to imbue the child 
with a consciousness of his mastery over 
conditions. It is possible for him to learn 
to touch life and to get joy and strength 
from the contact. 

To do all this, however, the teacher him- 
self must be thus equipped and must be 
concerned more with the needs that are, 
and the needs that are to be, than with 
those that have been. He must be con- 
cerned more with the living now, and that 
which shall soon be than with the dead 
past. He must neglect fossils and not over- 
weight himself with the products of the 
past which being dead and inert will only 
serve to weight him down, but must look 
to the living now, for life and energy and 
be a prophet rather than an orator, a 
doer and a builder, rather than a dreamer 
or a destroyer. 

When I was invited to speak to this great 
body of teachers of the state of Rhode 
Island, I decided that I would come here 
several days in advance and look over con- 
ditions in city and state so that whatever 
I might say might not be amiss for local 
application. I am happy to report that the 
state and city have a representative body 
of devoted teachers who are doing their 
best under present conditions in many ways 
to realize the ideas that I have been plead- 
ing. But while there is much they still 
could do, there is also much that could be 
done for them. They are in many cases 
over-worked, under-paid and unappre- 
ciated. The city and state committees fre- 
quently dole out to them every dollar with 
a begrudging hand and when boys and girls 
do not come up to the standard of commer- 
cial and industrial excellence, the blame is 
placed on the schools, the leaders of which 
have long been pleading for proper 
academic and financial freedom in the 
carrying on of the work necessary to real- 
ize this commercial and industrial excel- 
lence. 

Ten years ago, in a hysteria of reform, 
Providence threatened to deprive the little 
children of the most valuable of all their 
training — the kindergarten — and when 
noble women of the Public Educational 
Committee cried down the injustice, a sop 
and in this case a most harmful one was 
given the resenters, when the beginning 
of domestic sciences and economy in the 



cooking courses and the chemistry of foods, 
etc., were beginning to be studied, were 
ordered taken out of the schools and 
Providence was thrown back ten years, at 
least in its educational advance. 

Time was in New England, when all of 
these industrial activities were performed 
in the home, when the stockings were 
knitted, the food stuffs canned, the bread 
baked and the clothing to a large extent 
made in the very homes. Woman, the ever 
devoted toiler of the race, performed all 
these duties with a saving that man did not 
always appreciate. Now, however, when 
organized industry and commerce have in- 
dustrialized these home activities and put 
the knitting and the weaving into the mills 
and the canning into the factory and the 
baking into the biscuit trust, the schools 
have clone little to supply these lost activi- 
ties which boys and girls formerly learned 
in the home. The great economic law of 
industrialism is working out to an infallible 
consequence, but the schools have not sup- 
plied the growing generation with the same 
or equivelant activities. When the young 
man or woman goes out in to real life, they 
have not lived through those culture epochs 
and are retarded in the rapidity of their ad- 
justment to economic and commercial con- 
ditions about them. It is the duty of the 
schools to place these activities in every 
course of stuclv. It is the duty of the school 
committee to appropriate adequate funds 
for the carrying out of these activities and 
to leave the Superintendent and Principal a 
sufficient amount of academic freedom to 
realize the values of these necessary steps 
in human development. 

I am happy to say that throughout the 
country today, teachers are realizing this 
great need. I am proud to be a teacher in 
this golden age of education which has 
reached the highest rank of professional 
excellence because of the dig'nity of the 
work itself, because of the high standard 
of the preparation it requires and because 
of the sanctity of the responsibility it puts 
upon us. Our universities today through- 
out the country are organizing courses 
that are alive. It has been our great honor 
today to listen to the President of the 
Brown University who has told us of the 
great things that that institution has done 
for the teacher of this and of nearby states, 
and of the still greater things that it is 
to do. 

Psychology is beginning to be studied on 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



79 



the living lines of organic development 
rather than on the old former descriptive, 
theoretical lines, is emphasizing the_life 
processes, is using material from the actual 
environment of the child, material which 
must be made over into his future success. 
Subject matter of the course of study is 
being drawn not merely from the growth 
of tlie past but from the actual living 
present, not merely from the book and the 
picture and the traditional learning of the 
race, but from the shop and the mart, from 
the business office, and the factory, and the 
bridge and the subway, and the Hying 
macliine and the kitchen, from the need of 
home decoration and of free services in the 
playground, in the settlement, in the 
recreation center. 

Teachers trained in the knowledge of 
these things and in a use of them as school 
material will send out children truly 
equipped for the great needs of life, and i 
am happy to see that the teachers of this 
state are not entirely deprived of the best 
possibilities in these lines. 

God and humanity, and the state have 
given us the most sacred responsibility, 
have given us the product of the ages and 
of every organism that has been from 
the beginning to the present time. 

The little child is ours with his trust, and 
his confidence and his hope and his pos- 
sibilities. Helpless, he is placed in our 
hands surrounded by nature, surrounded 
by physical and moral environment against 
which he must often contend and over 
which he must always secure the mastery 
if that mead of happiness is to be his which 
is the birthright of every child of humanity, 
'the ages and the ages have been con- 
cerned in his making, and woe be unto us 
if we undo or retard the sacred process. 
Woe be to us if we neglect in ourselves this 
necessary law of adjustment to the living 
now. 

Let us take the child as he comes to us, 
and let us fit him into life through his self 
active response. Let us fit him into such 
a way of life that he will touch it, that he 
will get strength and happiness from the 
contact, that he will enter upon his inherit- 
ance to the fullest extent fully equipped to 
transmit it to posterity, not merely as he 
received it but improved by the possession, 
and a new source of happiness, for every 
child of humanity that is to follow him. 



THE KINDERGARTEN AND SOCIAL 
SERVICE. 

NETTIE P. SCHWERIN, 
Head Worker, Bloomingdale, Guild, N. Y. 

During the last ten years a new era 
seems to have dawned in education. The 
democratic tendencies that had already 
developed so strong in politics, in literature 
and in art are now making themselves felt, 
in education. A new ideal, the social one 
is emphasized. 

This social ideal, however, is working 
out but slowly, owing to the orthodox 
traditions that control many departments 
of school room practice. In the settlement, 
however, many of the traditions have been 
set aside, and a freerer type of education is 
in development. Here, too, democracy is 
not realized as yet, but is in process of 
development. It seems to me that it is 
through the settlement, in co-operation 
with the school and school room practice 
that the best results may be looked for in 
the future. The reaction of this co-opera- 
tion should be felt both in the school and 
in the settlement, as each of these organi- 
zations need the help of the other. In our 
own settlement, the Bloomingdale Guild, 
146 W. rooth street, the desirability for this 
co-operation with the New York Froebel 
Normal, which is in such close proximity 
to this settlement, is now being worked 
out. 

In our story telling classes, the hand 
work classes, festival work and in the club 
organization we are providing special train- 
ing for the students of the New York 
Froebel Normal. Those students come to 
us prepared with the special training. In 
return the student receives from the settle- 
ment the power to react quickly in the situ- 
ations, and the benefit of freer work which 
they would be obliged to give in order to 
hold their classes and clubs intact. 

This broader kind of work has its place 
in education just as much as the program 
has its place in the Kindergarten. The 
futility of attempting to force a definite pro- 
gram on a club for instance of boys from 
eight to ten years old who have been in 
school all day and who are under the in- 
fluence of the fascinating street life of our 
crowded city, is most obvious to even a 
casual observer. 

I believe the work must be prepared and 
prepared carefully. But quick adjustment 
must be made to a situation and perhaps a 



So 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



new program will have to be arranged at a 
moment's notice. This naturally requires 
a club leader to have initiative, and initiative 
is therefore, an important element in the 
make-up of a club worker. Besides this 
sympathy and a belief of human nature is 
necessary. With these three qualifications, 
training, initiative and sympathy, to start 
with a club leader may hope to develop into 
a capable worker. 

Another important qualification is spon- 
taneity. Nothing is more pitiful than to see 
the songs and games so sterilized that all 
joy has been taken from them. The club 
leader herself must have the qualifications 
she wishes to develop in her club groups. 
No one is so quick as a street child to detect 
insincerity or the lack of interest on the 
part of the leader. The failure of many 
club leaders is due to their lack of faith and 
insight in children. We hope to be able to 
take groups of students from the New York 
Froebel Normal, bringing with them the 
splendid training that they have received, 
and ready to react to tiie new situations 
that they will meet in the club work with 
the children of our tenement population, 
and thus strike the right balance in out- 
work, both on the educational and the 
social side. 



THE KINDERGARTEN A CULTURE 
PERIOD IN LIFE. 

JULIA A. BALBACK. 

The kindergarten is our planting ground 
for the morals, maimers, patriotism, clean- 
liness of body and mind, justice toward 
man and beast, and a realization of human 
worth and responsibility of the future. We 
have run the gamut of self-indulgence, self- 
will and selfishness and we are none the 
better for the experience. We have been 
charitable also in a formless, unthinking 
way, but the charities performed have 
shown us that a greater charity is needed ; 
a charity which does not only give for to- 
day j.nd tomorrow, but a charity which 
gives for all time, a charity as broad and 
long as this glorious land of ours we live in, 
a charity which means the health, wealth 
and welfare of our country, and which will 
make a nation of absolutely independent 
individuals, although as absolute inter- 
dependent commonwealths. I mean we 
need ? nation's charity of thought and rea- 
soning on the subject of people training, 
which can only be reached through the 



kindergarten. The well-to-do children re- 
ceive good training, also aid to rind then- 
place in this world, but the poor children 
whose parents have many little ones have 
no show on earth unless thinking humanity 
will give them one. There is no way to 
help people out of poverty but by training 
them to know what they must know to be 
able to help themselves and to realize their 
possibilities. Every child that is born is 
entitled to a fair training and education in 
order to make a good and useful citizen. 
If this noble human charity could suddenly 
be realized, in eighteen years from today 
the prison walls would begin to crumble 
and benevolent institutions of learning and 
training be common in their stead, and the 
land would bloom in all its glory from 
Alaska to Cape Horn. The good sense, in- 
telligence and practical knowledge gained 
by the then youth throughout the land 
would make sordid poverty unthinkable, 
for with knowledge comes strength, power 
and contentment, for no one who can read 
good books and write, who can keep a clean 
home, who can work at a trade, or do com- 
mon work bravely, and be honored there- 
for, can possibly be called poor. 

By the time when the public kinder- 
garten is fully underway we will have 
learned how not to have poor people among 
us. We will find ways and means that all 
may be employed, housed and fed, and none 
but those who want to be wicked need 
be so. Cities and states will find ways and 
means to provide a more economical house- 
hold so that the funds wasted or purloined 
by grafters today will in future be used in- 
stead to help the people help themselves 
through their better training, and coming 
generations brought up by the best of 
citizens, especially the best of women, will 
in future permit neither graft nor mis- 
management. 

For the persons who can realize the 
power for good of the vote will know how 
to appreciate it and use it. The vote of 
farmers and mechanics can not be bought, 
but the ignorant vote can. Right living 
and right thinking can only be gained by 
the multitude if inculcated during child- 
hood, and with good precepts and fine ex- 
ample the vast multitude will gladly take 
up what is best in their reach, and once 
rightly started — strive on. 

May God permit this great philanthropy, 
a philanthropy in which every citizen may 
help, to come true, and the kindergarten 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



flourish everywhere together with the 
parks, and play-grounds where while learn- 
ing useful things at play our children may 
at the same time imbibe health and 
strength. 



THE I. K. U. AT BUFFALO 

Buffalo has been selected as the next 
place of meeting of the International Kin- 
dergarten Union. The invitation comes 
from the Mayor, the Superintendent of 
Education, the Buffalo Kindergarten Asso- 
ciation, the Buffalo Kindergarten Union, 
and the Alumnae of the Training School of 
the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 

With the growth of the Union the selec- 
tion of a place of meeting becomes increas- 
ingly difficult. Buffalo seems to meet all 
the requirements. It is a center of kinder- 
garten interest, it is midway between the 
East and the West, and is convenient of 
access from all points of country. The 
local committee has selected the week be- 
ginning April as the most convenient time 
for holding the meeting. 
Authorised by MISS NINA C. VANDEWALKKR. 

Chairman Committee on Time and Place. 



In order to ascertain the general opinion of 
Kindergartners, concerning the value of an exhibit 
at the I. K. TJ. convention, the Buffalo Kinder- 
gartners are asking kindergartners to reply to the follow- 
ing questions at once: 

I. Do you consider an exhibit of sufficient 
value to compensate for the time and labor spent 
by the exhibitors? 

II. Do you recommend a general or a special 
exhibit? 

III. If a special exhibit, along what lines? For 
instance, Art, Giftwork, etc. 

IV. Kindly suggest any special Kindergarten 
work which has been brought to your attention 
and which would be desirable for use as an 
exhibit. 

V. Along what line would you be willing to 
exhibit? 

VI. If at the head of a Training School would 
you be interested in a Training School Exhibit? 

What would your school be willing to con- 
tribute? 

If impossible to call a meeting of your branch 
please send your personal answer. 

MARY B. WATKINS, 
Chairman of the Committee on Exhibit. 
86 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 



Rhode Island is keenly alive to the vital 
problems in education today. 



Providence has features of special in- 
terest — its open air school, and its close co- 
operation among settlement libraries and 
public education committees being im- 
portant. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

The National New Education League to 
which reference was made in the Septem- 
ber number of the Kindergarten-Primary 
Magazine has been fairly launched together 
with the initial number of the organ which 
represents the cause for which the organi- 
zation stands. We recommend thoughtful 
teachers to send to the headquarters of the 
League, 414 Merrill Building, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, for copies of this journal, 
"National New Education" and for the 
"Prospectus" which tells in detail the aims 
and also the methods proposed to accom- 
plish these aims. 

The present and ultimate success of the 
American Republic depends upon the Com- 
mon School System of the country. The 
Common schools should be so numerous, 
the classes so restricted as regards num- 
bers, the teachers so skilled and con- 
secrated and the methods so excellent that 
all citizens should take a pride in sending, 
as does our patriotic President, their chil- 
dren to the public schools. At present, in 
many of our congested city centers that is 
practically impossible. Many a public- 
spirited mother would be glad to send her 
child to the public schools, feeling that 
there is obtained there a certain democratic 
training which no private school provides; 
but she is deterred from so doing by the 
feeling that she may be thereby depriving 
some needy child of the privileges for 
which she herself can afford to pay. Again, 
in centers of foreign population many feel 
uneasy at thought of their children having 
only foreign-born children for playmates 
and companions. Both of these considera- 
tions are important, but were classes small 
so that the children could have the in- 
dividual attention of the teacher many ob- 
jections would be answered. 

The N. N. E. L. wishes to accomplish 
for the entire school system what the spirit 
of Froebel has accomplished for the kinder- 
garten. We quote: "Their (German Com- 
missioners sent over to study the American 
school system) reports show a friendly dis- 
position to appreciate to its full value what 
the American school accomplishes, but they 
are practically unanimous in their opinion 
that while our primary and lower elemen- 
tary grades often present surprisingly good 
results, the upper elementary and advanced 
(high school) work is unsatisfactory. 

"The explanation for the above is very 
simple. In consequence of the constant 



8a 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



agitadon of individual and associated 
friends of childhood since the Froebelian 
ideals dawned upon widely different 
regions of the United States ; by the largely 
self-sacrificial work of the pioneers of 
rational education in many private and 
society schools and kindergartens ; through 
the educational press, the discussions at 
educational conventions, the activity of 
women's federations and particularly of the 
10,000 devoted members of the I. K. U. and 
kindred associations, an irresistible in- 
fluence has been exerted upon the primary 
departments of our schools — with or with- 
out kindergarten attached — in thousands 
of localities wherever that activity was 
felt." 

All kindergartners who wish that the 
consecrated work and methods of the kin- 
dergarten should be carried forward 
throughout the grades of the school can- 
not fail to be interested in this movement. 
Business men, manufacturers, parents, 
patriots, faithful teachers, all feel that 
although in many respects our schools do 
bring forth good fruit, nevertheless, the re- 
sults are not adequate to the time and 
money spent upon them. Will not those 
who criticise, unite in an attempt to elimin- 
ate faults, to rectify mistakes, and to per- 
fect the good. One step in this direction 
will be the passing of the bill introduced on 
May 26, 1908 by Senator Isaac Stephenson 
of Wisconsin in the United States Senate ; 
a bill numbered S. 7228, having for its ob- 
ject the creation of a new executive depart- 
ment of the national government to be 
named Department of Education and repre- 
sented by a secretary in the presidential 
cabinet. 

The new department would invest the 
pedagogic profession with greater dignity 
and influence. It would make the people 
feel that education is one of the most im- 
portant functions of government, because 
upon the intelligence and civic virtues of 
the citizens will depend the sane develop- 
ment, the future welfare and the very exist- 
ence of our Republic. 

The 500,000 teachers and members of 
school boards, and in fact the friends of 
educational advancement in all parts of the 
United States should now send petitions in 
support of the bill to the friend of their 
cause, Isaac Stephenson, and to the sena- 
tors and representatives of their respective 
states, without regard to political or other 
differences. 



If the Stephenson bill becomes a law, it 
will bring powerful aid and encouragement 
to the educational interests of all states, 
similar to that rendered to the agricultural 
and other interests now represented by 
executive departments. 



Mrs. Ogden Mills of New York was the 
principal backer of a vacation school pro- 
ject to have the children of the poor taught 
to make their own toys. This idea is not 
entirely new to kindergartners who in the 
line of occupation work frequently have 
their children make substantial objects with 
which the children may afterwards play. 
Wagons of cardboard, dolls' furniture, doll- 
houses, paper dolls and paper animals are 
some of the things that have been made by 
little hands. Certainly the making of toys 
should not be restricted to the children of 
the poor. Country boys in the old days had 
many a good game with balls made of the 
leather taken from worn out boots or 
shoes and the school that helps the child of 
wealth to enjoy making playthings out of 
raw material found at home will be adding 
to both the happiness of the child and his 
capacitv for present and future usefulness. 

At Christmas time it might be well to ask 
a classroom of children how many toys 
they have ever made and to have a discus- 
sion as to which might be made for younger 
children at home. 

This is the time also to have the kinder- 
garten toys repaired and put in condition. 
Surgical operations may be needed by some 
of the dolls or toy animals ; gift-boxes may 
need to have the covers glued; the building 
gifts may be improved by a good washing, 
chairs may require paint and perhaps the 
doll house may need a new coat. Discuss 
with the children the toys at home and 
such as need repair. Give suggestions as 
to how this may he done. Perhaps some 
old toy may be put into good repair for 
giving away. Try also to let the children 
feel the joy of giving away some gift which 
is new from the shops. 



The following extract from a contem- 
porary may give a hint to older children of 
experiments to be made, which may evolve 
into a simple Christmas gift : 

The First Moving Pictures. 

Moving pictures originated in an experiment to 
snow both sides of a shilling at once. In 1S26, 
according to the Chicago Tribune, Sir John 
Herschel asked his friend, Charles Babbage, how 
he would show both sides of a shilling at once. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



83 



Babbage replied by taking a shilling from his 
pocket and holding it before a mirror. 

This did not satisfy Sir John, who set the 
shilling spinning on a large table, at the same 
time pointing out that if the eye is placed on a 
level with a rotating coin, both sides can be seen 
at once. 

Babbage was so struck by the experiment that 
the next day he described it to a friend, Doctor 
Fitton, who immediately made a working model. 

On one side of a disk was drawn a bird, on the 
other side an empty bird cage. When the card 
was revolved on a silk thread the bird appeared 
to be in the cage. This model showed the per- 
sistence of vision upon which all moving pictures 
depend for their effect. 

The eye retains the image of the object seen for 
a fraction of a second after the object has been 
removed. This model was called the thaumatrope. 
Next came the zeotrope, or "wheel of life." A 
cylinder was perforated with a series of slots, and 
within the cylinder was placed a band of drawings 
of dancing men. On the apparatus being slowly 
rotated, the figures seen through the slots appeared 
to be in motion. 

The first systematic photographs of men and 
animals taken at regular intervals were made by 
Edward Maybridge in 1877. 



This season when the doll is so much in 
evidence it is of interest to note that in 
September at the meeting of the Colored 
National Baptist Association composed of 
negro leaders from all over the country, 
resolutions were passed calling upon 
colored mothers to hereafter buy only 
colored dolls for their children, with a view 
to increasing respect for their own race, 
and encouraging the manufacturer of these 
dolls by the Association. 



Mrs. Julia A. Fletcher Carney, author of 
"Little Drops of Water," that nursery 
classic, died November First in Galesburg, 
Illinois. She was a primary school teacher 
in Boston at the time (1845) sne wrote the 
verses. 



This number of the Magazine brings us 
around to the most joyous period of the 
year, Christmas tide. We take this occa- 
sion to extend to our subscribers, to our 
friends, to all members of the great human 
family the greetings of a truly Happy 
Christmas. 



No idea, perhaps, has so taken hold of 
the human fancy or has exerted a greater 
influence on the true advance of the race 
than the idea of the Christ Child. This 
stands at once for the sum total of all that 
the race had been in the past, typified in the 
infancy and the hope of this race Savior, as 
well as the aspiration of humanity toward 
its ultimate deification. 



The idea is particularly true to the Kin- 
dergartner who takes every Christ child of 
humanity that comes to her, and tries to 
mould and advance him according to this 
race ideal and race aspiration. 

It is this unification of the noblest in 
human hope, and the highest in spiritual 
aspiration that makes the Kindergarten a 
perennial source of freshness and aspira- 
tion. 

May this ideal extend out into every 
child mind and take possession of every 
child soul and lift him up to participate in 
true race salvation by his co-operation to 
the fullest in the spiritual life of the race, 
and in the vital duty of the individual, 
home, and civic responsibilities. 

May the joy of Christmas tide be the un- 
failing fountain of strength and joy to 
every child of humanity. 



Dr. Jennie B. Merrill, Supervisor of Kin- 
dergartens in Manhattan and the Bronx of 
New York City was the special guest of 
the Maine Teachers' Association in Novem- 
ber. The topic she discussed was the rela- 
tion of the Kindergarten to the Primary, 
and incidentally to Education in the larger 
sense. 

It would be very helpful to both the Kin- 
dergarten and Primary if supervisors and 
superintendents of schools could meet 
oftener for an impartial discussion for the 
real relation that should exist among the 
various departments of education, particu- 
larly the Kindergarten and the lowest 
Primary grades. 

Dr. Merrill is doing a large work in New 
York City to make this relation as close 
as possible, and we will welcome from 
supervisors and superintendents through- 
out the country all suggestions and results 
obtained in trying to make this relation 
closer. 



At the Rhode Island Institute of Teach- 
ers, Dr. E. Lyell Earle, the editor of the 
Kindergarten Primary Magazine, and 
President of the New York Froebel Nor- 
mal was the special lecturer during the first 
week of November. There were two 
thousand teachers in attendance and the 
sincerest co-operation was manifest among 
the various departments of church and 
State and school, all working for the better- 
ment of the child, and advancement of edu- 
cation. One of Dr. Earle's addresses is 
found in this number of the Magazine. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 




A CHRISTMAS SYMPOSIUM. 

JENNY B. MERRILL, Pd D. 

IT has occurred to me that selections 
from the reports of Christmas month, 1907, 
in our public kindergartens, would be an 
inspiration for 1908. 

A glimpse here and a glimpse there will 
serve to show how we preserve unity in 
diversity at this happy season. 

The query concerning differing creeds 
which one thoughtful kindergartner raises 
is answered by the happy dance around an 
''evergreen tree." In practice we find it 
possible to find some common note of joy, 
and little by little are we not teaching every 
child not merely to tolerate but to love 
those who keep different holidays, but are 
all children of one Father. 

Life shakes us together in a great city 
and we must needs learn to endure each 
others' creeds. 

I have thought well to introduce this 
seemingly discordant note because it indi- 
cates a sociological problem and because 
the kindergartner handled it with real tact 
and sympathy. 

A QUERY AND AN ANSWER. 

The last three weeks of the month were devoted 
to the preparation for and celebration of the 
Christmas festival, entirely without religious 
reference. Every child made a gift for the one 
he loved most at home and for a child in the 
kindergarten. 

The Christmas tree was dressed by the children 
Tuesday morning and there was no doubt that 
they were pleased with the result. 

After the holidays there was a marked change 
in the feeling for Christmas. The Jewish children 
would not sing the Santa Claus songs. They said, 
they were just as good as Christian children even 
if Santa Claus didn't visit them and that "Santa 
Claus is a lie." WE DID NOT TALK ABOUT IT 
AFTER THAT. 

The tree and its life in the forest interested 
them. We called it "the evergreen tree," and the 
Jewish children danced around it as gaily as the 
Christian children. 

Is it right to tell Jewish children even 
the Santa Claus legend? Is it good for 



Christian children to celebrate Christmas as 
a pagan festival ? 

Answer— The children of all creeds must 
meet these differences in literature and do 
they not need to "play them out" in happy 
childhood as the best kind of preparation 
for an understanding of history? 

The case cited is unusual and simply re- 
flects an agitation in the community in 
which the children live. It is an interesting 
and faithful report and illustrates how chil- 
dren feel the atmosphere about them. How 
imitative they are and how much more they 
absorb than we realize of home talk. How 
quickly too they drop a grievance under 
wise, tactful management as is shown in 
dropping the subject and uniting on the 
nature side by calling the tree "an ever- 
green tree." 

"Overcome evil with good." 
"A soft answer turneth away wrath." 
"If meat cause my brother to offend I 
will eat no more meat." 

Let us not forget the Christian spirit in 
our zeal for the historic Christmas story. 

(See Kindergarten Magazine , December, 1907, 
article entitled "Difficulties of Celebrating Christ- 
mas," Mary F. Schaeffer. 

THE TOYMAN. 
Holiday Thoughts — : Loving and giving; Happy 
New Year coming. 

TOYS IN CONNECTION WITH HOLIDAY. 

Toy Shop played — Our toys arranged on chairs 
(counters). Other children come to buy them. 
Dolls — girls. Trumpets, drums — boys. Children 
reproduce them in drawing, cutting, folding. R. K 

We started the month by a visit to a toy shop on 
Grand street. The children were delighted and 
talked of this visit for weeks. They drew pictures 
of what they saw and played the game of "Toy- 
man" with a great deal of life and spirit. E. D. D. 

During December the children had a happy 
time making toys such as rocking horses, Teddy 
bears, dolls, etc. The toyman meant a great deal 
to the children and a visit to the Grand street toy 
push carts and scanty window shows made the 
little children happy. R. D. 

During the month of December we have talked 
about the toyshop and have made as many toys as 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



85 



possible in kindergarten materials. The children 
brought in all the toys they have at home and 
they asked their mothers to take them on Grand 
street to see all the toys in the windows. E. L. 

Just before Christmas we all had a delightful 
visit to Schwarz's toy shop. We were conducted 
through every department. All the mechanical 
toys were v/ound up and set going for us. We 
peeped into four doll houses and our hearts were 
made glad by a beautiful illustrated letter each of 
us received to take home and mail to Santa Claus. 

A. M. M. 

A doll's house was made for our kindergarten 
and Santa Claus we hoped would see it and send 
furniture for it. Needless to say the furniture had 
arrived upon our return and a tiny Christmas 
tree stood in the parlor. 

THE TREE. 

Our Christinas tree was one of the prettiest and 
largest ones which we ever had. We started very 
early this year to get ready so we didn't get in 
such a rush at the end. 

This year we put the mothers' presents and the 
fathers' presents in a box and wrapped each box 
up nicely and put a picture of Santa Claus on the 
outside. I found it much better than trying to 
put the presents on the tree at noon time after 
the morning class had had their party. A. M. D. 

I took all my children up on a hill where Christ- 
mas trees grew and cut down one! The children 
carried it home. The tree was made very beautiful 
by things which the children had made. Some 
German parents sent some quaint ornaments for 
the tree. At the tree celebration there were 2 3 
mothers, six babies and one grandfather. There 
were GO children altogether. B. C. F. 

A forest of pine trees was represented in our 
sand table by using twigs kept during the year 
from our last tree. 

We went to this forest, selected a tree, played 
cut it down and transported it to a toy wagon and 
a toy train to the city. 

The Christmas tree arrived Monday and we had 
a beautiful time with it before it was dressed for 
the Christmas party. Every child helped to dress 
it. Fifteen mothers visited us and they were very 
much pleased with the tree, the gifts the children 
had made and the songs they sang. The primary 
classes came in to see the tree. They sang their 
carols and we caroled back to them. S. L. 

The Christmas tree, our central object of interest 
this month, was purchased by the children who 
carried it to the kindergarten on their shoulders. 
This is one of the events of the year. The mothers 
were invited to enjoy it when trimmed. H. V. 

The Christmas tree was the central object for 
the month, first in preparation for the festival, then 
the tree itself and last the great holiday. Our 
friends were with us, we sang and played games 
and told stories and then received our gifts for 
the parents and ourselves and said good- bye with 
hearts full of thankfulness and joy. S. E. G. 

GIFTS AMD DECORATIONS. 

Children made rose calendars, red cardboard 
blotters with holly pasters and red ribbon, pussy- 
cat match scratchers on gray card with edges 
sewed and colored red. The tree was decorated 
with cornucopias, baskets, lanterns and chains 
made by children. Room hung with red and green 
chains and holly. M. G. C. 

The children brought quantities of greens to 
trim the room, every available space being filled 
with spruce, pine and hemlock. K. D. 

Our Christmas tree was a great success and 
never looked so pretty. The little things which 
the children made were simple and gave great 
pleasure. A little picture of the class was taken 



as a present for each mother. The mothers came, 
and, I think, especially enjoyed the game "Christ- 
mas Toys." The children dramatized the toys they 
desired Santa Claus to bring, and entered into the 
fun with great spirit. C. T. R. 

In decorating the room for the Xmas exercises, 
the children cut out white bells and painted them 
led and green, and strung three straws between 
each bell. They placed their own presents on the 
tree. E. G. 

I tried a new experiment for the children's 
Christmas gifts. We had pretty red cards 3x6 on 
which were mounted tiny calendars and the child's 
own photograph. The pictures turned out rather 
unsatisfactorily and they all were not particularly 
clear; they were good in as much as they were 
suggestive of the child's most characteristic atti- 
tude. Those mothers who were here seemed much 
pleased. We had our tree as usual which was 
festooned with gifts and hangings made by the 
children. The tree was placed* on a table which 
was laden with little baskets made by the children 
of the afternoon class for my children and vice 
versa. The baskets were filled with crackers and 
prettily arranged with red crepe paper and white 
tissue paper. F. A. 

The children made raffia needle books for the 
mothers, calendars for the fathers and the trim- 
mings for the tree. The colors were restricted to 
red and green, but gold and silver lamp lighters 
lightened it a little. On Monday we had the 
children make "sugar plums" (cream walnuts) 
and the triangular candy boxes decorated with 
fancy seals. Before making the candy we had 
the hands washed in hot water and soap, which 
we hoped would have some value in the future. 
It has had some effect. 

STORIES. 

I told the following stories during December: 

"Little Red Riding Hood." 

"The Story of the First Christmas." 

"The First Christmas Presents." 

"The Night Before Christmas." 

"Santa Claus and the Mouse." 

"The Wooden Shoe." 

"The Discontented Pine Tree." E. R. 

Five stories told during December: 
■ "Letter to Santa" — Gaynor Song Book. 

"Santa and the Mouse" — Child's World. 

"Christmas in the Barn" — Child's World. 

"First Christmas Presents" — Kindergarten 
Stories, Miss Wiltse. 

"The Three Wishes" — Fairy Tales. S. K. 

Other stories told: 

"Golden Cobwebs" — In "How to Tell Stories." 

"Lambs and the Bramble." 

"Piccola." 

"Christmas in Germany." 

"Little Jack Horner." 

"Mrs. Santa and the Dolls." 

"Mother Hubbard's Christmas Cupboard." 

"The Cat's Christmas Party." 

"The Raggedy Boy." 

HOW MOTHERS HELPED. 

In the beginning of December we had a Mothers' 
Meeting for the purpose of making scrap books for 
hospital children. The mothers furnished the 
pictures and cloth for books, the children helped 
cut out pictures from magazines. The mothers 
stayed until 5:30 to help finish and even took 
work home. We made thirty cloth scrap books 
in all. I- R. 

A Mothers' Meeting was held on Dec. 13, at 
which the mothers helped to make the Christmas 
stockings for the tree. We also planned to 
solicit clothes, bedding, etc., for a poor family, 
very worthy and very destitute, and to contribute 



86 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



toys and a Christmas dinner for them, to make 
their holiday season as cheerful as possible. 

M. J. H. 
THE CHIIISTMAS PARTY. 

I must speak of our Christmas party as it was 
such a treat. Our principal made it possible for 
us to have our tree in the school yard, the two 
kindergartens uniting and fully one hundred 
parents attending. There were sixty-six children 
in the circle. We had an opening circle, a march, 
played games, and formed circle again just in 
time to receive a visit from Santa Claus. Not one 
child was afraid. The prettiest thing to us was 
an impromtu dance around the tree, inspired by 
playing of waltz on the piano. Each child chose 
partner and danced. G. B. R. 

Our Christmas party was a great success. We 
had a tree, simple toys for the boys and dolls for 
the girls. A class of High school girls dressed the 
dolls and eleven of the girls came to our exer- 
cises. They were so interested in the children, 
that each girl has decided to become a kinder- 
gartner, their teacher tells me. E. G. S. 

We had our Christmas party Thursday after- 
noon, Dec. 22nd. Between thirty-five and forty 
mothers came. Many of the mothers come often 
to the kindergarten but a few were here for the 
first time that day. 

In this section of the town where so many of 
the parents have difficulty both in speaking and 
in understanding English they get a better com- 
prehension of the kindergarten by seeing its prac- 
tical working than they do by being told about 
the work. Fifteen minutes in the kindergarten 
brings about a better understanding than an 
hour's talk. H. M. O. 

At Christmas time we had our Christmas tree 
party and the mothers were invited again. I had 
ten mothers and one father present. I told the 
children a Christmas story, "The Brown Sparrow's 
Christmas;" we sang our Xmas songs, played a 
few games, and then distributed the presents to 
mothers and to the children. The children had 
hung their stockings — tarlton stockings — the 
night before and when they came found them filled 
with candies. A very delightful Christmas party 
and every one seemed happy. G. I. T. 

We enjoyed our Christmas work very much this 
year. We purchased the tree early, and per- 
mitted each child to decorate it in some way. 
Prom time to time a little toy or bright ball would 
appear and we let the child who had brought it 
hang the article wherever he wished. 

The children would walk around the tree and 
point to the little gift, and take such satisfaction 
in saying, "There's mine." The whole tree was 
theirs. Then their gifts pleased them so much, 
and we closed Friday with the two classes meet- 
ing in the morning. It really was a perfect 
picture. Our principal came to see us and she 
thought it so inviting that she permitted the other 
classes to call for a few moments. Their faces 
beamed with happiness and the true Christmas 
spirit was certainly felt. It sweetened my entire 
vacation. Their joy was so abundant and con- 
tagious. 

Our principal retires February 1st., and 
although it saddens us to think of it, still we 
realize the great privilege we have had in being 
associated with such a true and beautiful womanly 
woman. M. B. 

Center of interest — Our Christmas Tree. Two 
large trees and two small trees, the gift of our 
janitor. 

Never before have I experienced such a joyous 
time in the kindergarten in preparation for 
Christmas as this year. 

The children caught the spirit of "loving and 



giving." It was carried to their homes. Mother 
and father, brothers and sisters, all helped. 

For two weeks before our party, the little ones 
came bringing mysterious looking packages. 
Things they had made at home for the Christmas 
tree. When asked "What is this?" they would 
say rougishly, "I am Santa Claus." 

The work done at home and in the kindergarten 
was well done, showing independence and origin- 
ality in the use of material. We not only worked 
to make the parents happy but used our little 
tree to take to sick, poor and crippled little ones 
who would not have had a tree but for us. 

Stories told were "Piccola," "The Legend of the 
Christmas Tree," "Santa Claus and the Mouse," 
"The Little Boy's Dream," "The Forest," "The 
Bird's Christmas." 

Songs: "Ring, Ring Happy Bells," "This Tree 
Was Grown on Christmas Day," "Oh This Wonder- 
ful Tree," "We Send a Merry Christmas," etc. 

Our Christmas Festival was a grand success. 
Almost every mother was present. The children 
presented the head of our department with a min- 
iature tree, decorated with all their own handi- 
work. 

They made and filled tarleton stockings for visit- 
ing babies. M. F. S. 



A SUGGESTION 

In making gifts for adults, choose colors 
that are likely to please them rather than 
the child, namely tints and shades. 

Worsted is pretty for tying and is less 
expensive than ribbon. 

Make simple gifts and let them be the 
child's work as much as possible. 

Last year kindergartners found the crepe 
paper with holly and Santa Claus designs 
very useful in decorating and in making 
gifts. Translucent paper was also used 
with good effects. 

In places where nature material is scarce, 
efforts should be made to retain the Christ- 
mas tree or several of its lower branches 
for use after Christmas. If it seems best to 
give the tree to some institution or to a 
needy family for use on Christmas day, ask 
to have several branches returned or 
secure them from your own home tree. 
Suggestions will be given next month for 
the use of the material. 

Christmas Songs of Sky and Earth. 

"Twinkle, twinkle little star." 

"Little star that shines so bright." 

"Lady Moon." 

"Tiny Snownakes." 

"Tiny tracks in the snow." 

"Who comes this way." 

"O, clap, clap your hands." 

"Old Santa Claus." 

"Up on the house-top." 

"Oh, this wonderful tree." 

"This tree was grown on Christmas 
Day." 

"Jingle bells." 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



87 



"Ring happy beils." 

" Baby's boat." 

"Sleep little baby mine." 

"Once in royal David's city." 

"Holy night." 

"We three kings." 

AN INCIDENT. 

If any child should be frightened, this 
incident might be told as a story or it might 
be told before the celebration if Santa 
Clans is expected. 

Personally I regard it better not to have 
a visible Santa for the little ones. 

There may be pictures of the good saint 
but they should not be large or too 
grotesque and should not remain after 
Christmas. Fairies come and go quickly. 

A little five-year-old girl was at our home on 
Christmas Day. Someone dressed up as Santa 
Claus, and after a great jingling of bells outside, 
came into the parlor. The little girl's eyes grew 
big and round, and she clung to her father. In 
a few moments this fear disappeared and she 
called out: "Santa Claus, I wrote you a letter!" 

NOTE — Great care should be exercised not to 
frighten children nor unduly excite them dur- 
ing this season. 

PREPARING INVITATIONS. 

In many kindergartens the invitations to 
the Christmas party are prepared at least 
in part by the children. 

The children may cut out and paint a red 
or green bell, a stocking or fire place, a 
yellow star, and the invitation may be 
written inside if double or on the reverse 
side. 

A picture of Santa Claus or a simple 
holly seal may be mounted upon a card 
of invitation. 

A chimney may be used or a tree drawn 
in green with colored dots here and there 
to suggest lighted candles. 

An envelope may be folded of green 
paper and fastened with a small red circle 
or holly seal. 

On one bell used as an invitation card, 
the following verse appeared : 

"This little bell 

Bears a message you see. 
It asks you to come 

To our Christmas tree." 

It is a training in good taste to prepare 
cards of invitation with care. It is a mark 
of refinement to the credit of the kinder- 
gartner and will be appreciated in the home 
by the cultured mother and will be treas- 
ured as well by a mother who may not even 
be able to read the written words. 



The color and the symbol will carry the 
message. J. B. M. 

Scenes Suggested For Sand Table. 

1. The woods where fir trees grow. 
Introduce toy men and wagons, toy axe, 

etc. 

2. Transporting trees to the city. 
Introduce wagons, trains, boats, using 

either toys or building blocks. 

3. The city. Unloading at the railroad 
station. 

Wagons to carry trees to stores. Stores 
built of blocks. 

4. A country scene, ground covered 
with snow — the night before Christmas. 

Introduce Santa Claus driving over a 
bridge. Have a house built with a chimney 
in the distance. 



SUGGESTIONS ON CHRISTMAS 
MONTH. 

BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

The point of departure for November has 
been "benefits received," and the many 
things for which we have cause to be grate- 
ful. This naturally leads to the spirit of 
the Christmas giving for 

"... .if at any time we cease 

Such channels to provide 
The very founts of love for us 

Will soon be parched and dried. 

For we must share, if we would keep, 

That blessing from above; 
Ceasing to give, we cease to have; — 

Such is the law of love." 

For busy work at the desk the children 
in the rural schools may be given the kin- 
dergarten blocks to work out a sequence as 
follows: (The kindergarten teacher may 
dictate or merely give a suggested play. 
The grade teacher could give a definite 
dictation lesson or merely write upon the 
board the names of the objects to be built, 
or, if the children are very young, she could 
tell the story and let the children work out 
the different objects as they choose to 
represent them.) 

Tell of the little children who lived in a 




Wall to be Ladder 
Decorated 



Chimney 

comfortable house in the country (1). 



88 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



Their father planned to go out into the 
woods to cut down some hemlock trees, 
one for the church and one for his home. 
(The ruthless way in which the forest trees 
have been cut down in past years and the 
recent terrible devastation of the forests by 
the fires would make timely here a brief 
dissertation upon the importance of select- 
ing with discrimination the trees to be cut. 
None should be wasted and those who own 
timber lands should learn how to thin out 
the woods properly, leaving some trees to 
grow for future use and to protect the 
undergrowth from drying out and being 
washed away by rains leaving the rocky 
foundation bare of soil. (See Roth's " First 
book of Forestry" published by Ginn and 
Co.) Tell the children that in some Euro- 
pean countries, where the people have 
learned by sad experience the value of the 
forests, no man may cut a tree unless he 
plants another. Our own arbor day exer- 
cises are of great value for thus repairing 
the loss of trees occasioned by fires, lum- 
bering interests and human needs. 

But after this brief digression we must 
return to our story. Father takes out the 
large sleigh and the two strong horses (2) 
and drives to the woods possibly taking 
Tommy and Helen, well wrapped up in 
their warm coats, boots and mufflers. 

They bring home the trees (imaginary), 
and then father makes two wooden stand- 
ards, one for each tree (3). 

In the fall the family had gathered the 
long trailing ground-pine and other vines, 
and hollv had been sent to them from 
friends in the South and now they must put 
the tree in the front room and decorate the 
rooms with the green vines. So here is' the 
high wall of the front room and here the 
step-ladder (4). 

At night the children took their stockings 
and hung them up before the fireplace f O 
and then went to bed to dream of St. Nick 
coming clown the chimney. 

Let the children illustrate with their 
blocks "'Twas the Night Before Christ- 
mas." 

A sequence parallel to the above may be 
worked out with the Fourth Gift but in- 
stead of the tree-boxes the church may be 
built and then the church-wall which is to 
be decorated. 

In localities where Christmas trees may 
not grow or if for any reason it may not 
seem best to make use of the tree incident, 



play that father is driving to the station to 
meet the expected guests. 

Directions For Dictated Play. 

1. Place the boxes evenly in front of 
you. Here is the house where Tommy 
lived. 

2. Now we will make the sleigh with 
two horses. Take the two front top blocks 
and place them on the table to the right of 
the lower layer, just touching them evenly. 
Take the remaining two top blocks and 
place them to the left of the lower blocks 
about one inch away. These represent the 
horses. (Let the children play a little with 
them, moving the sleigh with the right 
hand and the horses with the left. Tiny 
dolls cut out of paper may help in the play. 
Play cut down trees and load on sleigh. 
Burnt matches may be used or twigs if 
obtainable. Leave sleigh and horses 
intact. 

3. We will now make two standards to 
hold the Christmas trees upright. Look 
at the sleigh. Take the two left-hand 
blocks of the sleigh and slide them along 
till they just meet the other two blocks. 
This gives two two-inch standards. Stick 
a match in the center where the blocks 
meet, to show how the tree would be held. 

4. Now we will build the high wail of 
the parlor and the tall step-ladder. Take 
the two front blocks of the left-hand stand- 
ard and place them on the two back blocks. 
Take the two front blocks of the remain- 
ing standard and place them on top of the 
wall. Take one of the remaining blocks 
and place it on the other to make a step- 
ladder. 

5. After helping the grown folks make 
the rooms beautiful and fragrant we are 
ready to go to bed and dream of Santa 
Claus, so we hang up our stockings before 
the fireplace. Build thus : Slide the top 
step of the ladder so that it rests exactly on 
top of lower step — making a pillar. Re- 
move the two top cubes from the wall and 
stand one on top of the other making a 
pillar. Place a little to one side. Now 
slide the next two top cubes of the wall a 
little forward so that they overlap the 
lower ones. This gives the hollow of the 
fireplace and the mantelpiece. Move the 
two pillars, one to the right and one to the 
left of the fireplace to complete it. 

Now cut some tiny stockings out of 
paper and if a narrow strip of paper about 
two inches long is cut at top of stocking 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



89 



it can be bent so as to be hung upon the 
mantelpiece. 

6. Cay the stockings to one side, to be 
ready to make the chimney. Slide the over- 
lapping cubes of the mantel back so that 
they rest exactly upon the lower ones. 
Place the right-hand pillar of two blocks 
so that its back left vertical edge exactly 
meets the front right vertical edge of the 
left-hand pillar. A three-sided hollow be- 
comes visible. Close this up with the two 
blocks that will best close it up. This gives 
the' chimney down which St. Nick will 
come. 

7. We will now make a cubical box 
like the one Tommy found in his stocking. 
Push the two front cubes back till they 
meet the two back cubes. Complete the 
large cube in the best possible way. (Leave 
this to the children's judgment.) Have 
them tell what Tommy found in his Christ- 
mas box. 

Suggestions For Occupation Work For Christmas 
Month. ! 

CLAY — Let the children model a num- 
ber of snowballs. Then pile several on top 
of one another to build a small snow fort. 
Fill up the interstices with clay and smooth 
over. Tell them that when men go far 
north where there is snow all the time they 
build real houses of snow and ice which do 
not melt. Let them model a snow man of 
clay. 

Make a sphere or ball of clay, and then 
cut it in half with a piece of string. Take 
each half sphere, and by pressure and 
molding with the fingers, hollow it out into 
a bowl or cup for baby's oatmeal. 

Take small piece of clay and roll it out 
into the shape of a Christmas candle. Re- 
member to insert the wick. Jewish and 
Roman Catholic children will be able to 
tell of the large candles that are used in 
cathedral and synagogue. A lesson in pro- 
portion can be given by asking that some 
be made one inch long and others twice 
that length and others three times that 
length. Have the little children count how 
many they make. 

Mold nuts to hang on the tree. Give 
good-sized walnuts as models. 

The \ older children may model holly 
leaves and berries, resting upon a founda- 
tion of firm clay in the shape of a placque. 

CARDBOARD TWINE-BOX— Take a 
cubical box in which comes shredded cod- 
fish. Paste over each side some pretty 
paper (wall-paper of a small pattern would 



be suitable as would any plain color of 
dainty tint. Punch a hole in the center of 
the bottom and make two other holes, in 
opposite sides about one-half inch from the 
top. Place a ball of pretty twine inside, 
first running the end through the hole in 
the bottom so that it can be gently pulled. 
Run ribbon through the two other holes 
bv which to suspend the box; glue down 
the top and the little gift is finished. Hang 
in some place convenient of access when 
string for wrapping is needed in a hurry. 
Let the older children make the entire box. 
(See November number of the Kindergar- 
ten Primary Magazine.) 

MATCH-SCRATCHER— 1. Cut a cir- 
cle of dainty-colored cardboard and upon 
it paste a star cut from sandpaper. White 
cardboard may be painted a dainty color 
in water-color paints. 

2. Upon a square of cardboard draw a 
star and let the children prick the outline 
with a kindergarten pricking needle or a 
hat-pin or shawl-pin. In center of star, 
paste a piece of sandpaper. 

3. Cut a cardboard oblong measuring 
6?l7 inches. Take sandpaper measuring 
4 x /2x6 or 7 inches. Cut from upper right- 
hand corner clown to lower left-hand cor- 
ner in a curved line to give the slope of a 
hill. Paste this upon the background of 
cardboard close to the bottom. Then cut 
from dark-green paper a line of evergreen 
trees, curving so that they will appear just 
above the line of the hill. It may be better 
to cut the curving line, of trees first, out of 
a large piece of paper and then paste the 
sandpaper upon this. (Is it more or less 
pleasing to ha\re the trunks of the trees 
show? See that they are placed in pleasing 
relation to each other.) Tell the children 
this is a hill covered with sparkling snow. 
Play that the match scratching- over it is 
the sled rushing down the hill. If thev 
know the story of the "Little Fir Tree" 
thev may be interested in cutting out the 
rabbit scampering over the snow. 

PARQUETRY BOOK-COVER DE- 
SIGN — That is a prettv custom of the 
Germans, which trains the children who 
are old enough to write, to practice until 
they can write neatly some sentiment of 
love and gratitude for all that the parents 
do for them. On the occasion of birthday 
or Christmas these sentiments are written 
by the children upon engraved forms and 
presented to the father and mother. As 
they represent the child's fidelity to school 



go 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



duties, and much of patience and pains- 
taking, they more truly are a gift from the 
child than are the beautiful presents which 
so often the child buys with money given 
to him by the parent himself. In the kin- 
dergarten or the grades some such expres- 
sion of love can be made by the child. The 
older children can make the booklets of 
sheets of paper with holes punched at the 
top or at the sides through which ribbon 
or worsted may be run. These sheets 
should previously have been inscribed or 
decorated. The older children can write 
upon them the appropriate sentiment in 
their best handwriting. Practice through 
the term with this end in view. The kin- 
dergarten children may save and cut appro- 
priate pictures or may save some good 
examples of kindergarten occupation work. 
The book-covers may be decorated with 
the original drawings of the older children 
or with a parquetry design, i. Take kin- 
dergarten circles of red and white, the 
white representing snow balls and the red 
holly berries, ranged alternately ; or make 
a simple design as a border in one corner. 
2. From dark-green paper cut holly leaves, 
and arrange in a border with an occasional 
red berry or cluster of berries showing. 
They may practice cutting such leaves and 
clusters for busy work. Give a real leaf 
when possible or a picture or old Christ- 
mas card may give a hint. Children living 
near Northern woods will find that the 
wintergreen and the partridge berry offer 
charming units for design. 3. Cut a simple 
fir tree from dark green paper and let it 
alternate with a white rabbit as a border. 

CUTTING— The making of units for 
the borders mentioned above affords oppor- 
tunity for paper-cutting. In addition to 
this, children who are studying geography 
may be led to speak of the Noah's Ark 
which so many children receive at Christ- 
mas time and talk of the different countries 
from which different animals come. Let 
the older boys and girls cut out pairs of the 
animals, cows, horses, cats, lions, tigers, 
either free-hand or from models obtainable 
at kindergarten supply stores and mount 
them upon spools or make cardboard sup- 
ports at the back and give to a younger 
brother or sister or cousin. 

Illustrate with paper-cutting the beauti- 
ful old English ballad "The Robin's Christ- 
mas Eve." The robin, the church, the sex- 
ton with his lantern, the singing children, 
etc., may be cut out. 



DRAWING AND PAINTING— Illu- 
strate the various Christmas poems and 
stories told. The attempts of the younger 
and more inexperienced children will 
necessarily be more or less crude. As an 
opportunity for practice in securing good, 
clean washes, let the children cut out card- 
board stars about four or five inches in 
diameter (white bristol-board) and then 
color these with blue or red, pink, gold or 
silver. Punch a hole in each, insert a bit of 
ribbon and use for decoration of wall or 
tree. A scrap picture of an angel might be 
pasted in the corner of each. Make a chain 
of such stars. 

WEAVING— Have the children make 
the usual kindergarten weaving mats and 
paste two together with a bit of scented 
cotton between. 2. Make several such 
mats, about two inches square (necessarily 
they will have few strips) and fasten them 
together so as to make a little scented 
cluster. 

CHAINS— 1. Cut gold, silver, red and 
green paper into lengths measuring ^4x4 
inches. Paste the end of one length so that 
it overlaps the other, making one link. 
Put another strip through this, making a 
second link and continue to lengthen in the 
same way. The red and green will inter- 
link prettily, but the gold and silver chains 
are better .if of one color only. Use to 
decorate tree or chandelier. Let the chil- 
dren occupy themselves thus in "busy time" 
and take the chains home. 2. Make chains 
of red and green circles, symbolic of holly, 
alternating with straws. 3. Let older chil- 
dren cut the green in shape of holly leaves, 
and alternate with the red circles. 

PEG-BOARD— 1. Let the children plant 
the pegs irregularly, as trees — the green 
ones. Then play selecting the right ones as 
Christmas trees, talking over why some are 
chosen and others left — we choose often 
from a crowded spot so as to leave the re- 
maining trees more light and air and space. 
Put the trees in a "third" or "fourth" gift 
sledge to draw to the station whence they 
will be taken to the big, far-away city. 
Some of the green sticks may be used also, 
to give trees of different heights. 2. Ar- 
range the sticks prettily, as if they were 
flowers in a florist's window. What is this 
red flower? This blue one? Shall we buy 
one for grandmother? How many yellow 
ones are there in Nellie's window? Do 
flowers cost more or less at Christmas 
time? 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



9i 



HOW TO MAKE A DUPLICATOR. 

Every kindergartner and primary teacher re- 
quires a duplicator. Obtain an oblong pie tin the 
size you wish the duplicator. 'Purchase 12 ounces 
of glycerine and 2 ounces of gelatine, and place in 
a stew kettle with two ounces of granulated sugar 
and exactly a half pint of water; let stand a day 
or two, then heat until gelatine dissolves. Pour 
into pie tin and puncture all the bubbles with a 
pin. The writing or drawing you wish to copy 
should be freshly made with hectograph ink. Place 
writing side down upon the surface of the dupli- 
cator, pressing down smoothly with the hand. Re- 
move, and from 15 to 50 copies can be taken off. 
When through wash the copy off carefully with 
tipid water. Occasionally place the pan on a 
stove and remelt the contents which will secure 
a new smooth surface. 



HOW TEACHERS OFTEN WASTE TIME. 

By repeating questions and answers. 

By making too much of trifles. 

By giving inexplicit directions. 

By unskillful an illogical questioning. 

By prompting pupils too soon and thus confus- 
ing them. 

By illogical arrangement and development of 
lessons. 

By tardiness in beginning work after an inter- 
mission. 

By allowing tardy responses to questions and 
commands. 

By poor assignment of lessons. 

By failing to have all pupils at work. 

By attempting to teach before attention is 
secured. 

By doing the mechanical work rather than have 
the pupil do it. 

By nagging and scolding. 

By talking too loud and too much, thus bury- 
ing the lesson. 

By explaining what the pupils already know. 

By explaining what pupils may work out for 
themselves. 

By not using signs. 

By correcting the language of pupils when they 
should be correcting their own. 

By not recognizing the law of ethics. 



I know a teacher who is dishonest and yet 
precious little children are entrusted to her care. 
Is it fair? 



TEACHING HISTORY BY PUPPETS 

For some years a Sicilian named Antonio Parisi 
has been giving historical "puppet-shows" in the 
Sicilian quarter of New York city. His plays deal 
chiefly with events in the life and times of Charle- 
magne. The drama committee of the People's In- 
stitute has now taken notice of Signor Parisi and 
his puppets and is to test the puppet-show as an 
aid to education in history. The show, moved to 
a retreat near Washington Square, is to be acces- 
sible to 600,000 school children and their teachers. 
The school authorities in New York are said to be 
greatly interested in the experiment. The Sicilian 
children, according to the enthusiastic advocates 
of the plan, know the history of Charlemagne 
"like a book," wholly through these shows. — Cur- 
rent Events. 

The above extract was sent us with the 
suggestion that the story of the Pilgrim 
Fathers might be thus worked out with 



educational benefit, but it reached us too 
late in November. 

The interesting item recalls a visit we 
made several years ago to a puppet theater 
in Chicago. It was in the Italian quarter 
and to reach it we must pass through a 
room where natives of sunny Italy were 
playing billiards. Passing beyond this 
"foyer" we found ourselves in a small room 
furnished with ordinary wooden chairs. 
Our group of five or six made the only 
women present but in the gallery, crowded 
under the low ceiling were a number of at- 
tentive boys and girls. 

Little by little, more and more men came 
in; the billiard players gave up their cues 
to become a part of the audience and soon 
the place was full, and the proprietor 
passed around the hat for the ten cents 
which constituted the admission price. 
Some of the men began to smoke and 
although all were well-behaved, the general 
strangeness of the place, and by the looks of 
appearance of the men and their queer 
speech accompanied by the looks of curi- 
osity cast in the direction of the strange 
American women almost brought tears of 
homesickness to the eyes of one of the 
young students. 

But soon the orchestra ( ?) began to play 
and this brought smiles to the eyes because 
the music was afforded by the turning of a 
hand-organ — which seemed quite Italian. 

Meanwhile we had been studying the 
small but complete little stage with its 
drop-curtain decorated with medieval 
heroic figures; and soon the curtain rolled 
up and the play began. The puppets were 
larger than we had pictured them in imagi- 
nation. They were from two and a half to 
three feet high and were garbed to suit the 
parts, in very picturesque garments. The 
play, we learned, was from Ariosto's 
Orlando Furioso. It had been running one 
year with two more to run before all of the 
tale was told. So far as we could tell, the 
scene lay outside the walls of Paris or some 
other important city at the time of the 
Crusades. 

The parts were read by a man behind the 
scenes. His voice was at once musical and 
very flexible, expressing every shade of 
meaning. The puppets were manipulated 
by strings attached to head, body and 
limbs and carried behind the scenes. From 
the distance at which they were viewed and 
the perfect natural relation of scenery to 
the little actors they seemed to be quite 



92 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



life-sized. The movements were neces- 
sarily somewhat stiff and woodeny but 
nevertheless were expressive of various 
moods and differences of feeling, bearing 
perhaps, much the same relation to the 
motions of living actors as the blocked-out 
or angular drawings bear to those in which 
all the soft roundnesses of muscle and skin 
are depicted. Although the words might 
not be understood, the action was. At one 
time there were as many as ten knights 
upon the stage — all in beautifully-made 
armor. There was one scene in which the 
king occupied the stage alone and seemed 
to be vexed with some important affair. 
He walked up and down the stage one 
moment, in great distress of mind. Anon, 
he almost wept, and then he beat his breast 
in woe. But a moment later, he strode up 
and down, stamped his foot and seemed to 
gather himself together to strike some blow 
that would bring his enemies to terms. We 
did not remain until the evening's close nor 
did we return to continue the story the next 
night but we can very well understand that 
history and patriotism and good literature 
might well be brought to the people, espec- 
ially to the unlettered, in these puppet 
shows. The audience of men listened with 
closest attention to every word. 

The only manikin-show that is familiar 
to the average child in America is Punch 
and Judy, which also had its origin in Italy. 
But the comedy enacted on the tiny travel- 
ing stage conveys no lesson of value to the 
children and it would be a praise-worthy 
effort to supersede Punch with something 
equally entertaining but more edifying. A 
jumping-jack is probably the simplest form 
of puppet. 

Many boys have their own little toy 
theaters and a few years ago a book was 
published 

giving directions for building a puppet 
theater, and for making the dolls; several 
plays were given for acting. We commend 
this interesting little volume to our readers. 
The teacher, with help of her older children 
might be able to work out some very in- 
teresting scenes from history and litera- 
ture, in accordance with the suggestions 
given, with value especially for children of 
foreign birth who are little acquainted with 
American history. The drawing and cut- 
ting out of the figures, the searching after 
pictures showing costumes, the making of 
the scenery — would furnish opportunity 
for busy work that would have genuine 



educational content. The Kindergarten- 
Primarv Magazine will have more definite 
suggestions to make early in the next year. 



Drawing, Cutting, Paper Folding and 
Tearing For December 

During the last three months the children have 
been led to feel how much is provided for them, 
how carefully their needs are looked after and how 
many helpers are constantly busy, so that they may 
be happy. Now comes December, the month when 
the children may make something to express their 
gratitude for all this loving care. 

To be sure they have before tnis entered into the 
spirit of helpfulness by dusting chairs, putting 
things in their proper places, and running errands 
to partly repay for all these things, but now a gift 
is to be made, something that can pass from hand to 
hand and finally be presented to the loved one. A 
real Christmas gift mingled with love and patience. 



Ced^r 








unLh 





ranch 
u/ith 
cones 





Trie. 



During the month the thought of the children 
will be directed to the toyman, the securing of the 
Christmas tree, Santa, and at lust the day on which 
the gifts of love are bestowed. In all the prepara- 
tion for that climax, if the work be over-exemplified 
and the joy of giving be lessened, the purpose of the 
work will be lost. Christmas is the time of loving 
gifts. Each preceding month has presented some 
form of animal life that naturally connected itself 
with the work. Santa's reindeer will be the ani- 
mal to which the ihoughi of the children will be 
directed during December and he will figure more 
or less in the drawings of the month and possibly 
in the cutting. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



93 



This is a season when so much gay coloring may 
be indulged in and free invention be greatly en- 
couraged. The work that follows is not intended 
to be suggestive for gifts necessarily, but many of 
the things may ei^ter into the presents if the 
teacher and children desire them. When decora- 
tions for the tree are being made the cnildren will 
enjoy making the same things for the tree at home 



/f^ Candaj-ba/bftet P" 





TreftUkT JUL 



tmmm 



lllfiill 

TVee 

E-E-fit^^^^ of s'dvev 
avid. 



that they make for the tree in school. This will 
also permit many children to have pretty decora- 
tions on their home trees wno otherwise would have 
very' little. This will be one way to add to the 
Christmas joy. 

Drawing. 

Cedar tree, Cedar branch and berries; pine tree, 
pine tree and cones; hemlock tree, hemlock branch 
and cones; lighted candle, drum and sticks, horn, 
Santa and sleigh, chimney, reindeer; Christmas 
tree with decorations for book cover. 

Free Drawing. 

Illustrate story work; home of Christmas tree; 
securing the tree; transporting tree to city; window 
in toy shop; visit witi. mother to toy shop. 

Practice Drawing. 

Candle stick, chimney, (high) sleigh. 



Cutting 



Pictures from magazines to be pasted in picture 
books for gifts: Christmas tree, mantle piece, 
stockings, Christmas toys, candy baskets, candy 
cones; strips for chains for tree; silver strips to be 
rolled for circles for tree; boy with sleigh. 

Cut mantle piece and stockings separate. Paste 
on a mounting paper. 



Drawing and Cutting. 

Colored stockings for tree, dollies, toys, Santa, 
reindeer. Pictures of tne tree decorations that are 
bought in the shops, as balls, stars, etc.; rocking 
horse; illustration of stories. 

To r ike the rocking horse let the children draw 
a good-sized picture of the horse; tnen cut same. 
Use this picture as a stencil for the other horse. If 
the children cannot uraw well enough to make their 
own stencil the teacher may give them a stencil at 
first. Use colored pencils to decorate. Paste a slat 
in between tae two horses' bodies to make them 
stand up. Any such realistic object gives the great- 
est pleasure to the children. 

Folding and Cutting. 

Lanterns for tree. Mats and strips for gifts (cut 
double.) Open grate fireplace. Snowflakes (fold 
and cut per described before.) 

To make the lanterns for the trees take a square 
paper 4x4 or larger; cut off one edge for the handle; 
fold one diameter; cut on this fold to within one- 
half inch of the edges and not too close together. 
Open paper and paste together, so that the fold 
runs through the middle between the top and bot- 
tom of the lantern. Paste handle; add a chain. 
These lanterns are very effective if made of colored 
paper, but for the older children they may be made 
much more elaborate by using a plain paper and 
drawing or painting to represent Japanese lanterns. 
This is done by making a black band at the top and 
bottom and painting some simple design, as seen 
on lanterns in shops. 

Designs for Japanese lanterns: 

This is a very good time to introduce transpar- 
encies and it may be done in connection with the 
lanterns and the ^nristmas star. To mak? the lan- 
tern take a good-sized piece of ">aper, black pre- 




94 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



ferred, and fold one diameter. Cut the outline of a 
Japanese lantern on the open edges thus: 

Then cutting from the fold follow the outside of 
the paper and an outline of the lantern is the re- 
sult thus: 

Open this and paste it on a piece of brightly 
colored tissue paper larger than the outline of the 
lantern, so as to give strengta while pasting. After 
the paste is tnoroughly dried cut away the tissue 
outside the black edge of lantern. Support with a 
string the color of tne tissue paper ani hang in 
window or before a candle. 

To make the outline for the star transparency 
take a four-inch square, fold sixteen squares and 
diameters and diagonals. To secure the points of 
tne star fold on diagonals and cut from corners to 
line running one inch from edge of the paper 
where it crosses the diameter. 

Open and fold on the other diagonal and cut as 
before. A four-pointed solid star is the result. Be- 
ginning on the diagonal cut parallel to the outer 
edge leaving an open star one-half inch wide. 
Paste this on a yellow square of tissue paper 4x4. 
When dry cut away tissue outside of star and hang 
in window. 

To make the open grate fireplace, take a piece of 
either red or black paper 4x4, or larger, fold the 
sixteen squares; cut out a piece in the middle two 
squares by three squares, leaving the mantle piece. 
Paste the mantle on a piece of manilla paper. Cut 
blue and white plates for mantle. Draw and cut 
clock. Represent fire with red and yellow pencils 
and use black paper strips to represent grate. These 
strips should only be pasted at the ends and should 
stand out from the mounting sheet to look like a 
half round grate. 

PAPER TEARING.— JDollie Clothes: (a) Parasol; (b) Hood 
(c) Shoes; (d) Mittens: (e) Dress. 



iRochmg horse 




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Kindergarten Gilts 

(Continued) 
By BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

First Gift Ball— Color and Number. 

Play that the balls are church bells ring- 
ing on Christmas day. Sing "Bell So High 
Up In the Steeple," or some other church- 
bell song, as if the chimes were ringing. 
Swing in good rhythm. 

Play that it is Christmas Eve and that 
the children are to go to bed at eight 
o'clock. Let one child stand at one end of 
the table with the ball and suddenly be- 
gin to swing it, but very evenly. Let the 
children count the number of swings to see 
if bedtime has come. Then let them play 
go to sleep. While they sleep let the 
teacher place a ball before each child and 
when they wake up let each child tell what 
kind of fruit he found at his place Christ- 
mas morning, or what kind of a toy, (most 
resembling the sphere). A toy balloon, a 
ball, a top, etc. Let a child bounce or spin 
or make his ball hop, and then have other 
children guess that he received a ball, a 
top or a canary bird. 

Play that we go to the store to buy a 
balloon for baby. What color shall we 
buy? Place several balls in a row as 
balloons. Close eyes. (Teacher conceals 
one). Tell that one balloon flew away 
through the window in the night time. 
Which one is missing? 

Sticks 

Outline a star; the church; a sled; the 
toy store, etc. Have the children tell how 
many sticks they have used; if they are all 
of the same length, etc. Give some children 
four, some five, some six sticks. Ask how 
many candy-sticks did you receive ? 

Tablets 

Let the little children make a simple 
stained-glass window design as follows: 
Place a square before the child. Take four 
other squares of a contrasting tone and 
place at the four sides of the first square, 
one straight edge touching another (plac- 
ing in the order front, back, right-hand, 
left-hand). Talk a little about the design 
and then ask if the children can make one 
even more pleasing by placing the outside 
squares in just a little different relation. 
If each is placed cornerwise a pretty effect 
is obtained. See how many designs can be 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



95 



made of these few squares. Then give four 
more tablets and obtain as many effects as 
the children can create. 




Show the older children pictures of 
snowflake crystals in a dictionary or 
encylcopedia. Ask how many main lines 
all of the snow crystals seem to be formed 
upon. It will be found that the underlying 
number is always six. Give the children 
isosceles triangles and let them form them 
in a hexagon. Then give six equilateral 
triangles and let them arrange these with 
reference to the first six. Upon these place 
six squares and then six more triangles. 
The accompanying drawing gives one sug- 
gested form which may be varied ad lib. 
When we realize that more than r,ooo 
varieties of crystal have been found it will 
be seen that the possibilities of the child's 
creative instinct may be given full play with 
these snowflakes as a unit — if the number 
six be taken as the basis. 

Most children have at one time or an- 
other had a kaleidoscope. Let the children 
make a kaleidoscopic design with the 
tablets. 




Peas. 

Snowflakes — Give the children a pea into 
which they may insert six sticks or wires. 
At the end of each stick insert another pea, 
and then another stick at the end of each 
pea. From the last pea let three small 
sticks radiate. Let the children vary as 
imagination dictates but always keeping 
true to the law of symmetry based upon 
sixes. 

Toys for doll — Give a pea and a stick and 
let the child make a toy for dollie's Christ- 
mas ; a cane or pencil with rubber, etc. Of 
three peas and sticks make a toy triangle 
with another stick and pea to strike it. Of 
four peas and stick a tiny picture-frame 
may be made or a clock case. Make a toy 

Ald-fclrtfl 

doll for dollie of two peas and five sticks 




stiff toy animals may be made also, as well 
as toy furniture in outline; also a sled. 

Make a tiny box into which to put 
dollie's toys or hang them on tiny tree. 

Parquetry. 

After making a window-design in the 
tablets reproduce it with the parquetry 
papers letting the children, choose their 
own colors, under a little suggestion, if 
necessary. The grade teacher might draw 
upon the board a pattern . after one de- 
signed by a child. Then let the children 
observe it, and tell how many tablets of 
each kind is required to reproduce it and 
give these out so that each child may make 
one. 

Let the children reproduce in white 
papers a snowflake design. Paste these 
upon white paper and cut out around the 
edges making an ornament for Christmas 
tree. 

Slats 

With six kindergarten slats make a star, 
sewing together the ends so as to stay 
them. Use for tree decoration. A number 
might be strung together to decorate 
room. Interlace four or eight slats into a 
picture frame. Gild. 

Perry Pictures. 

If the story of the shepherds has been 
told the small Perry pictures may be given 
the children to frame. Pictures of the 
Nativity may be used also. These may be 
framed with the slats, or cardboard frames 
of dainty color may be made. Cut four 
small cardboard squares and in the center 
of each paste a Christmas picture. Punch 
holes in top and bottom and tie together 
with silk or worsted into a series that 
mother may hang in her room. 

Cut four oblongs of dainty color and 
upon each paste three months of the 
calendar. Fasten together into tiny book- 
let. 

Games. 

Several games with the gift balls have 
been already suggested. These may be 
played also upon the circle. 

Let several children of different heights 
stand together in the center of the circle 
back to back and with arms stretched out, 
thus forming a Chirstmas tree. Upon this 
hang first gift balls, letting one child give 
directions by calling out the color next to 
be suspended. Let the little children hang 



96 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



as many as they can, selecting the colors as 
directed. This gives practice in learning 
the colors. Then let another child direct 
that an orange shall be hung upon the 
branches and let a child choose the orange- 
colored ball. On the outstretched palms 
place several second gift beads as candles 
letting the children choose the color and 
name it at the same time. Suspend other 
gifts as toys letting the children name 
them. 

A game loved by the children is the 
showing by dumb show the toys received 
or desired. One child goes to the center, 
squats down and suddenly springs up to 
represent a jumping-jack or jack-in-the- 
box. Another jumps up and down to sug- 
gest a bouncing ball. Another skips the 
rope ; another slides on skates or a sled. 

Let the children dramatize "The Night 
Before Christmas." While some sleep, 
others may represent the good Saint and 
softly enter the room to fill with imaginary 
toys the imaginary stockings. 

As in Christendom the essence of the 
Christmas-tide is joy over the birth of a 
little child so it has come to be a time de- 
voted especially to the happiness of the 
little ones and the spirit of joy should 
radiate from teacher and kindergartner in 
and out of the school-room. This is not at 
all incompatible with genuine hard but 
happy work if the teacher sees to it that the 
work is within the child's capacity and that 
nervousness and hurry are banished from 
the child's Paradise. Do not undertake 
more than can be easily carried through 
before the joyous day arrives. 

At Mother's Meetings it would be well to 
discuss the advisability of taking the chil- 
dren down town to see the shops if that 
necessitates getting worn-out, nervous and 
excited through the seeing of so many 
varied sights and the jostling of the crowds. 
Let the kindergartner review once more 
the Mother-Play of the "Toy-shop" and 
read the chapter on shop-windows in Eliza- 
beth Harrison's "Some Silent Teachers," 
in order to gain an insight into the educa- 
tional possibilities of the stores. Talk this 
over with the mothers and then suggest 
that in the immediate neighborhood of the 
home there would be little toy-stores where 
toys in enough variety could be seen to sat- 
isfy the little child without over-fatiguing 
and overwhelming him. In many cases the 
parent cannot leave home without taking 



the child — it is then wise to accomplish as 
much as possible of the Christmas shopping 
several weeks before the holidays begin, 
thus adding to the good cheer of the child, 
the mother and the shopkeeper's employe. 
Train the child, especially at holiday time, 
to take home as many parcels as he can in 
order to relieve drivers and horses as much 
as possible. Thoughtfulness taught thus 
in childhood will be reflected in innumer- 
able ways throughout life. 

Whether or not the story of the Christ 
child shall be told as the eventful day 
approaches depends upon various contin- 
gencies. If, little by little, the children 
have been led up to an appreciation of that 
most beautiful legend, nothing is more 
appropriate or effective than the story as 
told in St. Luke. But unless the mood of 
the children, the atmosphere of the kinder- 
garten, is just right, the story had better be 
omitted. If the little folks are in a hilarious 
or boisterous mood it would be worse than 
useless to spoil the wonderful story by 
speaking to ears that do not hear. If, how- 
ever, by their previous work with gifts and 
occupations, and the preparation of their 
minds by means of other tales which they 
have heard, the children seem readv for the 
story of the Nativitv, tell it by all means. 
In neighborhoods, however, where the tell- 
ing of the story might arouse unChristlike 
antagonisms then it may be omitted. Only 
a short time ago and those of strict Puritan 
fajth forbade merrymaking at this time as 
savoring too much of paganism. The De- 
cember festival is not peculiar to Christ- 
ianity. Long before the Christian era. 
Egyptians, and Assyrians, Persians and 
Hindoos celebrated with joyous rite the 
period of the winter solstices, when the sun 
returned upon his course to bring once 
more to earth warmth and light and re- 
newed life. There are many stories which 
will appeal to all races and creeds without 
creating unhappiness or misunderstanding. 

"The Night Before Christmas" is, of 
course a perennial favorite and should be a 
part of the heritage of every child. An- 
other charming old English ballad is "The 
Robin's Christmas Eve" which has been 
published for many, many years by Mc- 
Loughlin Brothers, N. Y. The same 
bright-colored pictures recur with each 
edition but they tell their story well and 
although the robin is an English robin and 
the atmosphere essentially English, the 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



97 



story is universal in its appeal to young 
and old alike. Children could dramatize it 
effectively although doubtless all would 
clamor to play the role of robin. The price 
is 25 cents. 

A story that has held its own for many 
years is "Whv the Chimes Rang," by 
Alden. Formerly it could be obtained in 
pamphlet form but it is now published by 
the Bobbs-Merrill Co., of Indianapolis in a 
volume. "The Knight of the Silver Shield" 
which contains another Christmas story 
"The Great Walled City," besides others 
of charming fancy. 

"Child's Christ Tales," by Mrs. Proud- 
foot contains many legends centering 
around the Child. Flanagan & Co., Chica- 
go, now publish it in an inexpensive edition. 

"Christmas in Many Times and in Many 
Dands," by Evelyn Walker contains many 
stories of the Christmas time from pagan 
and Christian periods arranged for a 
Christmas school entertainment. The illu- 
strations are distinct enough to serve as 
models for costumes. Price 50 cents. Pub- 
lished by Welch & Co., Chicago. 

"Christmas-Tide," by Elizabeth Harri- 
son contains stories and also wise and help- 
ful suggestions for parents as to how to 
celebrate this happy time. 

The "Children's Messiah," by Ma'ri Ruef 
Hofer is a compilation of songs which 
gives a complete program to carry through 
the day in home or school. Suggestions 
are also included for stereoptican pictures 
to accompany the songs. 

"Christmas Time Songs and Carols," by 
Mrs. Crosby Adams, Chicago, also gives a 
choice selection of songs, the music by Mrs. 
Adams. 

"The Cup of Loving Service," by Eliza- 
beth D. Taylor (James Pott & Co.). is a 
beautiful story for the Christmas time. 

Any teacher who is making the stars a 
point of departure should read "In Time 
with the Stars," by Thomas K. Beecher, 
published by Hosmer H. Billings, Elmira, 
N. Y. It is the storv of a discussion be- 
tween the parts of his watch. Another 
story in the same volume "Quit Crowding" 
has the right Christmas spirit although not 
strictly a Christmas story. 

"The Frozen Heart" is the dramatization 
of Hans Andersen's story of the "Snow 
Queen," by an English composer Mary 
Carmichael, who has written a kindergar- 
ten song book also. 

"Christmas Every Day," by William 



Dean Howells (Harper & Brothers), is a 
capital story to read to those children who 
are likely to have a surfeit of good things 
on Christmas Day. 

NOTE — By mistake "A Few Suggestions For No- 
vember" by Bertha Johnston, in the November 
number of the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine, 
page 61, were separated from her story "A Story 
For Thanksgiving," page 66. 



Dec. 5- 



Dec. 6- 



Dec. 



Dec. 



TWO DECEMBER VISITORS. 

BY SIBYL ELDER. 

(A) Jack Frost. 

(B) Santa Claus. 

Dec. 4— Jack Frost's Home. The cold 
north. Ice and snow always 
there. Keeps at home all 
summer. Goes abroad in the 
winter. 

-What he does. Beautiful frost 
work on the ground and win- 
dows. 

-Forms shining icicles and makes 

the tree branches glitter. 
-Freezes the rivers and ponds. 

Makes good skating. 
-Review. 
Dec. 11 — Turns the rain into snow and 

hail. Snow-balling, forts, 

sleds, sleighing. 

Dec. 12 — Makes our fingers and noses red. 
Need warm mittens and cloth- 
ing. 

Dec. 13 — Santa Claus. Comes from Jack 
Frost's country. His sleigh 
and reindeer. 

Dec. 14 — His pack — filled with toys and 
games — visits our homes the 
night before Xmas. 

Dec. 15 — Review. 

Dec. 18 — Getting ready for Santa Claus. 
Xmas tree put up — where it 
comes from. 

Dec. 19 — -Trimming the tree — c a n d 1 e s, 
popcorn, etc. Holly in win- 
dows, etc. 

Dec. 20 — Hanging up stockings at home. 
Santa Claus going down chim- 
ney and filling them. 

Dec. 21 — Waking up on Xmas morning. 
Fun opening the stockings. 
Presents on Xmas tree. Makes 
us happy to give something to 
others. 



9 8 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



Dec. 22 — Review. Visits of the mothers 
to kindergarten. 

Games. 

Skating Game — (Reed). 
The Toyman's Shop — The Toyman — 
(Holiday Songs) — Miss Poulsson. 
The Three Bears — Dramatized. 
Pretty Little Popcorns. 
Old Santa Claus Came to Our House. 
Snowballing. 

Feather Game — (Gaynor II). 
Snowman — (Neidlinger). 



A DECEMBER PROGRAM. 

BY HELEN D. DENFIGH. 

Points of connection — The Harvest, or 
'gathering-in time' is over; Christmas, the 
'giving-out time' is close at hand; winter is 
beginning in earnest. 

Thoughts For the Month. 

(I) To have the children realize the 
love and care of father and mother, and to 
think lovingly of other children through- 
out the city who are poor or sick, that they 
may want to express themselves in glad, 
free giving; — each one may be a little 
'Santa' if he will. 

(II) To welcome the winter, by observ- 
ing nature so wonderfully preparing the 
earth for rest, and by enjoying the fun and 
frolic of this merry season. 

I.. Home Life. 

The Child's Home — Mother's kindness, 
and love, and work. Father's care in pro- 
viding; his strength and cheer. 

Other Homes — Sometimes no dear 
father or mother. Scanty clothing or food. 
Few toys. Even pain to bear, too. 

II.. Nature. 

The snow, and ice. The cold, brisk wind. 
Leafless trees ; protected birds. Frost on 
window pane. Sleeping plants. Birds with 
us now. Holly. Our Christmas tree. 

Morning Talks. 

Materials. 

Snow ; Ice ; Leafless twigs ; Frost on 
pane; Bread (for birds); Linen (for gift); 
Picture books ; Flolly ; Christmas Tree. 

Pictures. 

Sir Galahad. 

'Toyman and Boy' Mother-Play. 

'Twas the night before Christmas. 



Subjects. 

Our warm, bright room; comfortable 
homes, and clothing. Mother's care for all 
at home. The things she does. Father's 
hard work all day. His glad home-coming. 
Other children who have no father or 
mother; where and how they live. Sick 
children. What can we do to make them 
happy? Sir Galahad; and King Arthur, 
who stayed to help his people, whilst his 
knights went searching for 'the best thing 
in the world.' The shops; the toys. The 
snow and ice. Tree buds. Hungry birds. 
Our Christmas tree. 

Songs. 

The Family (Gilchrist music) Blow 
Book. 

Santa Claus. Poulsson Finger Plays. 
Christinas Bells. Hubbard book. 

Rhymes 

"The North-wind doth blow" 
"Old King Cole." 

Read — " 'Twas the night before Christ- 
mas." 

Stories. 

^ Little Jolliby's Christmas (Chapter II) 
Cheever. 

The Bird's Christmas Carol (adapted) 
K. D. Wiggin. 

Games. 

Santa Claus (song dramatized). 

Skating game. 

Sleigh-races. ' (Children wear bells while 
racing). 

Tov-shop. (Children to be the toys, as 
"Tack-in-the-box," "Dancing bear," "Walk- 
ing doll," "Woolly lamb," toyman and pur- 
chaser). 

Children to work out a "snow-man 
game," with Frost, Sun, and Wind per- 
sonified. 

Rhythms. 

Snow-balls ; making and tossing. Page 
121, music for Child World, Vol. II Hofer. 

Mother out shopping, walking, looking 
in windows. Page 10, music for Child 
World, Vol. II Hofer. 

Father hurrying home with parcels. 
Page 120, music for Child World, Vol. II 
Hofer. 

Children dancing around the Christmas 
Tree. Page 65, music for Child World, 
Vol. II Hofer. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



99 




GAMES, PL A YS, STORIES 

RECITATIONS, MEMORY GEMS, ETC. 



KINDERGARTEN GRAND OPERA. 

(Mrs. E. Lyell) AUGUbTE S. EARLE, B. M. 

On Christmas Day, 1907, a notable 
musical performance was given at the 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York 
City, under the direction of Heinrich 
Conried. It was a children's matinee of 
Humperdinck's "Hansel und Gretel." 

When Mr. Conried announced his inten- 
tion of giving this Christmas matinee, a 
burst of protest followed — but he could 
not be swerved from his idea, pleading 
"Does not Mr. Frohman give "Peter Pan" 
as a Christmas offering with the most 
flattering response from a mighty audience 
of children, young and old, — why not ex- 
tend the fairy story into music?" The per- 
formance justified his confidence and an- 
other great epoch in a great city was be- 
gun — the introduction of the Child's Grand 
Opera, "Hansel und Gretel." 

Who could resist it? Were not we, 
teachers, parents, and big brothers and 
sisters happy with the children in our re- 
turn to the "Never, never land" in Peter 
Pan — just so was that great audience 
entranced in "Hansel und Gretel," which 
opened up the "Never, never land" of 
music ? 

In Peter Pan we lived again the fairy 
life of childhood told in classic diction and 
style; in "Hansel und Gretel," the same 
universal Fairy Brotherhood pulsed in 
majestic tone of liquid melody and sonor- 
ous harmony, while with fascinated eye and 
enraptured ear we were borne into the 
Fairy Wood and Grove of the classic realm 
of childhood. 

Is not this the true Kindergarten of 
humanity that reaches up from the child 
life that is and touches alike the child's soul 
that never dies in mother and father, — in 
grandsire and grandma, making a universal 
Kindergarten of all humanity? Does not 
this grand opera, a classic in form and ex- 
pression combine and illustrate the true 
activities of life which should be combined 
and illustrated in the Kindergarten, a true 
mirror of life as it should be? Do we not 
find in this master piece the Home Circle, 



the Nature Gift, the true Occupation, the 
Song and Game and Story and the ultimate 
realization of the ethical ends all these aim 
at realizing? 

Let us see from a brief presentation of 
the story itself and from a few excerpts 
from the text — the truth of what we are 
saying. 

The Story. 

Hansel and Gretel is an opera in three 
acts, the music by Engelbert Humperdinck 
and the libretto by Adelheid Wette. It is 
the German version of the old nursery 
legend — Babes in the Wood. 

The first scene discloses a wretched 
homestead. The two children, Hansel and 
Gretel, are at work — the boy making 
brooms and the girl knitting stockings. 
They both complain of feeling very 
hungry, and there isn't a thing in the 
house. Yes, there's a jug of milk that will 
make nice blanc-mange when mother 
comes home. Hansel tastes it and Gretel 
raps his fingers. ,He says he won't work 
any more and proposes they dance instead. 
Gretel is delighted. He is very awkward 
at first but she teaches him the steps and 
they are getting along so famously that 
they whirl around the room and fall 
exhausted on the floor. At this moment 
the mother enters and she is so angry at 
seeing them do no work that she boxes 
their ears for it. In her excitement she 
gives the milk pitcher a push. It falls off 
the table, breaks in pieces, and spills all the 
milk. At this she is beside herself and 
seizes a basket and tells the children to go 
to the wood and pick strawberries. They 
must not come home till the basket is full. 
They run off while she, weary of life, sits 
sobbing herself to sleep. 

The father is heard in the distance with 
a joyous song and enters in a joyful mood. 
He wakes up his unhappy wife to tell that 
he has sold all his brooms at the fair for 
splendid prices and he shows his basket 
full of provisions. Both are thus in fine 
humor when he asks where the children 
are. She says she sent them away in dis- 
grace to the Ilsenstein. The Ilsenstein ! he 
exclaims, where the witches ride on broom- 



ioo 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



sticks and devour little children. Exclaim- 
ing "Oh horror!", she runs out of the 
house, he after her, to lind Hansel and 
Gretel. 

The second act shows a forest. Gretel is 
making a garland of wild roses while 
Hansel is looking for strawberries. In the 
background is the Ilsenstein. It is sunset. 
Hansel crowns Gretel queen of the wood 
and she allows him to taste a strawberry. 
He gives her one in return and little by 
little they devour them all. Then they are 
frightened. They want to pick more but 
it is getting too dark. They want to leave 
but cannot find the way. Gretel fears be- 
ing in the dark but Hansel is very brave. 
She sees faces in trees and stumps and he 
calls out to reassure her. Echo answers 
and he grows frightened too. They huddle 
together as a thick mist arises which hides 
the background. Gretel, terror-stricken, 
falls on her knees and hides behind Hansel. 
At this moment a little man appears, as 
the mist rises, and quiets them. It is the 
Sandman and he sings them to slumber. 
Half awake they say their evening prayer 
and sink. down on the moss in each other's 
arms. A dazzling light then appears, the 
mist rolls itself into a staircase and angels 
pass down and group themselves about the 
i wo sleeping children. 

In the third act the scene is the same, 
the mist still hiding the background. The 
Dawn Fairy shakes dewdrops on the chil- 
dren. They wake, but Hansel very lazily, 
r hey both have had dreams of angels com- 
ing to see them with shining wings. The 
mist now clears away and in the back- 
ground is seen the witches' house with a 
tence of gingerbread figures. There are 
also seen an oven and a cage. Hansel 
wants to go inside and Gretel draws him 
back. But Hansel says the angels beguiled 
their footsteps and why shouldn't they 
nibble a bit at the cottage ? They tiptoe to 
the fence and break off a bit of the cake 
cautiously. The witch voice from within 
tells them to go on nibbling. They like the 
gingerbread. It suits them famously and 
apparently suits her too as she watches 
them from her window. 

But she comes out of the house as they 
are joyously laughing and throws a rope 
about Hansel's neck and caresses them. 
Hansel tries to get away and calls her 
names, while she goes on saying how she 
loves them both — they are such dainty 
morsels. Hansel tries to run away and 



takes Gretel with him. But the witch 
casts a spell on them and they stand stock- 
still. Then she leads Hansel to the cage 
and shuts him in and gives him almonds 
and raisins to fatten him up. She loosens 
Gretel with the magic stick and says how 
nice and plump she'll be when she's 
roasted brown. She opens the oven and 
puts more fagots under it and says the fire 
will soon be ripe to push Gretel in. In her 
joy she rides wildly round on a broomstick 
while Gretel watches from the house. 

The witch calls Gretel out and opens the 
oven door. Hansel tells Gretel to beware 
and the witch tells her to peep in the oven. 
Gretel pretends she does not understand. 
She secretly disenchants Hansel so that 
when the witch bends over and peers into 
the oven they give her a push and in she 
goes. Then they dance wildly about. 
Hansel throws sweetmeats out of the win- 
dow. The oven cracks open and falls into 
bits, while groups of children suddenly sur- 
round Hansel and Gretel. Then they dis- 
enchant the gingerbread children who are 
very grateful. As they are all dragging 
the gingerbread witch about, the Father 
and Mother come in and are overjoyed at 
finding their children again. 

DRAMATIS PERSONAE. 

Peter, Broom-maker. 
Gertrude, his wife. 
Hansel, 

Gretel, their children. 
The Witch who eats children. 
Sandman, the Sleep Fairy. 
Dewman, the Dawn Fairy. 
Children. 

The Fourteen Angels. 
Note home occupation with Nature 
Gift Material in Scene I, Act I. 

ACT I. 

AT HOME. 

Scene I. 

(Small, poorly furnished room. In the 
background a door, a small window near 
it with a view into the forest. On the 
left a fireplace, with chimney above it. 
On the walls many brooms of various 
sizes. Hansel sits near the door, making 
brooms, and Gretel opposite him by the 
fireplace, knitting a stocking.) 
Likewise in same act, Song and Dancr 

and Game of children serves as climax of 

scene. 

(Claps her hands.) 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



101 



Brother, come and dance with me, 
both my hands I offer thee; 

right foot first, 

left foot then, 
round about and back again! 
Hansel (tries to do it, but awakwardly). 
I would dance, but don't know how, 
when to jump, and when to bow; 
show me what I ought to do, 
so that I may dance like you. 

Gretel. 

With your foot you tap, tap, tap; 
with your hands you clap, clap, clap ; 

right foot first, 

left foot then, . 
round about and back again ! 

Hansel. 

With your hands you clap, clap, clap; 
with your foot you tap, tap, tap; 

right foot first, 

left foot then, 
round about and back again ! 

Gretel. 

That was very good indeed, 
O, I'm sure you'll soon succeed ! 
Try again, and I can see 
Hansel soon will dance like me ! 

(Claps her hands.) 

With your head you nick, nick, nick; 
with your fingers you click, click, click ; 

right foot first, 

left foot then, 
round about and back again. 

Hansel. 

With your head you nick, nick, nick ; 
with your fingers you click, click, click ; 

right foot first, 

left foot then, 
round about and back again ! 
Brother, watch what next I do, 
you must do it with me too. 
You to me your arm must proffer, 
I shall not refuse your offer ! 
Come ! 

Both. 

What I enjoy is dance and jollity, 
love to have my fling; 
in fact, I like frivolity, 
and all that kind of thing. 

Gretel. 

Tralala, tralala, tralala! 
Come and have a twirl, my dearest Hansel, 
come and have a turn with me, I pray. 



Sing lustily hurrah ! hurrah ! 
while I dance with you; 
and if the stockings are in holes, 
why, mother'll knit some new ! 

Hansel. 

Tralala, tralala, tralala ! 
Sing lustily hurrah ! hurrah ! 
while I dance with you ; 
and if the shoes are all in holes, 
why mother'll buy some new! 
Tralala, tralala, tralala ! 
(They dance round each other as before. 
'Ihey then seize each other's hands and 
go round in a circle, quicker and quicker, 
until at length they lose their balance 
and tumble over one another on the 
floor.) 

In Act II, note crowning of Gretel as 
Queen of the Wood and the abandon of 
the children under the natural influence of 
the forest wild and as terror, is about tc 
seize them the traditional Sandman or 
Sleep Fairy approaches the children with 
friendly gestures and sprinkles the mystic 
grains on their wearied eyes. 

Scene II. 

Sandman (the Sleep Fairy). 
(The little man approaches the children 
with friendly gestures, and the children 
gradually calm down. He is strewing 
sand in the children's eyes. 
I shut the children's peepers, sh ! 
and guard the little sleepers, sh ! 
for dearly do I love them, sh ! 
and gladly watch above them, sh ! 
And with my little bag of sand, 
By every child's bedside I stand; 
then little tired eyelids close, 
and little limbs have sweet repose. 
And if they're good and quickly go to sleep, 
then from the starry sphere above 
the angels come with peace and love, 
and send the children happy dreams, 
while watch they keep ! 
Then slumber, children, slumber, 
for happy dreams are sent you 
through the hours you sleep. 

(Disappears. Darkness.) 
Hansel (half asleep). 
Sandman was there ! 

Gretel (ditto). 
Let us first say our evening prayer. 
(They cower down and fold their hands.) 
Both. 
When at night I go to sleep, 



162 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



fourteen angels watch do keep : 
two my head are guarding, 
two my feet are guiding, 
two are on my right hand, 
two are on my left hand, 
two who warmly cover, 
two who o'er me hover, 
two to whom 'tis given 
to guide my steps to Heaven. 
(They sink down on to the moss, and go 
to sleep with their arms twined round 
each other. Complete darkness.) 
Scene III. 
(Here a bright light suddenly breaks 
through the mist which forthwith rolls 
itself together into the form of a stair- 
case, vanishing in perspective, in the 
middle of the stage. Fourteen angels, in 
light floating garments, pass down the 
staircase, two and two, at intervals, while 
it is getting gradually lighter. The 
angels place themselves, according to 
the order mentioned in the evening 
hymn, around the sleeping children ; the 
first couple at their heads, the second at 
their feet, the third on the right, the 
fourth on the left, the fifth and sixth 
couples distribute themselves amongst 
the other couples, so that the circle of 
the angels is completed. Lastly the 
seventh couple comes into the circle and 
takes its place as "guardian angels" on 
each side of the children. The remain- 
ing angels now join hands and dance a 
stately step around the group. The 
whole stage is filled with an intense light. 
Whilst the angels arrange themselves in 
a picturesque tableau, the curtain slowly 
falls.) 

Act III emphasizes element of the story 
when the dawn fairy sprinkles clew drops 
on sleeping children ; the story element be- 
ing elaborated through gingerbread figures 
and the witch's voice bidding the lost 
children to nibble to satisfy their hunger. 
The story element of suspense reaches its 
climax when the witch seizes Hansel and 
Gretel and attempts to bake them into 
gingerbread figures. 

The ethical ends are attained by the 
over-throw of the witch and the dis- 
enchanting of the gingerbread children and 
the hapnv father and mother come in and 
join the true Home Kindergarten Circle in 
the joyous finale of the opera. 

Father. 

Children, see the wonder wrought, 



how the Witch herself was caught 
unaware 
in the snare 
laid for you with cunning rare ! 

All the Rest. 

See, O see the wonder wrought, 
how the Witch herself was caught 
unaware 
in the snare 
laid for us with cunning rare ! 
(The two boys drag the Witch in the 
cottage.) 

Father. 

Such is Heaven's chastisement; 

evil works will have an end. 

"When past bearing is our grief, 

Then 'tis Heaven will send us sure relief!" 

All. 

"When past bearing is our grief, 
Then 'tis Heaven will send relief!" 

The End. 

I cannot dismiss this beautiful Kinder- 
garten opera without a reference to the 
special adaptation of classical themes to 
the child aspect of story. It illustrates the 
truth that Kindergartners are not always 
realizing — namely, that as the highest art 
and literature have in them elements of 
classical simplicity that appeal permanently 
to child growth, so even classical music 
rightly adapted to its theme may begin to 
introduce the child to his true musical in- 
heritance. 

It illustrates furthermore the truth that 
the real Kindergartn.er must, motherlike, 
have an insight into not merely hand 
material and child processes but a fuller 
equipment of literary artistic and musical 
appreciation. 

In a later article I may return to the 
musical themes themselves as excerpts for 
actual use in the Kindergarten. 



A CORRECTION— Owing to an error the article 
"Number in the Kindergarten'' written by Harrietta H. 
Freeland, and published in the November number, was 
not duly credited to the School Exchange of Newark, N. 
J., from which it was taken. This lack of credit was due 
entirely to the misplacing of a slug and was wholly un- 
intentional. 



Free for six months. See our great offer on 
page 69. 

Our great offer will be withdrawn December 25, 
1908. If you wish to take advantage of it, do not 
delay. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



103 



OLD CHRISTMAS PLAYS AND 
CAROLS. 

BY MARI RUEP HOFER. 

There is no more beautiful contribution 
to the literature of Christmas than that of 
the old half-forgotten nativity plays of the 
Middle Ages. In those childlike days, 
when the mystery and marvel of the 
wondrous birth had not yet faded from the 
ken of man, were produced those sacredly 
human people's dramas whose simple and 
naive character ranks them among the 
classics of the world. 

The mystical element of the Christian 
faith was always warmly cherished by the 
simple people whose spiritual need it ful- 
filled. Simultaneously with the greater 
Passion Plays and Miracle Plays of Europe 
sprang up in every village and hamlet these 
lesser and humbler dramas of the Christ 
birth. So plentiful were these that every 
province in France and Germany, every 
country in England could boast its own 
original "Mystery" or Sacred play with a 
group of peasants for playwrights and 
actors. 

The subjects most frequently chosen, 
were the Story of Bethlehem, Vision of the 
Shepherds, The Three Kings, The Star 
Carol, The Journey of Joseph and Mary, 
or supposed .scenes from the Childhood of 
Jesus. The element of personal relation- 
ship which is almost lost in modern 
Nativity interpretations is well retained in 
these bits of translated and untranslated 
verse here offered. This makes them akin 
to the childhood of all times and suggests 
their suitability for children's Christmas 
plays, or for presentation by Kindergarten 
Training Classes. A touch of simple 
costume and Ben Greet stage setting 
makes them available anywhere. 



A DIALOGUE. 
The Shepherd. 

Ye shepherds, leave we here our 

flocks, 
Upon the young grass pasturing; 
Already should we be away 
To Bethlehem now journeying, 

For on that sod 

The son of God 
Chose from a human stem to spring. 

The Shepherdess. 

Well said, gentle shepherd mine, 
And with such lovely light for view, 
Let us to Bethlehem, swift of foot, 



There to behold this marvel new, 
Of which did tell 
Great Gabriel, 
Who gives to us a witness true. 

The Shepherd. 
That high discourse which I have 

learned, 
The which the angel bade us hear, 
Has so rejoiced my heart in full 
That I no more may linger here, 

But bend the knee 

My God to see 
Who for my sake comes lowly near. 

The Shepherdess. 

Through that sweet song of graei- 

ousness, 
My soul is so entranced and filled, 
That heavenward lifting up mine 

eyes 
As by an exstacy I'm willed, 

And still in thought 

The chords seem wrought 
Of harmony divine that thrilled. 

The Shepherd. 

Yet it is needful that we take 
Some new gift excellently- planned; 
For he that unto God will turn 
Must ne'er appear with empty hand; 

God builds our joys 

And He destroys, 
He waters and He plants the land. 

The Shepherdess. 

I have a great bowl of new milk. 
Just freshly taken from the cow. 

The Shepherd. 
And I will carry a young lamb, 
That hath no spot or stain, I trow. 

The Shepherdess. 
A treasure fine 
Is likewise mine, 
But I would fain that none should 
know. 

The Shepherd. 

What wouldst thou give Him, sister, 

say? 
Tell me, what should thy present be? 

The Shepherdess. 
I make him present of my heart. 

The Shepherd. 

My will, my life, I give him free. 

The Shepherdess. 

Let us begone, 
And haste we on. 

The Shepherd. 

Not to be there is grief to me. 

— From The French by Lady 
Lindsay. 



104 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



SHEPHERD'S SONG. 

Now we will go, now we will go, 

The way we know to Bethlehem; 
That they may show and we may 
know, 
'Tis even so as we proclaim. 
And we will take the bread we bake, 
The wine we make as gifts to 
them, 
And milk and cheese, and on our 
knees 
Will offer these at Bethlehem. 
And He shall know we love Him so, 

But cannot show a better way 
Of service dear and loving cheer, 
Than we do here on Christmas 
day. 
— Housman's Nativity Play. 

VERSE FROM AN OLD BAVARIAN 
CHRISTMAS PLAY. 

O Jesulein zart, 

Dein kripplein ist hart! 

O Jesulein zart, 

Wie liegst du so hart! 

Schlaff Kindlein, du deine Augelein 
zue, 

Schlaff und gib uns die ewige Rhue, 
O Jesulein zart, 



SANTA GLAUS' MAGICAL GIFTS. 

BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

Listen, the sleigh-bells! Oh, sister I hear 
Them coming now surely, each moment more near! 
Yes, skimming a-gallop, o'er snowdrifts so white, 
The reindeers of Santa are speeding tonight. 

Straight through the moon's rainbow ring now 

they dash, ' 
Next, 'twixt soft cloud-banks they leap like a flash 
Each laughing star holds high a gay, twinkling 

light; 
Each reindeer nods "thank you" for roadway made 

bright. 

Pictures and go-carts, pianos, are stowed 
With dolls, balls and skates in the magical load 
That Santa has crowded so tight in his sleigh 
To bring down the chimney when dawns Christmas 
day. 

Now, a wonderful charm has each playtoy and 

game 
By which you may tell which from Santa Claus 

came. 
The magic I'll tell you and then when you know 
Just tell the glad secret wherever you go. 

A share in the giving has jolly St. Nick 
His loving charm spreads with a magic most quick 
And children receiving HIS presents so rare 
vVith all of their playmates each joy long to 
SHARE. 



A straight forward, clean cut proposition. This 
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BOOKS FOR HOLIDAY GIFTS. 

"DRIFTED IN" by Will Carleton. In this 
volume, Will Carleton, America's versatile poet 
tells in rhyme the story of a train that is "drifted 
in" by a snow storm. Upon the thread of this 
story are interwoven thirty or more poems the 
majority being the stories told by the different 
passengers as a means of forgetting their un- 
pleasant predicament. This gives occasion for a 
great variety of thought, philosophy and senti- 
ment. "The Old Front Gate" with its story of 
the drifting apart of a wedded pair and the recon- 
ciliation, radiates both humor and a sweet senti- 
ment peculiarly appropriate to the spirit of the 
Christmas time. 

"Swingin' back and swingin' forward, I am very 

glad to state 
That that pair re-entered Heaven through the 

Old Front Gate." 

There are several different poems inspired 
directly by the Christmas thought. "The Ghost 
Walk" is of special interest just now when the ' 
matter of college hazing is being so much dis- 
cussed. College students past and present will 
enjoy the unexpected turn the story takes. "The 
Coming of the King" and the "Messenger Out of 
the Sky" are very different in style of expression 
but they alike record the joy occasioned by the 
entrance of an infant into the home where he has 
been long desired. "The Captain's Story" is the 
semi-ironical tale wherewith the old sea captain 
cleverly subdues an incipient insurrection as he 
speaks 

" In a voice with velvet sheath ( . 

Enclosing claws that were just beneath." 

We have cited enough to give a faint idea of 
the variety to be found between the pages of this 
handsome book on whose cover is depicted the 
roving hamlet 

"....with its one long swaying street 
On which the tribes of the nations meet," 

sunk in the depths of the impassable drift. Pub- 
lished by the Every Where Publishing Co., New 
York. Price $1.50. 

"Tommy Trot's Visit to Santa Claus" by Thomas 
Nelson Page. This is a truly delightful story for 
boys but to the kindergartner, and indeed to any 
teacher it brings a welcome note of encouragement 
for it depicts incidentally, in a few words here and 
there an ideal father who is more than the mere 
provider of the material needs of his child. The 
description of the making of the sled by Tommy 
under the sympathetic guidance of his father who 
knows when to wisely suggest and when to lend 
a helping hand, is one to be read at parent's meet- 
ings as a lesson in parental pedagogy. The ex- 
periences of Tommy and his friend in the Polar 
regions of Dreamland will make their natural 
appeal to the child. Published by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

"Princess Wisla," by Sophie Swett. Princess 
Wisla is little Peggy Piper who lives near Bar 
Harbor and is stolen for awhile by an old Indian 
squaw who loves her dearly and eventually re- 
stores her to her heart-broken parents. The 
friendship between a brother and sister and be- 
tween the two little girl playmates is charmingly 
portrayed and despite its fairylike incidents each 
one is within the range of possibility. The chil- 
dren who are passing beyond the fairy story 
period to that in which they ask "is it true?" will 
be just the ones to most enjoy this tale. The love 
of the old squaw for the child she thus forcibly 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



105 



adopts and the generous manner in which she 
later comes to the rescue of Peggy's father will 
help the children to feel a kinship with those of 
the' less advanced races. We welcome a story that 
helps to dissipate racial distrust and hatreds. 
Published by Little, Brown &' Co., Boston. 

"Easy German Stories," by Hedwig Levi. Some 
of Miss Levi's stories have from time to time 
appeared in the pages of the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine. This little volume includes 
stories originally written for two German juvenile 
periodicals. They are arranged now with refer- 
ence to English children who are learning Ger- 
man. Several of the pretty little tales are purely 
fanciful while others will appeal to the child who 
wants to hear a true story. The language is sim- 
ple and idiomatic so that the little child who reads 
will be learning German as it is spoken by the 
Germans. It is edited with notes and vocabulary 
by Mrs. Luise' Delp, senior German Mistress at the 
Sydenham High School, England. Published by 
Geo. G. Harrap >&' Co., London, England. 

"The Spring Cleaning," by Mrs. Frances Hodg- 
son Burnett. This is another of the Queen Cross- 
patch booklets gotten up in the same attractive 
style as was the Cozy Lion of last year. The fairy 
Queen tells how, with help of her Green Workers 
she accomplishes her spring housecleaning, wakens 
the plants and manages to get them up in time 
to give joy to a little city flower-girl who is to 
see the primroses growing for the first time. The 
colored illustrations are by Harrison Cady. Pub- 
lished by the Century Co. 

"Home Occupations for Boys and Girls," by 
Bertha Johnston assisted by Fanny Chapin. This 
is a little volume written with special reference 
to the mother who knows little, practically, of 
kindergarten principles or methods and hence 
needs to have detailed directions for making use 
of the many odds and ends to be found in every 
household. The market-basket, the sewing- 
basket, the paint-box, and papers saved from the 
scrap-basket, each yield suggestions for happy 
employment. There is a chapter devoted to holi- 
day occasions, others describe plays and games, 
dolls and doll-houses, household duties, etc., and 
there is a chapter each devoted to kindergarten 
gifts and kindergarten occupations. Although 
written with the mother primarily in mind, grade 
teachers as well as kindergartners will find many 
suggestions of use in school hours. Published by 
George W. Jacobs •&' Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Price 
fifty cents. 



IF I WEKE YOU 
If I were you and went to school 
I'd never break the smallest rule; 
And it should be my teacher's joy 
To say she had no better boy; 

And 'twould be true 

If I were you. 



Go to bed late — cross girl or boy. 
Go to bed early — ready for play; 
Go to bed late — moping all day. 
Go to bed early — no pains or ills; 
Go to bed late — doctors and pills. 
— St. Nicholas. 



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A Few Valuable Books for Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

We keep in stock many books not found in this list, and supply ANY book on the market at lowest prices. 
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Kindergarten Hand Books Especially for Primary Teachers 




Price, 25 Cents 



These books give just the 
information desired by pri- 
mary-kindergarten teachers 
The works are all amply ill- 
ustrated and are bound in 
limp cloth. 

The First Gift in Primary 
Schools. By J. H. Shults. With 
several illustrations, songs 
and games, price 15c. 

A Second Gift Story or Miss 
Arden'sWay. By Violet Lynn. 
This volume tells in attract- 
ive story form how teachers 
can use the second gift in 
correlation with the regular 
primary work. Price 25 cents. 
Illustrated. 

The Third Gift in Primary 
Schools. — Building with 
Cubes. By J. H. Shults. 
Written especially for Pri- 
mary teachers, containing 
lesson suggestions and hints 
relative to correlation with 
primary school work. Fully 
illustrated. Limp cloth. 

Price 20c. 

The Fourth Gift in Primary 
School S. — -Building with 
Bricks. By J. H. Shults. AJhandbook for the primary teacher 
on the use of this gift in correlation with primary school 
work. The only work of this kind written especially for pri- 
mary teachers. Fully illustrated. Limp cloth, price 20c. 

The Seventh Gift in Primary Schools. — Tablet Laying and 
Parquetry Work. By J. H. Shults. With many illustrations 
hints and suggestions, enabling primary teachers to use the 
gift in correlation with their primary school work. Limp 
cloth. Price 20c. 

The Tenth Gift — Stick laying— In Primary Schools.-- By 
Alice Buckingham. The only book of its kind published in 
America. Contains nearly 200 illustrations with complete 
instructions for the use of the gift in primary schools; price 
25c. 

Eleventh Gift— King Laying in Primary Schools—With many 
illustrations for both ring-laying and ring and stick-laying 
combined. Limp cloth, price 20c. 

The Thirteenth Gift- The Point— In Primary Work. By J. 
H. Shults. Illustrating the work with lentils, corn, peas and 
other seeds. Limp cloth, price 15c. 

Peas and Cork Work in Primary Schools. By J. H. Shults. 
Illustrated. Limp cloth, price 15c. 

Reed and Raffia Construction Work in Primary 

Schools. By Mary A. Shults. Fully illustrated. It teaches 
how to use both reeds and raffia in primary schools, with 
children of every grade. Complete instructions for making 
mats, baskets, and many other articles, both from reeds and 
raffia alone, and with a combination of both; price 25c. 

Stories, Games, flusic, Etc. 

All books sent prepaid on receipt of price 
unless the postage is indicated. 

One Hundred New Kindergarten Songs, $1.00 
Cloth. The latest and best. 

Graded Memory Selections 10 

A Christmas Festival Service, paper. . . .25 
By Nora Smith. 

Instrumental Characteristic Rhythms. 

Part I, boards, $1.50; Part II, paper, 1.00 
By Clara I* Anderson. 




Boston Collection 
Stories, cloth . . 



of Kindergarten 



Songs and Games for Little Ones, net. 1.50 

Postage, 16c. 
By Harriet S. Jenks and Gertrude Walker. 

Song Stories for the Kindergarten, 

boards 1.00 

By Mildred J. and Patty S. HilL 

St. Nieholas Songs, boards, net, 1.25 

Postage, 24c. 

The Songs and Music of Froebel's 

Mother Play, cloth 1.50 








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Timely Games and Songs for the Kin- 
dergarten, paper 60 

By Clare Sawyer Reed. 
In the Child's World, cloth 2.00 

By Emllie Poulsson. 

Half Hundred Stories (207 pages), cloth .lb 
Dozen and Two Kindergarten Songs. 

Paper $ .so 

Louis Pauline Warner. 
Folk and Other Songs for Children.... 1.50 

Jane Bird Radcllffe-Whitehead. 

Kindergarten Chimes, paper 1.00 

" boards 1.25 

" " cloth 1.50 

Kate D. Wlggin. 

Uttle Songs for Little Singers 25 

W. T. Glffe. 

Motion Songs 25 

Mrs. Boardman. 

Posies from a Child's Garden of Verses. 1.00 

Wm. Arms Fisher. 

Sixty Songs from Mother Goose's Jubilee 1.00 

L. E. Orth. 

Song Echoes from Child Land 2.00 

Miss Harriet S. Jenks and Mrs. Mabel Rust- 
Songs of Nature 30 

E. U. Emerson and K. L. Brown. 

Songs of Sunshine 1.00 

Stories In Song . . . . r 75 

Thirty Songs for Children 50 

Master St. Elmo 1.00 

Postage, 12 cents. 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Musical Poems 1.50 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Flower Ballads, cloth 1.00 

" " paper 50 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Callsthenlc Songs, cloth . ■ .35 

By Flora Parsons. 

Finger Plays, cloth • 1.25 

By Emllie Poulsson. 
The Story Hour, cloth 1.00 

By Kate Douglas Wlggln. 

Myths and Mother Plays, cloth 1.00 

By Sara Wiltse. 

Flower Ballads, paper, .50; cloth 1.00 

By Caro S. Senour. 

niscellaneons 

Commentary on Froebel's Mother Play.. $1.25 

By J. Denton Snider. 

The Psychology of Froebel's Play Gifts, 1.25 

By J. Denton Snider. 
Mottoes and Commentaries of Froebel's 

Mother Play l.oO 

Translated by Susan E. Blow. 

Outline of a Tear's Work In the Kin- 
dergarten 60 

By Anna Deveraux. 

Blackboard Designs, paper .50 

By Margaret E. Webb. 

Education by Plays and Games .50 

By G. E. Johnson. 

The Study of Children, cloth 1.00 

By Frances Warner. 
Nursery Ethics, cloth l.Oo 

By Florence Wlnterburn. 
The Color Primer. Price, Teachers' Edi- 
tion. .10; Pupils' Edition 05 

The Color Primer Is issued in a paper 
cover. The teachers' edition, including as a 
part of itself the pupils' edition, has 8fl 
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pages. 

Water Colors in the Schoolroom. Price, 

boards 25 

By Milton Bradley. 
This Is a practical handbook on the use 
of Water Colors. 

An artistic book. Illustrated with twelve 
colored plates. 



Address all orders to 



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276-278-280 Hirer Street, Manistee, Mich. 



A BAKER'S DOZEN FOR 



CITY CHILDREN 

New Book of Kindergarten Songs 

By ISABEL VALENTINE and LILEON CLAXTON 

1 wo Practical Kindergartners of the New York City Public School System 

With introduction by JENNY B. MERRIL, Supervisor of Kinder 
gartens, New York City Public Schools. 



THIRTEEN SONGS WRITTEN as a result of yeaes of teaching 

EXFERI ENCE 

THIRTFFN SO NHS that have been thoroughly tried and 

I I lll\ I LLI ti ^>Wi TIVJ^> PROVEN IM MENSELY SUCCESSFUL. 

THIRTEEN SONGS EXPRESSIVE OF THE CHILD'S OWN EVERYDAY 

THIRTEEN SONGS READILY DRAMATIZED FROM THE CHILDREN'S 
SUGGESTIONS 

THTRTFFN SONPxS that city kindergartners must have and 

liiirvi LiLii> ownuo other kindergartners should have 

THTRTFFM SONflS bright, cheery, new. with smooth flowing 

1 1 llJ A. 1 LiLiH >JwnVJ>J HARMONIES AND SIMPLICITY OF RYTHYMA. 

The thirteen songs are clearlv printed °n good paper and bound with strong linen mak- 
ing a very attractive and durable boo k , just the thing for an EASTER GIFT. 



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Every progressive teacher who desires promotion should take np the matter with some wide-awake Teachers' Agency. Beyond 
the scope of a teacher's personal acquaintance there is not much hope of advancing unaided. Some agencies have positions wait* 
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Teachers wanted for good positions in all parts of the United States 
Registration fee holds good until we secure a position for you. 

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INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Reminiscenses of Froebel E. Hess 

The Short Story— Its Place in the Kinder- 



garten and Grades 

Scientific Basis upon which Kindergarten 
is Founded 

Letters to a Young Kindergartner 

Mothers' Meetings and Reading Circles 

After Christmas - 

Program Suggestions for January 

Tony and his Fruit Stand 

Kindergarten Light Opera 

Social Celebrations in New York 

New Years Day 

The Cultivation of Beauty Perception 

The City Street - 

Query Column, 

Book Notices ... 

Copyright, 1909, by J. H. Shults. 



E. Lyell Earle, 

Hortense M. Orcutt, 
Harrietta Melissa Mills, 
Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

Bertha Johnston, 

Augusti S. Earle, 
Mari Ruef Hofer, 



107 

115 

121 
124 
125 
126 
127 
132 
132 
134 
135 
136 
137 
139 
140 



Volume XXI, No. 4. 



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SOHMER & CO. 



WARER00MS--C0R. 5th AVE. AND 22ud St. 



NEW YORK 



Lakeside Classics 

AND 

Books for Supplementary 
Reading 

Please send for descriptive list of Selec- 
tions from English and American au- 
thors and for stories prepared for all 
grades from third to last year in High 
School. 132 numbers in Lakeside 
series at prices from a cents to 35 cents, 
depending on amount of material and 
style of binding;— any book sent post- 
paid on receipt of price. 

Ainsworth & Company 

377-388 Wabash Arenae 

CHICAGO, H.L 



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PRIMARY TEACHERS 

will be Interested to know 
that we put up 



p 

I Kindergarten Material 



Especially for primary school* and will 
Mild with our catalogue FREE Instruction* 
tor usinf the material In primary school*. 



Addre** J. jj. »HULT«, ITanUtee. Mich. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Massachusetts Training Schools 

BOSTON 

Miss Laura Fisher's 
>,;] TRAINING SCHOOL FOR 
KINDERGARTNERS 

Normal Course, 2 years. 

Post-Graduate Course. 

Special Course. 

For circulars addresss 
292 Marlborougrh St., BOSTON, MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 
Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars addresss 
MISS LUCY HARRIS SYMONDS. 



MISS ANNIE CQOLIDGE RUST'S 

Froebel School of Kinder- 
garten Normal Classes 

BOSTON. MASS. 

Regular Two Years' Course. 

Post-Graduate Course. Special Courses. 

Sixteenth Year. 

For circulars address 

MISS RUST, PIERCE BLDG., 

Copley Square. 

BOSTON 

Perry Kindergarten Normal 
School 

MRS. ANNIE MOSELEY PERRY, 
Principal, 

18 Huntington Ave., BOSTON, MASS. 

Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

134 Newbury Street. BOSTON, MASS. 

Regular Two Years' Course. 

Special One Year Course for graduate 
students. 

Students' Home at the Marenholz. 

For circulars address 

LICY WHEELOCK. 

BOSTON 

The Garland 
Kindergarten Training School 

Normal Course, two years. 
Home-making Course, one year. 
MRS. MARGARET 3. STANNARD, 
Princisal. 

19 Chestnut Street, Boston. 



New York Training Schools 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training Schools 

Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 

Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

SPRINGFIELD— LONGiMEADOW, MASS. 



The Kraus Seminary for 
Kindergartners 

REGULAR AND EXTENSION 
COURSES. 

MRS. MARIA KRAUS-BOELTE 

Hotel San Renio, Central Park West 

75th Street, - NEW YORK CITY 



THE ELLIMAN SCHOOL 

Kindergarten Normal Class 

POST-GRADUATE CLASSES. 

Twenty-fifth Year. 

167 W. 57th Street, NEW YORK CITY 

Opposite Carnegie Hall. 



Miss Jenny Hunter's 
Kindergarten Training School 

15 West 127th St., NEW YORK CITY. 

Two Years' Course, Connecting Class and 
Primary Methods. 

ADDRESS 
2079 Fifth Ave., New York City. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and C3d St. 

NEW YORK. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF THE 

Buffalo Kindergarten Assoc'n. 

Two Years' Course. 
For particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
86 Delaware Avenue, - Buffalo, N. Y. 

Connecticut Training Schools 

BRIDGEPORT 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

FOR 

KINDERGARTNERS 

IN AFFILIATION WITH 

The New York Froebel Normal 

Will open its eighth year September IS. 
For circulars, information, etc., address 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal 

179 West Avenue, 
BRIDGEPORT, - - CONN. 

The Fannie A. Smith 

Froebel Kindergarten 

and Training School 

Good Kindergarten teachers have no 
trouble in securing well-paying positions. 
In fact, we have found the demand for 
our graduates greater than we can sup- 
ply. One and two years' course. 

For Catalogue, address 

FANNIE A. SMITH, Principal, 
Lafayette Street, BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



ADELPHI COLLEGE 

Lafayette Avenue, St. James and Clifton Places. BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 

Norma! School for Kindergartners 

Two Years' Course. Address Prof. Anna E. Harvey, Supt 



Established 1896 



The New York 

Froebel Normal 



KINDERGARTEN and PRIMARY TRAINING 



College Preparatory. Teachers'! Academic. Music 

E. LYELL EARL, Ph. D., Principal. 

HARRIETTS M. MILLS, Head of Department of Kindergarten Training. 

MARIE RUEF HOFEK, Department'of Music. 



Eleventh Year opens Wednesday, Sept. 18, 1907 

Write for circulars. Address, 

59 West 96th Street, New York, N. Y. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Michigan Training Schools 



Grand Rapids 
Kindergarten Training School 



Winter and Summer Terms. 
Oct. 1st, 1908, to June 1st, 1909. 
July 1st to August 21st, 1909. 



CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 



CLARA WHEELER, Principal. 
MAT L. OG1LBT, Registrar. 

Shepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 

Maine Training Schools 

Miss Norton's Training School 
for Kindergartners 

PORTLAND MAINE. 

Two Years' Course. 

For circulars addresss 

15 Dow Street, - PORTLAND, ME. 

Miss Abby N. Norton 



Ohio Training Schools 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MART E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



Kindergarten Training 

Exceptional advantages — daily practice. 
Lectures from Professors of Oberlin Col- 
lege and privilege of Elective Courses in 
the College at special rates. Charges 
moderate. Graduates readily find posi- 
tions. 

For Catalogue address Secretary 
OBERLIN KINDERGARDEN ASSOCIA- 
TION, 
Drawer K, Oberlin, Ohio. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 

CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

Corner of Cedar and Watkins Aves., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded in 1894) 
bourse of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten Course. 

MISS NETTA FARIS. Principal 
MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



Indiana Training Schools 



The Teachers' College 
of Indianapolis 

For the Training; of Kindergartners and 
Primary Teachers. 

Regular Course two years. Preparatory 
Course one year. Post-Graduate Course 
for Normal Teachers, one year. Primary 
training a part of the regular work. 

Classes formed in September and Feb- 
ruary. 

90 Free Scholarships Granted 

Each Year. 

Special Primary Class in May and June. 
Send for Catalogue. 

Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker, Pres. 

THE WILLIAM N. JACKSON MEMOR- 
IAL INSTITUTE, 

23d and Alahama Streets. 



The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

14 West Main Street. 
DRAWING, SINGING, PHYSICAL CUL- 
TURE. 

ALICE N. PARKER, Frincipal. 

Two years in course. Froebei's theory 
and practice. Also a third year course 
for graduates. 

SPECIAL LECTURES. 



Kentucky Training Schools 



Illinois Training Schools 
Kindergarten Training School 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 

Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 

For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich, 
ave., Chicago. 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

at CHICAGO COMMONS, 180 Grand Ave. 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mis Amelia Hofer, Principal. 

THIRTEENTH YEAR. 

Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement. Fine equipment. For 
circulars and information write to 

MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 
180 Grand Ave., Chicago. 



TRAINING SCHOOL OF THE 

Louisville Free Kindergarten 
Association 

Louisville, Ky, 

FACULTY: 

Miss Mary Hill, Supervisor. 

Mrs. Robert D. Allen, Senior Critic and 
Training Teacher. 

Miss Alexina G. Booth. History and Phil- 
osophy of Education. 

Miss Jane Akin. Primary Sunday School 
Methods. 

Miss Allene Seaton, Manual Work. 

Miss Frances Ingram, Nature Study. 

Miss Anna Moore, Primary Methods. 

Miss Margaret Byers, Art Work. 



New Jersey Training Schools 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. J. 



OHIO COLUMBUS 



Kindergarten Normal Training School 



EIGHTEENTH YEAR BEGINS SEPTEnBBR 2S, 1007 * 

Froehelian Philosophy. Gifts. Occupation. Stories. Gaines, Music and Orawin 
Psychology and Nature Work taught at Ohio State University-two years' cours 



17th and Broad 
Streets 



Chicago Froebel Association 

Training Class for Kindergartners. 

(Established 1S76.) 

Two Tears' Course. Special Courses un- 
der Professors of University of Chicago 
receive University credits. For circulars 
apply to 

MRS. ALICE H. PUTNAM, or MISS M. 
L. SHELDON, Associate Principals, 

1008 Fine Arts Building, Chicago, 111. 



CHICAGO 

KINDERGARTEN 

INSTITUTE 

Gertrude House, 40 Scott Street 



Regular Course— Two Years. 
Post-graduate Course — One Year. 
Supplementary Course — One Year. 
Non-professional Home Making 

Course — One Year. 

University Credits 
Residence for students at Gertrude 

House. 



DIRECTORS 

Miss CAROLINE C. CRONISE 
Mrs. MARY B. PAGE 
Mrs. ETHEL ROE LINDGREN 
Miss FRANCES E, NEWTON 

Send for Circulars 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Pennsylvania Training Schools 



Miss Hart's 

Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Re- opened Oct. 1st, 1908, at 1615 
Walnut Street, Philadelphia, The 
work will include Junior, Senio^ 
Graduate and Normal Trainers' 
Courses, and a Model Kindergar- 
ten. For particulars address 

Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, 
Model Kindergarten 
The Pines, Rutiedge, Pa. 



The Philadelphia Training 
School for Kindergartners 

Keopens October 2, 1908. 

Junior, Senior and Special Classes. 
Model Kindergarten. 

Address 

MRS. M. L. VAN KIRK, Principal, 

1333 Pine Street, - Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pittsburgh and Allegheny 
Kindergarten College 

ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

Regular Course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. 
Seventeenth year begins Sept. 30, 1908 
For Catalogue, address 
Mrs. William McCraoken, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avenue, PITTSBURGH, PA 



California Training Schools 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING CLASS 

State Accredited List. 

Seventeeth Year opens September, 1907. 
Address 

Miss Grace Everett Barnard, 

1374 Franklin Street. OAKLAND, CAL. 



Wisconsin Training Schools 



Milwaukee State Normal 
School 

Kindergarten Training: Department. 

Two Years' Course for graduates of 
four-years' high schools. Faculty of 
twenty-five. Special advantages. Tuition 
free to residents of Wisconsin; $40 per 
year to others. School opens the first 
Tuesday in September. 

Send for Catalogue to 
NINA C. VANDEWALKER, Director. 



Washington Training Schools 



WASHINGTON. D. C. 

The Columbia Kindergarten 
Training School 

2115 California Ave., cor. Connecticut At, 

Certificate, Diploma and Normal Course 
Principals: 

SARA KATHARINE LIPPINCOTT, 
SUSAN CHADICK BAKER. 



Virginia Training Schools 

The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Richmond. Va. 

Alice N. Baker, Principal. 

Two years' course and Post 

Graduate course. 

For further information apply to 

14 W. Main Street. 



Georgia Training Schools 



Atlanta Kindergarten Normal 
School 

Two Tears' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
639 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 

Normal Training School 

of the 
KATE BALDWIN FREE KINDERGAR- 
TEN ASSOCIATION. 

(Established 1899) 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 
the Training School and Supervisor 

of Kindergartens. 
Application for entrance to the Train- 
ing Schools should be made to Miss M. R. 
Sasnett, Corresponding Secretary, 

117 Bolton St., EAST SAVANNAH, GA. 



If your Training School is not represent 
ed in these columns, kindly send us you 
copy, and] let us put it among the others 
Aside rom the advertising- value, both 
your pupils and your graduates will be 
pleased to see your training school have a 
place among the others of America. 



1874 — Kindergarten Normal Instituti is — I 908 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



Repton School 

Tarry tow n=on=Hudson, New York. 
A School for young boys between the ages of 7 and 14. A few of 
our special advantages are: 

Specially designed, modern buildings, costing over $ 100.000.00. Numbers are limiteo 
to Forty, giving an average of Five boys in a class, thus ensuring every boy, practicaily in 
dividualtuition 

A Physica Instructor, qualified in Europe, attends to the Swedish and other exer- 
icses, under the supervision ot the School Physician, who prescribes the exercise for each boy 

A resident nurse, and hospital building. 

Fee for the school year $400.00— $500.00. 

Apply to THE HEADMASTER. 



Reeds, Raffia, Splints, Braided Straw, Matting and Ceneral Construction Material 



Postage at the rate of 16c per pound must 
In all cases be added to these prices when 
goods are to be sent by mail. 

COLORED RAFFIA (Florist Fiber). 
Colors: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, 
Violet, Brown and Black. 

Per pound Net, $0.40 

Per %-pound Net, .25 

Per %-pound Net, .15 

%-lb. bunch, assorted colors 15 

PLAIN RAFFIA (Florist Fiber). 

Per 2 ounces 06 

Per %-pound 10 

Per %-pound 15 

Per pound 20 

Per pound, 5-pound lots 15 ^^S'ZEPHYR "*" 





REEDS. 
Our reed Is all put up in POUND PACK- 
AGES OF EACH SIZE, and we do not sell 
part of a package except ?X an advance 
of Be per package. 

No. 1, fine, per pound 1.00 

No. 2 , medium, per pound 95 

No. 3, medium coarse, per pound 75 

No. 4, coarse, per pound 75 

No. 5, coarser, per pound 50 

No. 6, coarser, per pound 50 

LOOMS. 

Todd Adjustable— No. Al, no needle. . . .15 

Postage, 18c. 

Xodd Adjustable— Perfection $0.30 

Postage, 23c. 

Todd Adjustable — No. 2 75 

Little Gem— No. 1, 9x12 25 

Little Gem— No. 2, 7x9% 25 

Faribault, hammock attachment 35 

Other Looms Furnished. 
Above should be ordered by express. 
MOUNTING BOARD. 

Good quality, 8-ply mounting; board, colors, 
dark green, steel blue, black, per sheet, .08 

Kodack Mounts, colors as above, per slit.. .04 
Both above are 32x28 inches, but will be cut 
in J4 or 'A sheets at lc per sheet extra, or free 
in lots of 12 sheets at a time. 

Bristol, in colors, 22x28, per sheet $0.05 

Heavy Manila, ZZy 2 x.ZSYz 02 

Straw Board, 22x28 02 

Postage on a single sheet of above, 4c, to 
which must be added postage on the packing for 
same, as follows: If cut in quarters and rolled, 
lc per sheet, 4c per doz. sheets. If sent full 
size and rolled, 5c per sheet, 8c per doz. sheets. 
Full sheets, packed flat, per sheet, 30c. Per 
dozen sheets, 35c. State how preferred. 

Japanese Manila, 20x30 01 

Leatherette, 20x25 05 

Cardboard Modeling: Paper, 18x24 02 

Postage on above, 1 sheet, 2c; per doz., 17c 

Coated Paper, 20x24 04 

Engrine Colored Paper, 20x24 03 

Gilt and Silver Paper, 20x24 05 

Postage on above, 1 sheet, 2c; 1 doz., 8c 

Oak Tag: for Construction Work, 0x12, 
dozen sheets .06 

Postage, 10 cents. 
Oak Tag: for Construction Work, 8%x 
10%, per dozen 0* 

Postage, 9 cents. 

Oak Tag: for Construction Work, 7%x 
»V4. per dozen .OS 

Postage, 9 cents. 
Colors — Dark Green. Yellow, Turquoise- 
Carpet Warp, per skein 15 

Add 12c for postage. 




TodcL 

I 



Faribault. Loom 




far'iloaultVoaVi 




Macreme Cord, per ball Net, .12 

Add 4c for postage. 

Bnbber Balls, 2-inch, plain, per doz 60 

Postage, each, 4c, per doz., 37c. 

Rubber Balls, 2-Inch, plain, per doz.. . .60 

Postage, each, 4c; per doz., 37c 

Rubber Balls, 3-inch, plain, each .15 

Add 6c for postage. 

Rubber Balls, 4%-inch, plain, each.... .25 
Rubber Balls, 4%-inch, red, each 85 

Add 7c for postage for either above. 

Brass Paper Fasteners, per 100 SO 

Conductor's Punch .80 

Add 4c for postage on either above. 

Copper Wire, per spool .20 

iron Wire, per spool .10 

Add 7c for postage on either above. 
Following sent postpaid on receipt of price : 

Germantown Yarn, skein 12 

Single Zephyr, per lap 08 

Seine Needles, wood, each 15c; doz.... 1.50 

Toy Knitter, per dozen 50 

Brown's Pictures, each..%c, lc, So and .05 

Silver and Gilt Stars, gummed, rer 100 .10 

Order the following by freight or express. 

Scbute Weaving Discs, 4-lnch, doz 15 

Sctaute Weaving Discs, 6-inch, doz 25 

Schute Weaving Discs, 12-lnch, doz 50 

The Multiple Perforator 3.00 

Orwig Punch 2.50 

Modeling Clay — 5Jb. bricks 25 

Modeling Clay Flour — 5-lb boxes 25 

Modeling Clay — by the barrel 8.00 



WikW-»* 




WHITE BRAIDED STRAW. 

Per yard $0.02 

Postage, lc. 
Per piece, 120 yards 50 

Postage, per piece, 15c. 

COLORED BRAIDED STRAW. 

Half-Inch wide, In colors, as follows: Nile 
Green, Red, Pink, Yale Blue, Bright Green 
and Ecru. 

Per yard O3 

Per piece, 120 yards 60 

Postage, same as for white braided straw 




Indian Ash Splints and Fillers. 

15c. per ounce; $1.20 per pound. Assorted 

colors. Postage, on ribbon and packing 

2c. per ounce. 20c per pound, 

We also keep in stock Wood Ribbon, Sweet 
Grass, T. K. Matting, Ash Splints for basket 
handles, Basket Bottoms, etc. Send for sam- 
ples or circulars and prices. 

We furnish everything on the market in 
the line of construction material at lowest 
pricAs. 




Germantown 





Orwig Perforator 





RAPHIA FRAMES 



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Address all orders to 



American Kindergarten Supply House 

276=278=280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 



VOL. XXI— JANUARY, 1909— NO. 4 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 



Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Booms, 59 West 9Gth Street, New York, N. Y. 

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

E. Eyell Earle, Ph. D Managing Editor 

Junny IS. Merrill, Ph. I)., Supervisor Kindergartens, 

Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond 

Harriette M. Mills New York Froebel Normal 

Mari Ruef llofer Teachers' College 

andN. Y. F. N. 

Bertha Johnston New York Froebel Normal 

Special Articles 
Ray V. Strickler, Illustrator, Hillsdale, Mich. 

All communications pertaining to subscriptions and advertising 
or other business relating to the magazine should be addressed 
to the flichigan office, J, H. Shults, Business Hanager, Manistee, 
riichigan. All other communications to E. Lyell Earle, Managing 
Editor, 59 W. 96th St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 27S River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. 
Single copies, 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
and Mexico. 1' or Canada add 20e and for all other countries 
in the Postal Union add 40c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of discon- 
tinuance is received. When sending notice of change of ad- 
dress, both the old and new addi esses must be given. 

Remittances should be sent by draft, Express Order or 
Money Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Com- 
pany. If a local check is sent, it must include 10c exchange. 



REMINISCENSES OF FROEBEL. 

In September, 1844, when a spoiled 
youngster of 9 years, my parents placed me 
at the Institute of Keilhau, then in charge 
of President John Barop. Prior to that 
time, for some 15 years, Froebel had been 
at the head of that institution, but on 
account of some financial difficulties and a 
misunderstanding with Barop, Froebel was 
no longer connected with that school, and 
had transferred his kindergarten work to 
Blankenburg on the other side of a high 
wooded ridge a few miles distant from 
Keilhau. Both high endeavors at a new 
system of education were still in their in- 
fancy. I was only the thirty-fifth pupil at 
Keilhau, and Froebel had hardly half a 
dozen lady pupils. In government circles 
he was looked upon as a suspicious and 
dangerous character, instilling revolu- 
tionary notions into the minds of the rising 
generation, and at Keilhau he was consid- 
ered to be an impractical dreamer, who had 
spent a fortune without accomplishing any- 
thing. In his own Fatherland, which he 
had helped to deliver from the yoke of the 
great conqueror Napoleon, the kindergar- 



ten was proscribed and it was not until 
some years after his death when Bismark 
was at the head of affairs in Prussia, and 
Otto von Beust, one of my classmates at 
Keilhau, had become Prime Minister of 
Saxony, that the kindergarten was tolerated 
at Berlin and Dresden. 

The first time I ever heard of Froebel 
was in September, 1844. According to his 
system of object lessons then still prevail- 
ing at Keilhau, the month of September 
each year was devoted to pedestrian ex- 
cursions, for which purpose the school was 
divided into three classes, not so much with 
regard to school work as to physical endur- 
ance. The first class had to march 30 
miles a day whenever necessary, the second 
class 20, and the third class 10 to 15. But 
these were exceptional tests only, and rail- 
ways, river steamers and farm wagons were 
also occasionally used on these excursions. 
Being the youngest, though not the small- 
est boy of unknown powers of endurance, 
I was assigned to the third class, the objec- 
tive point of whose excursion was the old 
castle ruins of the Kiffhauser, where Fred- 
erick Barbarossa, first German Emperor of 
the old Roman Empire, once dwelled, and 
was now sitting according to legend, in a 
subteranean chamber of his old castle, his 
elbow resting on a table with his head on 
his hand and his long red beard grown all 
around the table (as we could see by look- 
ing through a lens over a hole in a wall) 
dreaming of a new German Empire, "grand 
as Hermann on the Weser meadows, 
strong as Luther from the AVartburg saw 
it!" 

The idea of a United Fatherland, which 
Napoleon had cut up into numerous petty 
principalities sowing local discords and 
jealousies among the people to keep them 
apart and in subjection, was the first object 
lesson impressed upon my young mind by 
this visit to the Keffhauser, but not the 
only one, for on our home journey we 
visited also the toy factories at Sonneberg, 
a paper mill and several other industrial 
establishments. On this trip I heard much 
talk about Froebel and I soon discovered 
that the whole school at Keilhau was 
divided into a Froebel and a Barop faction. 
Froebel's nickname was "Wolf" and 
Barop's "Zerberus," among the boys. All 
highly respected and feared Barop, but did 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



not love him as well as Froebel, who was 
a boy among boys. Some of them told me 
grewsome Red Riding Hood stories about 
the "wolf," and cautioned me to beware of 
his wiles should be ever come to Keilhau 
again. Others laughed at such stories in 
derision, shouting: "Ich kann nicht 
Fuersten-diener sein!" (I cannot be a ser- 
vant of princes) and bet Froebel would 
come to Keilhau again on the next iSth of 
October, to dance and sing with them 
around a big bonfire upon the Steiger, and 
let them fire the big rifle he carried all 
through the war against Napoleon, who 
was finally routed on the historic battle 
field of Luetzen on Oct. 18, 1813, and would 
then rehearse again also the story of the 
foundation of Keilhau. I did not then 
understand the significance of the above 
quotation from one of Schiller's great 
dramas, but afterwards learned that this 
characteristic phrase, as it had once caused 
an estrangement between Schiller and the 
other great poet Goethe, so it had also 
caused a break in the friendship between 
Froebel and Barop. Froebel while still at 
Keilhau once was invited by a certain 
sovereign family to become a tutor of their 
children, and Barop had strongly urged 
him to accept that call in the interest of a 
more liberal education of the children of 
the rich and government class, but Froebel's 
heart was with the poorest of the poor 
children whose mothers had to work all 
day in field or factory to create more wealth 
for the rich who would do nothing for the 
utterly neglected poor people's children, 
and his final answer to Barop's arguments 
had been the above phrase : "Ich kann 
nicht Fuersten-diener sein." It was not in- 
tended by Froebel but mistaken by Barop 
as a criticism of his character and aims. 
Froebel had simply meant to say that his 
nature unfitted him for the duties of the 
proposed higher education of the rich, 
which was Barop's special mission, while 
his call was to the poor. 

Afterwards when they better understood 
each other they became better friends than 
ever, but at that time in 1844 they were 
not on speaking terms. 

On our last day's journey home from the 
Kiffhauser, along a lonely trail over wooded 
foothills of the Thuringian mountains, on 
which both Schiller and Goethe had left 
their foot prints in their day, we rested 
awhile under the wide spread branches of 
a magnificant old oak, bearing a tablet in- 



scribed with a few lines composed by 
Goethe under that same centuries-old tree. 
I will not attempt to translate them into 
English but quote them here in their 
original German, as they played a prom- 
inent part in the final reconcilation between 
Barop and Froebel a year later: 

"Ueber alien Gipfeln ist Run, 
In alien Wlpfeln spuerest Du 

Kaum einen Hauch. 
Die Voegelein schweigen im vValde, 

Warte nur!-Balde! 
Ruhest du auch!" 

OCT. 18, 1844. 

At Keilhau the 18th of October there 
was, and I presume still is, a holiday, 
though not a legal one as the 4th of July 
is in this country. The whole school then 
had a picnic upon the Steiger, a high ridge, 
commanding the most extensive view of 
the surrounding country for many miles in 
every direction. On my first visit there 
before reaching the summit I was blind- 
folded and two strong arms led me to the 
brink of a precipice. When the handker- 
chief was removed from my eyes a start- 
ling, most magnificent view of a varicolored 
landscape suddenly burst upon my aston- 
ished gaze. Away below ■me numerous 
orchards and patches of various trees in 
their most gorgeous autumn attire of 
glossy red, yellow, brown, pink and purple 
foliage, to the right a pine-crowned moun- 
tain range with now and then a barren 
rocky ledge, in the far distance earth and 
sky melting together in a blue haze, and a 
few miles to the left an isolated hill in a 
broad valley bearing an extensive old 
castle ruin at the foot of which nestled the 
village of Blankenburg, then Froebel's 
domicil. During the day a huge funeral 
pyre was built around a stately young pine 
representing Napoleon, a cannon mounted 
on a ship carriage recently presented to 
Keilhau by the foundry at Essen in ^'est- 
phalia (then owned by Madam von Born, 
a sister of Barop, but now the greatly en- 
larged and world renowned works of the 
late cannon king Grup) had been lugged 
up by some of the teachers and larger boys, 
and a lot of sky rockets were also at hand. 

As the day advanced all eyes watched the 
road to Blankenburg anxiously for the 
familiar figure of Froebel, and some of the 
boys started to meet him going as far as 
Blankenburg, where they were told that 
Froebel was up at the old castle, preparing 
a bon-fire of his own and was not coming- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



109 



to us. In the absence of Barop, Mittendorf 
then took charge of the ceremonies and 
ordered a sunset salute to Froebel. I being 
the youngest and latest arrival at Keilhau 
was accorded the honor of firing the first 
shot out of the first cannon ever cast at the 
works of Essen. I should have been glad 
to let any other boy take my place, but 
screwed up courage enough to promptly 
respond to the command "Fire !" And it 
was a whopper, the shot reverberating 
again and again from the near and distant 
hillsides ten or a dozen times. I know of 
no other spot than the Lovely Rock on 
the river Rhine that can produce such 
echoes. All the other boys then clam- 
mered for a chance to touch off the cannon, 
but there was not ammunition enough to 
accommodate every one, and when the 
echoes of the last shot had died away, and 
night was settling down upon the hills, 
Froebel's response to our salute came in 
the shape of skyrockets, which we an- 
swered rocket for rocket, and then the 
torch was applied to our funeral pyre, and 
soon another flame shot up -from the old 
castle. Blankenburg where Froebel was 
celebrating the anniversary of the great 
battle of nations upon the historic plains of 
Luetzen and Leipzig, where the great 
Napoleon's armies were utterly routed Oct. 
18, 1813, and where during the devastating 
30 years war Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden 
defeated the imperial Austrian forces under 
Tilly in September, 1631, and in November, 
1642, those under Wallenstein. In that 
battle Gustavus Adolphus was killed and a 
great monument now marks the spot where 
he fell, and which was visited each year by 
one or the other classes of Keilhau on their 
September pilgrimages. When the young 
pine tree representing Napoleon had been 
consumed by our bon fire amid shouts and 
patriotic songs, Mittendorf rehearsed the 
story of the foundation of Keilhau. He 
told us how Froebel, Barop, Laugethal and 
himself, who had served in different regi- 
ments, while in pursuit of one of Napoleon's 
shattered columns, had unexpectedly met 
at the foot of the Colen, where the road 
divides and in commemoration of that 
meeting had planted an oak tree, and 
agreed to start a school there to secure by 
education the liberty their swords had 
gained upon the battle field. He also spoke 
of the many difficulties they had to over- 
come before they could realize their plans 
and greatly deplored the existing estrange- 



ment between Froebel and Barop, hoping 
that they would soon become reconciled 
and be friends again as they had been for 
many years. 

CHRISTMAS AT KEILHAU. 

In 1844 the main school building at 
Keilhau was a plain stone structure about 
60x80 feet, two and a half stories high, 
covered with a large mansard roof of slate. 
The whole was built upon and partly into 
the last gentle slopes of the Colm, a round 
wooded hill behind the Institute. Some 
eight or ten broad stone steps led up to the 
main front entrance into a spacious hall. 
Another narrow hall divided the whole 
building lengthwise into a front and rear 
part. On. the first floor to the right of the 
main entrance was a large reception room 
and several guest chambers. To the left 
were three school rooms, the last one 
forming an L with the first two. All three 
could be thrown into one by large folding 
doors and each also had a smaller door 
leading into the rear hallway. From the 
large front hall a broad staircase, with a 
square platform and turn between each 
story, led up to the third floor occupied by 
dormitories. On the first floor along-side 
the staircase, was a passageway to a rear 
door opening on another narrow passage 
between the rear wall of the main building 
and a retaining wall. A few stone steps 
led from the rear door up to the higher 
level of the back yard. This was flanked 
on the right by a one story annex, the 
colonaded entrance to which made some 
pretentions to architectural beauty, and led 
into a large ball room with several guest 
chambers on one end and a vestibule on 
the other, from which stairways led up to 
the second and down to the first floor of 
the main building. The rear part of the 
first floor was occupied by the culinary de- 
partment, a store room, the janitor's quar- 
ters and an armory. The front part of the 
second story was occupied by three school- 
rooms like those below, a vestibule above 
the lower hall divided the school rooms 
from Barop's quarters and the rear part of 
the second floor was divided up into teach- 
ers' rooms. Froebel's and Mittendorf's 
quarters were in another building known 
as the lower house, the upper part of which 
was a spacious gymnasium for athletic ex- 
ercises in the winter. 

The first time I ever met Froebel face to 
face was the day before Christmas, 1844. 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



Barop with his wife and his sister, Madam 
von Born, were locked up in the upper 
school rooms, preparing them for the holi- 
days. Elise Froebel and Unger, our draw- 
ing teacher, who was quite an artist with 
scissors and paste brush as well as with 
pencil and paint brush, were engaged copy- 
ing pictures of the life of Christ with vari- 
colored tissue paper for transparencies for 
the decoration of the windows. Some of 
the teachers and the larger boys were out 
in the woods cutting young pine trees and 
gathering evergreens for garlands and 
wreaths, and we smaller boys were left to 
ourselves in care of old "Sap," the janitor. 
He had gathered us in the comfortably 
heated third school room of the lower floor 
at the south end of the narrow hall. This 
room had three windows, one looking east- 
ward and the other two southward com- 
manding a full view of the backyard, the 
annex to the right, a Jessamine bower, be- 
tween two stately lime trees straight ahead 
along the rear fence, very cosy in summer 
time and the usual place of morning devo- 
tions, but now dreary and abandoned 
covered with deep snow. I had not yet be- 
come accustomed to the atmosphere of 
Keilhau and sat moping in a corner of that 
room feeling quite homesick among these 
boisterous, playing, laughing and singing 
boys. One of them had caught a couple 
of little wrens and imprisoned them be- 
tween the inner and outer panes of one of 
the windows. There they were comfortably 
sheltered, had plenty of food and some pine 
twigs to perch upon, but it was not their 
own nest and they seemed to be homesick 
too, and tried hard to escape. Outside was 
grim winter and deep snow but they evi- 
dently preferred the vicissitudes of liberty 
to their crystal prison house. While 
watching these little birds flying against 
and picking the window panes, I saw two 
figures enter the rear gate on the Steiger 
road to Blankenburg. One, a stalward 
man in a long fur coat held together around 
the waist by a band of straw such as the 
peasants used to bind sheaves of grain with, 
a large fur cap was drawn over his eyes 
and ears, leaving nothing of the face visible 
but a pointed nose, prolonged by an icicle, 
his feet encased in a pair of large wooden 
overshoes, stuffed with hay to keep them 
on, and evidently borrowed from some 
peasant on the other side of the Steiger 
ridge. The other figure was that of a slen- 
der young man in the twentier years, well 



dressed but with utter indifference to the 
cold. The former soon proved to be 
Froebel and the latter W. C. Baehring, 
whom Froebel had chosen as his successor 
and who had come all the way from Berlin 
to spend Christmas at Keilhau, his Alma 
Mater. He soon returned to Berlin, where 
he was Froebel's agent, and where in 1848 
he became mixed up with the Revolution. 
Because of this he had to leave the country 
or be shot if caught. Years afterwards I 
met him again as General Freight Agent 
of the C, H. & D. R. R. at Cincinnati, 
where his sister Augusta had a small kin- 
dergarten for her brothers and some of the 
neighbors' children. Later on we went to 
Iowa together where he became my father- 
in-law. 

When I first saw these two figures enter 
the rear gate I called the other boys' atten- 
tion to them excla'iming: "There comes 
Santa Claus." Then others shouted : "It 
is the "Wolf" and all rushed pell mell out 
of the door to intercept him in the front 
yard. Directly the Wolf became Napoleon, 
and a fierce battle commenced. Snow balls 
were flying thick and fast, some of the boys 
charged Froebel's legs capturing his wood- 
en overshoes and trying hard but in vain, 
to throw him down into the snow. While 
wrestling thus a snowball knocked off his 
fur cap revealing a merry, kindly face, with 
two large blue eyes, an oval forehead from 
which long hair parted in the middle and 
brushed back behind the ears flowed down 
to his shoulders, a long straight nose, 
smooth shaven lips and a pointed chin. 
Surrendering to the allied forces he com- 
manded a halt, and shook hands with the 
boys thronging around him. When he 
espied me standing one side he asked : 
"Whom have j^ou there ? A new comer ?" 
Two of the boys then dragged me over to 
him and presented me. He lifted me up 
like a feather, asked me some questions, 
kissed me on both cheeks and forehead and 
then threw me down into the snow and 
rolled me over several times, then all the 
other boys fell upon me, stuffed me all full 
of snow and hauled me all over the yard 
shouting the college cry. This was my 
hazing and I now was a full fledged 
"Froebel boy" as the pupils at Keilhau 
were generally known. 

The next morning, instead of the usual 
hideous "hoop-hoop" at six o'clock a beau- 
tiful anthem, accompanied by a flute, violin 
and guitar awoke the pupils at Keilhau 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



in 



from their slumbers as early as 4 o'clock. 
The whole school, duly washed and 
combed, was soon assembled in the lower 
large hall for roll call and the usual inspec- 
tion bv one or the other of the teachers, 
being the officer in command for the week. 
At his word all closed ranks, faced about 
and marched upstairs. The folding doors 
at the head of the second landing opened 
and in the vestibule, between Barop's 
apartments and the school rooms on the 
second floor stood Barop with the ladies of 
his household, bidding us good morning 
and a merry Christmas. Then the subdued 
voices of an invisible far off choir an- 
nounced to the ear "Glad tidings of great 
joy; glory to God in the highest and peace 
on earth to men of good will," this was also 
revealed to the eye by a beautiful trans- 
parent before the only window of that 
profusely decorated vestibule, but only 
dimly lighted by the few tapers behind the 
transparency and a solitary star over the 
closed doors to the school rooms. After 
a brief contemplation of this transparency, 
artistically formed of various layers of 
colored tissue paper, bringing out the 
lights and shades of lifelike figures of 
angels, men and sheep in bas relief, and for 
which a celebrated painting by one of the 
old masters had served as a model, the 
folding doors of the school rooms flew open 
and a flood of light from seven large Christ- 
mas trees dazzled our eyes and the delicious 
fragrance of fir and pine, festoons, numer- 
ous garlands and wreaths filled the air. 
Greeted bv a joyful carol of the still in- 
visible choir, we marched into the flood of 
light, fragrance and melody led by Barop. 
Near and clearer came the words of the 

carol : 

O du froehliche, 
O, clu Selige 
Gnaden bring-ende 
WeihnaeMs Zeit 
Welt gins verlorer 
Christ ward geboren 
Freuedich! Freuedioh 
Christenheit, etc., etc., 

The first window in the school rooms 
next to the annunciation, represented in 
like masterly manner the three magi from 
the East on their way to Bethlehem, fol- 
lowing a bright star with a long luminous 
trail; the next, the flight into Egypt, then 
came the presentation in the temple at 
Jerusalem with Simon and the child as 
principal figures. The transparencv over 
the window near the corner of the last 
room at right angles with the first two 



rooms represented a harvest field and kin- 
dergarten with Christ as the central figure, 
saying: "Suffer little children to come 
unto me and forbid them not, for of such 
is the kingdom of Heaven." Here Froebel 
and Mittendorf had taken their stand. As 
we filed by them each silently shook hands 
with both except Barop, who shook hands 
with Mittendorf alone and only bowed to 
Froebel while rapidly passing on. The sub- 
jects of the last three transparencies were : 
Christ teaching humility to his disciples; 
Christ reproving the Pharasees accusing a 
woman of sin, saying: "Who of you is 
without sin let him cast the first stone ; and 
last, Mary of Magdala, the last at the cross 
and the first at the empty sepulcher in the 
resurrection morning. 

After leisurely marching all around the 
long continuous tables, fringed with gar- 
lands and wreaths, bearing seven gaily 
decorated and profusely lighted Christmas 
trees, and having a plate set for each pupil 
with his name, some apples and nuts on 
each plate and a box of presents from his 
parents underneath the table, Mittendorf 
offered up a fervent prayer and thanks- 
giving and then Froebel spoke apparently 
greatly depressed. I wish now that I could 
correctly reproduce every word he then 
spoke but we boys were then more inter- 
ested in the contents of the boxes beneath 
the tables than in Froebel's speech, yet I 
distinctly remember some disjointed frag- 
ments. He spoke of his efforts and his 
failures at Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig and 
other German cities and his only slight suc- 
cess in the slums of Paris, where he was 
more gladly received than in his own 
Fatherland. He reminded the Rulers of 
Germany of their promises made in 1813 
but which remained still unfulfilled in 1844. 
He warned the "Holy Alliance" formed at 
Paris in 1815; not to attempt to transplant 
their autocratic institution into the free soil 
of America, which he considered the most 
promising field for the free development of 
the kindergarten idea. He then admonished 
us bovs to forget and forgive all offenses 
and ill feelings that might exist between 
any of us, and then bade us to find our 
places. Several of the boys who had not 
spoken to each other for months, before 
looking: for their plates upon the tables, 
shook hands and became friends again, but 
Froebel sought Barop in vain who im- 
mediately after the conclusion of Froebel's 
speech, had slipped away into his own 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



private quarters. An hour later, as the lazy 
December sun was rising over the eastern 
hills Froebel with deeply bowed head 
wended his way back to Blankenburg all 
alone. 

At a social gathering in the evening of 
the same clay, Llise Froebel who was 
always in great demand on such occasions, 
being full of comic stories and popular 
songs, was called upon for one of her amus- 
ing songs, to which she responded in a most 
expressive, solemn and pathetic manner 
with a selection from Handel's Messiah be- 
ginning: "He was rejected and persecuted 
by men." This seemed to touch Barop 
deeply, with tears in his eyes he silently 
pressed Flise's hand and whispered a mes- 
sage to Froebel in her ear. 

THE RECONCILIATION. 

Whatever that message was, it remained 
a secret, never mentioned by either Barop 
or Flsie Froebel. New Year's day passed 
and the school settled down to its regular 
routine. Mardi gras came with its usual 
elaborate masquerade ball under the direc- 
tion of our dancing master, who was quite 
an artist in his line, and had made Mardi- 
gras at Keilhau quite popular among the 
court circles at Rudolstadt, from where we 
then drew many visitors. Lent passed and 
Palm Sunday came with its usual confirma- 
tions. The Easter vacation passed and 
Pentecost came with its excursions into 
rejuvinated Nature, its picnics and "Wald- 
meister" punch bowls, but no Froebel, 
who theretofore had never failed to be 
present on such occasions. 

At last in the latter part of August, 1845, 
Barop one day with a merry twinkle in his 
dark eyes, gave us half a holiday and in- 
vited the whole school to meet him at 5 
p. m. in the Pavillion on top of the Colm. 
We boys were all agog wondering what 
surprise Barop migh have in store for us, 
and right after dinner we repaired in dif- 
ferent groups to the Colm, the slopes of 
which were a perfect labyrinth of paths, 
gardenspots, hearths, rustic benches and 
beds of moss, of which each boy had one 
o f his own, and where we were occasional- 
ly allowed to bivouac all night. Each of 
the bovs was also permitted to have a pet 
animal of some kind and there was a whole 
menagerie of them at Keilhau. One of the 
boys, a special chum of mine, named 
Richard Heidenreich, whose nick-name was 
the "Bockmann," owned a splendid Billy 



goat, standing on his hind legs over six feet 
high with a long patriarchal beard and two 
powerful horns. He was well broken to 
the harness and trained to perform some 
amusing tricks. He was the favorite of all 
and the special delight of small children 
when allowed to ride in his cart. He had 
the free range of all Keilhau and was a 
very intelligent, dignified and good natured 
beast, but ever ready to fight anyone who 
dared to challenge him. As usual on our 
after dinner rambles, Billy was with us on 
that memorable afternoon, cutting up all 
sorts of capers. Long before the appointed 
hour the whole school was assembled in 
the pavilion on the top of the Colm, enjoy- 
ing the beautiful view that point com- 
manded. Below the school building the old 
church and the village of Keilhau amid 
orchards and ripening harvest fields, the 
silver thread of the Schala, a little moun- 
tain stream, winding its tortuous length 
through green meadows, fringed with 
stately willows. Lindin and Walnut trees. 
Further on the villages of Eichfeld, Schala 
and a part of the residence city of Rudol- 
stadt, the "Schloss" being hidden behind 
a hill. Still further on the river Saale and 
Schiller's Height on a rocky cliff. To right 
and left wooded hills, the swimming pond 
at the foot of the precipitous, Uhu ridge 
with the old "Goethe Oak" on one of its 
slopes, along which a bridle path led to 
Blankenburg as already mentioned. The 
front of the pavillion was open, the rear 
and sides boarded up with an open entrance 
on each side, the whole covered with a roof 
slanting from high posts in front down to 
the ground in the rear. A bench ran along 
the sides and rear of the floor, the front 
of which was several feet above the sloping' 
ground without any steps up to it. Teach- 
ers and most of the pupils were seated on 
the benches, while some of the boys were 
standbier on the ground below near the 
right hand entrance and Heidinreich and I 
with Billy between us, each holding one of 
his big horns, stood below the left entrance 
in front of the floor or platform. At pre- 
ciselv 5 o'clock Barop with the ladies of 
his household anpeared through the right 
door, and directly afterwards, from out of 
a nearby thicket under a cluster of pines, 
Froebel and his sister 'EHse emerged and" 
came hand in hand through the left side 
door, taking their stand opposite Barop on 
the other -side of the floor. After a 
moment's pause of utter surprise they were 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



Ir 3 



greeted by tremendous applause, as soon 
as silence had been restored Barop in his 
happiest humorous vein bade Froebel a 
most hearty welcome back to Keilhau, he 
reminded him of some of their youthful 
escapades while fellow students at 
Gottingen, of their talks at camp fires while 
comrades at arms during the war, of their 
mutual aspirations in the cause of higher 
education, of their disputes about Schiller 
and Goethe and the respective educational 
value of their great works, and the differ- 
ence of their characters and natures. He 
then asked Froebehs pardon for any sor- 
row and pain he might have unintentional- 
ly caused him. 

Froebel then answered Barop in the 
same vein reminding him of the differences 
in their own natures, and of the difference 
in their rhissions in life. That his (Barop's) 
was to the institutions of hig'her learning, 
while his own was to the submerged classes 
of society and small children. That the 
first few years of a child's life were the 
most important ones in determining its 
destiny, and that out of their disputes and 
conflicts of opinion new truths and higher 
ideals had been evolved and that each one 
should be true to his own nature and best 
convictions. Then turning to us boys he 
said that each of us had had some special 
mission in life, of which we would become 
conscious sooner or later, and that we 
should always heed the still small voice of 
conscience within us. Whenever that bade 
us to say or do a thing we should not 
hesitate to act at once without regard to 
consequences. Then turning to Barop 
again he pointed toward the "Goethe Oak," 
and reminded him of their declining years 
and the folly of ever allowing any petty 
prejudices to 'come between them, impair- 
ing the usefulness of the few remaining 
years of their old age. He then asked 
Barop's pardon for anything that he might 
have unwillingly said or done that had 
caused him grief, then he spread out his 
arms and entreated Barop to come back to 
his heart. Barop promptly advanced 
toward Froebel and just as he got in front 
of him he held out his hand to Froebel say- 
ing something in an undertone which no 
one and probably Froebel himself did not 
hear, for he remained in the same attitude 
with unturned eyes and out stretched arms. 
A painful pause ensued, when all at once 
Billy, who had listened and taken in the 
proceedings as attentively as any one of 



us, seemed to have an inner call to perform 
a special mission. Suddenly, he jerked 
himself loose from our hold and with a 
single bound he was on the platform direct- 
W behind Barop, and standing upon his 
hind legs he gently pushed Barop into 
Froebel's arms, who tightly embraced 
Barop, hugging and kissing him to his 
heart's content. This unexpected denou- 
ment threw the whole audience into con- 
vulsive laughter and merriment. It surely 
was a single step from the sublime to the 
ridiculous. As soon as Barop had freed 
himself from Froebel's embrace, he looked 
around to see what had happened. There 
• stood Billy meekly bleating as if to ask 
Barop's pardon for his rudeness. Froebel 
took in the ridiculous situation at a glance 
and pointing to the Schiller Height he said 
to Barop: "Billy wants to" say to both of 
us : 

"Ich sei, gewarht mir 

die Bitte 
In Etiren Bunae 

Der-Dritte." 

(A quotation from one of Schiller's fam- 
ous balads which both admired much.) 

Billy .was at once admitted as the third 
in their new bond of friendship. Both 
stroked and petted his shaggy neck and 
the ladies voted him a red ribbon. Thus 
happik- ended the long estrangement be- 
tween these two great educators — Froebel 
and Barop. 

After this Froebel visited Kielhau more 
frequently and on such occasions Barop as 
well as Froebel would join us boys on our 
outdoor sports and after dinner rambles. 
Occasionally such visits would give us an 
extra holiday for an excursion up the 
idyllic valley of the Schwarza, a clear 
mountain stream, up to Schwarzburg with 
its extensive game preserves abounding 
with deer, wild boars and other smaller 
game, or down the valley, stopping for din- 
ner at the "Chrysobras," a famous Inn, 
noted for its juicy wild boar roasts and 
potato dumplings, then further down the 
valley to the River Saale and up that river 
to a point opposite Schiller's Height. Anv 
"Froebel boy" who could swim across the 
river there, climb up the steep rocky bank 
to the little pavilion on Schiller's Height 
and swim back again through a strong cur- 
rent (the river at that point being about 
120 yards wide) was entitled to wear a 
bathing suit of his own design and any 
color he might choose, instead of the com- 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



mon white trunks of the other boys. I 
accomplished this feat several times in 
company with other teachers and other 
boys, and once with Froebel on one side 
and Barop on the other side of me. They 
"Were both excellent swimmers but I could 
keep up with them and in fact reached the 
other shore first. After this and another 
more strenuous endurance test, I was ac- 
corded the privilege not only of selecting 
any kind of bathing suit, but also of joining 
any of the three classes on their annual 
September journeys I preferred. 

One summer afternoon I and a few other 
boys accompanied Froebel from one of his 
visits, back to his home at Blankenburg. 
We took the short cut past the Goethe Oak, 
where we rested in its shade for quite 
awhile. He seemed to be in a serious and 
comtemplative mood. Speaking of the in- 
congruities and perplexities of this life, and 
the general unrest then prevailing all over 
Germany and France. Again he pointed 
to America as the land of promise and of 
his hope, where he thought the highest 
ideals of mankind would eventually be 
realized. He reiterated and elaborated the 
advice he had given us at the reconciliation 
meeting upon the Colm, that in all perplex- 
ities we should follow the dictates of our 
own consciences regardless of con- 
sequences. On arising he stood awhile be- 
fore the tablet on that oak, silently reading 
to himself the inscription I have already 
quoted and then bade us to go back to 
Keilhau as it was getting late and he could 
give us no supper at Blankenburg. Re- 
luctantly we said good bye. This was not 
the last time I saw Froebel, but somehow 
he made the deepest impression upon me on 
that occasion. In later life here in this 
country when I had diverse chances to "get 
rich quick" I have often thought of it and 
acted according to his advice, but generally 
with disastrous consequences. And now in 
my old age when I no longer have such 
chances, and am still dependent on my daily 
labor for my daily bread, I sometimes 
doubt the wisdom of that advice, believing 
that I would be better off had I sub- 
ordinated my individual conscience to that 
of my superiors and carried out their orders 
regardless of right or wrong, saying: "Thy 
will not mine be done" and throwing all 
responsibility upon their shoulders. But I 
have never as yet regretted of ever having 
acted on Froebel's advice. And while I 
might be better off financially had I done 



otherwise I might not be able to sleep as 
well as I now can. 

1 he last time I saw Froebel was between 
Christmas and New Year in 1848, at one of 
our usual evening entertainments at 
Keilhau. On that occasion I was called 
upon by our French teacher to recite for 
Froebel a little piece of French poetry he 
had taught me. It is about the only French 
which has stuck to me to the present time 
and it describes my own present condition 
and perhaps also that of Froebel in 1848, 
but a few years before his death in 1852, 
so that in conclusion I will quote it here: 

"De ta tige detachee, 
Pauvre feuille desechee, 
Ou vas tu? Je n en say rien, 
L'orage a frappe le chene 
Oui seul etait mon soutien. 
De sou inconstante haleine, 
Le Lephyr ou l'aguilou 
Depuisce jour me promene 
De la forest a' la plaine, 
De la montagse au vallou, 
Saus me plaindre ou ni effrayer, 
Je vais ou va toute chose, 
Ou va la feuille de rose 
Et la feiulle de laurier. 

With a most cordial I. K. U. Chatauqua 
salute, I remain 

Sincerely yours, 

F. HESS. 



WHAT IS WORTH WHILE? 

E. LYELL EARLE. 

What is worth while? Ah, nothing 

That soon must cease to be, 
For ne'er may the heart's true longings rest 

But in eternity. 

What is worth while? Not falseness! 

For a lie doth live hut a day. 
What is worth while? Not worry! 

It eats the heart's life away. 

What is worth while? Complaining? 

Nay! for it bringeth but gloom. 
What is worth while? Self-seeking? 

It taketh from life its bloom. 

What is worth while? 'Tis grasping 

The hope of the present hour. 
What is worth while? 'Tis toiling 

To perfect each wakening power. 

What is worth while? 'Tis gladness, 

That lightens the pressing load. 
What is worth while? 'Tis loving 

Each toiler we meet on the road. 

What is worth while? 'Tis duty, 

That strengthens the doubting heart. 

What is worth while? 'Tis friendship, 
That bears of life's wrongs a part. 

What is worth while? Ah, sorrow, 

That purgeth life's dross away. 
What is worth while? Resurrection! 

From sorrow, to Hope's joyous day! 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



US 



THE SHORT STORY. 

ITS PLACE IN THE KINDERGARTEN AND THE 

GRADES. 

E. LYELL EARLE. 

EVER since man first felt the need of 
turning actual or imagined happen- 
ings into words, short narratives 
have had a place in literature. 
Their development has been that 
of narratives in general, and in each 
literary period before the 19th century the 
short story differs from the long chiefly 
in matter of length, although in the shorter 
stories may be found occasionally a differ- 
ence in the selection and use of incidence 
due to a didactic purpose. 

The story that is short found its expres- 
sion in the Tales of the Bible, as for in- 
stance that of Ruth and in the Cupid and 
Psyche of the Golden Art of Apuleius. 

During the great Italian revival of letters 
in the 13th century Boccacio used this form 
with great effect. Chaucer also in England 
made it popular after his return from Italy. 

From Chaucer and Boccacio we must 
spring across the centuries until we come 
to Hawthorne and Poe, without finding 
another name really worthy of note. In 
these 500 years there were great novelists 
but no writer of short stories. 

Generally speaking there would seem to 
be no generic distinction in narratives be- 
fore the 19th century other than narratives 
short and narratives long, tales of many 
episode and tales of one. 

To discover then any originality in a 
short story it is necessary to find a real dif- 
ference between a tale like Ruth, and the 
Pit and the Pendulum by Poe. The differ- 
ence is easily felt by the reader but the 
question remains, is it merely mechanical 
or is it of' deeper origin. Irving's tales are 
considered to have served as a bridge be- 
tween the papers of Addison and the 
specific short stories of Hawthorne and 
Poe. The legend of Sleepy Hollow like 
Ruth is a story of simple episode but be- 
trays much more conscious art. > The White 
Old Maid by Hawthorne, and The Gold 
Bug bv Poe are narratives for a purpose, 
and this purpose is to suggest an impres- 
sion, and to leave us with a single vivid con- 
viction rather than a number of remem- 
bered facts. The spell of the end is on 
every word and in every choice of incident. 
It is this, which, for want of a less abused 
word, may be called Impressionism, that is 



characteristic to some extent of all typical 
short stories and serves as the most funda- 
mental distinction between them and the 
earlier tales. 

As to question of source it is possible to 
hazard an hypothesis. The line of influence 
from the Spectator papers through Irving's 
tales will account for well modelled, care- 
fully written, thoroughly artistic stories — 
forms such as are found in Hawthorne and 
Poe. It is probable that both of these 
writers, however, were influenced by the 
romantic school of Germany represented at 
that time by Tieck, and Hoffmann. It has 
been declared that Poe derived his source 
from Hoffmann, Hawthorne from Tieck. 
The truth is, however, that romanticism 
was in the air of this period, and is found 
in the best writers of America, England, 
France and Germany. 

The American short story is superior to 
the English, at least in a delicacy of fantasy 
which the English could not attain. Both 
Poe and Hawthorne are as American as any 
one can be. Hawthorne is considered by 
some a finer genius than Poe. He had at 
all times a wholesome simplicity and never 
showed any trace of the morbid taint which 
characterizes nearly all Poe's work. Haw- 
thorne's effects are moral while Poe's are 
merely physical. Ethical consequences are 
always worrying Hawthorne's soul, but 
Poe did not know that there were any 
ethics. Poe had a faculty which one may 
call imaginative reasoning to a degree be- 
yond all other writers of fiction. Lowell 
asserts that Poe had two of the prime qual- 
ities of genius, vigorous minute analysis, 
and wonderful fecundity of imagination. 

The essential characteristics of a short 
story are that it deals with a single char- 
acter, a single event, a single emotion or a 
series of emotions called forth by a single 
situation. The short story is not a chapter 
of a novel, but it impresses the reader with 
the belief that it would be spoiled if it were 
enlarged. Another difference between the 
novel and the short story is that the former 
with a few exceptions has a love theme that 
is not necessary to the latter. The writer 
must have a sense of form. The construc- 
tion must be logical, adequate and har- 
monious. A sketch or tale may have still- 
life, in a story something must happen. 

There are form requisites essential to 
good short story writing. They are com- 
pression, originality, ingenuity and fantasy. 

In a drama every line, every word is 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



Great Stone Face, 
stories, Stevenson's 



written for its full effect — but the dramatist 
has the help of living personalities to carry 
out his scheme, whereas the short story 
writer must make every word, sure, telling, 
and necessary to the story. He must have 
a sense of compression, or as Frederick 
Wedmox felicitiously styles it, "Pregnant 
brevity." The "Pregnant brevity," every- 
where apparent in the analysis of a good 
story is absolutely essential to the maker 
of a good story. This sense is marvellously 
displayed in Poe's detective stories, par- 
ticularly "The murders in the Rue Morgue" 
and "The Purloined Setter." Poe knew the 
value of psychological processes in the 
reader's mind. 

Originality is of course, as important to 
the short story as to the other forms of 
literature. It, particularly today sets the 
seal of success on manuscripts of fiction 
submitted for publication. The author's 
personality is reflected to a great extent, in 
his employment of this requisite, "The 
all of Poe's short 
Dr. Jekle and Mr. 
Hyde," (which is a short story in spirit) 
and Kipling's "The Man that Was" all have 
the impress of the author's originality of 
treatment. 

The quality of fantasy is also necessary. 
Ethetical greatness as a result of moral 
effects to be sought is a characteristic of 
Hawthorne's style in this branch of liter- 
ature. The fantasy of the "Great Stone 
Face" with its allegorical significance and 
the underlying meaning of true worth is 
exquisitely wrought into the fabric of that 
master-piece. 

Again some of Kipling's short stories are 
conceived in a vein of fantasy, or rather are 
fantastical in themselves. They are a fine 
example of the not-undue-prominence of 
this characteristic, a proper comprehension 
of which, however, is absolutely essential 
to the moral of the story. 

It is evident therefore, that the short 
story, the true short story, properly con- 
ceived and written out requires the quali- 
ties of a great author and that its literary 
•alue particularly today as a type form is 
of great importance. 

THE KINDERGARTEN STORY. 

The Program of the Race-Child along 
the road toward Wisdom and Power is 
marked by myths, legends, fables and won- 
ler tales. By means of them the race began 
to understand different types of human ex- 



perience, to comprehend the forces of 
Nature and the workings of Her laws, to 
understand and apply moral truths. The 
types of experience, and the elemental 
truths garbed as images in the myth legend, 
fable and wonder tale are mental and 
spiritual nourishment for the developing 
child even as they were for the race. The 
child may not at first recognize the truth 
which is the life of the image, but it enters 
with the image, nevertheless and becomes 
a part of his own experience, so increasing 
his power and understanding. In this 
guise it is eagerly received and enjoyed by 
the child. Therefore the story for the 
young child, the kindergarten story, takes 
the form of myth, legend, fable, wonder 
tale, having the element of personification. 

We found in tracing the development of 
the short story that its natural ancestors 
were myths, fables, legends, hero tales and 
wonder tales; therefore it must bear some 
resemblance to them. 

First, the test of a good short story is 
interest. The myths, fables, legends, and 
hero tales that have been handed down to 
us, must meet this test, else they could not 
have survived through the ages. The 
Wonder Tales and Fairy tales of more re- 
cent origin have to be interesting else chil- 
dren would not even listen to them. 

The necessary elements of a good kinder- 
garten story are much the same as those of 
a short story. There must be a close co- 
herence even to logical sequence of parts, 
there should be color enough to make it 
ring true; the plot or central thought must 
stand out with the subordinate incidents 
grouped naturally; the plot should be sim- 
ple and the story free from digression so 
that the mind may easily follow the 
thought-thread. The element of mystery 
or suspense inhances the plot and increases 
the interest, but there can not be much of 
this in a child's story, and simple allusions 
to things close to the child's life make a 
good apperceptive basis. 

The story of "The Three Bears" or 
"Little Goldilocks" is a story that children 
love, because of its very combination of 
mystery and simplicity of allusion. In the 
first place bears are not of a child's daily 
life and there is an element of mystery 
about them, but the child following "Goldi- 
locks" finds familiar common-place things, 
a house, a table, chairs, food and beds. 

The climax of this story is particularly 
good, there being no anti-climax to spoil 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



117 



the impression. An element found in "The 
Story of the Three Bears" and in many- 
other stories which delight children, is 
rarely found in a good story for the adult- 
mind — the element of repetition. This is 
a form of gymnastics for the child's mind, 
and he loves it ; the enjoyment is greater 
when the repetition is cumulative, as in 
"The House that Jack Built." 

So much for the technique of the Kin- 
dergarten Story, now we come to its pur- 
pose. The purpose of every good story is 
primarily to give enjoyment, therefore in 
kindergarten the story is told, not read. It 
gains interest through the personality of 
the narrator, just as a humorous incident is 
twice as funny from the lips of a friend, as 
the same thing in the paper. The story to 
the child like the study of literature to the 
more mature individual, increases his power 
and culture, and enriches his experience; 
for the story, Froebel says, is like a mirror 
to the child reflecting his own possibilities. 
It opens a new path for the imagination and 
gives form and color to the ideals. The 
general purpose of the kindergarten story, 
is to give enjoyment and to furnish nour- 
ishment for the developing mind and spirit. 

Of course there are many kinds of kin- 
dergarten stories, as there are kinds of 
short stories, all having the general pur- 
pose but each its specific aim. 

For instance, there is the Nature story, 
in which scientific facts are put in such at- 
tractive form as to engage the interest of 
little children. The method used is usually 
personification. 

There is also the Historical story, which 
appeals to the instinct of Hero worship, 
and arousing patriotism furnishes an ideal. 

There is also the pure nonsense tale 
which is "just for fun," but furnishes need- 
ed relaxation and establishes good feeling 
between those who have laughed together. 

We cannot immediately discern the in- 
fluence of the story on the child, yet all 
literature testified to the influences of 
children's stories upon mankind, by its 
allusions to them. 

The images of myths, fables, and fairy 
tales remain with us, we use them in com- 
mon conversation. One ofter hears the ex- 
planation "sour grapes" or the expression 
"He is a varitable Ugly Duckling." 

Many of our first inferences are drawn 
from the experience and knowledge gained 
from the myths, fables and fairy tales of 
our childhood. 



THE PLACE OF THE STORY IN THE GRADES. 

"The prime object of reading," says 
Stanley Hall, "should be the development 
of a living appreciation of good literature, 
and the habit of reading it rather than bad, 
for with this end all others are secured." 

In the telling or reading of stories, four 
aims have been suggested for the teacher 
to bear in mind, (1) To develop an interest 
in reading; (2) to cultivate the imagina- 
tion; (3) to present a model of expression; 
(4) to create ideals of right living. Of 
primary importance is the development of 
an interest in reading — not only reading, 
but the best reading. Outside the influence 
exerted by those with whom we come in 
contact, nothing has a more powerful in- 
fluence in shaping out lives than the printed 
page; for as has been truly said, "It is a 
silent, constant, powerful factor in the 
creation of the ideals after which our lives 
are modeled or by which they are 
wrecked." 

The portal to the enchanted land of 
literature is rich in meshes of fairy tales, 
myths, and other short stories which by 
their poetical fancy, humor, or appeal to 
some other phase of child nature create in 
the boy or girl a burning thirst for more 
of the same delectable nectar. If his palate 
is pleased with the first taste, he is likely 
to return again and again for a fresh 
draught. 

Some children enter school with a 
knowledge of the beautiful land inhabitated 
by fairies and elves. Others have had only 
a peep at its riches, while the majority are 
standing tip-toe trying to catch a glimpse 
of the promised country which they know 
is theirs by right. How careful then should 
the teacher be to select stories that will 
stimulate the proper kind of imagination ! 
Nothing but the best should be read to or 
put into the hands of the child, for being 
imitative, he will model his own actions 
after those of the characters in the story. 
He has crossed the border into another and 
larger world — school, and simply needs the 
touch of a fairy's wand, in the shape of a 
story, to carry him to Elysian fields there 
to roam forever. 

What ends does story-telling serve? 
First, there is the joy — the pleasure it 
gives. Then there is relaxation in listening 
to the doing of other people instead of do- 
ing something ourselves. The establish- 
ment, of a friendly relation between the 
teacher and the pupil is an end to be de- 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



sired ; but greater than all is the enriching 
of the child's spiritual experience — the 
arousing of his emotional nature, thus ex- 
tending his sympathies. 

Where can be found the child whose eyes 
do not brighten, whose pulse does not beat 
faster at the mere mention of story? His 
imagination, always on the alert, will re- 
spond at the slightest touch, for childhood 
is preeminently the Garden of Imagination. 

What kind of story shall be selected? 
Percival Chubb in "The Teaching of Eng- 
lish" says, "For Primary children the in- 
teresting thing cannot be the long thing. 
The long story or poem peddled out in 
small installments is an artistic and peda- 
gogical absurdity." Such writers as Scud- 
der, Kipling, Stockton, Howells, Seton, 
and Macdonald are sug'gested by the same 
author as fields from which to glean. 

The first and most important point in 
the selection of the story. It should include 
variety from the start. The race in its 
evolution has passed through various 
stages. So will the child. Different kinds 
of short stories should be introduced to fit 
the proper need of the child in the various 
stages of its development. By many people 
who have had much to do with little chil- 
dren, the fairy tale is thought the best story 
for the child that has just come from home. 
The fairy tale is moral in its tone. It deals 
with the punishment of wickedness and the 
reward of goodness in a summary fashion, 
and this appeals to the child at this period. 
How wrath and indignation are aroused by 
the wicked witches and orges and joy by 
the good fairies, who finaUv triumph in 
spite of almost insurmountable difficulites. 
The fable is deemed more suitable for a 
later period, while the myth and legend, 
being more difficult of comprehension are 
reserved for the third and fourth years. 

If we allow folk and fairy stories, fables 
and myths to be part of the work from the 
first year, of course we must grade them 
according to difficulty in both language and 
thought. Nature stories, parables from 
nature and Bible stories should be included 
in the work from the start. In the fourth 
vear, stories in history and science should 
be introduced to inculcate such ethical les- 
sons as patriotism, industry, self-respect, 
honesty, patience, reverence, and justice. 

Since reading to the pupils is a necessary 
part of the teacher's work it behooves her 
to perform this part of her work faithfully, 
conscientiously, and thus foster the 



emotional development of the child's 
nature. The imagination must be allowed 
full play — must not be suppressed, for with- 
out it there is very little comprehension of 
other subjects. 

If nothing but the best written stories, 
(best in thought and best in expression) 
are read or told to children from the begin- 
ning of their school life, a subtle influence 
will be at work that will unconsciously re- 
act upon their spoken and later their writ- 
ten language and also be a powerful force 
in character building. A prominent edu T 
cator has said, "The English language is 
not taught best by formal drill or enforced 
and uninteresting written theses or treat- 
ises on style but by first securing subject 
matter that so deeply interests that style 
is left to form itself unconsciously in re- 
action upon content." 

The element of humor has been sadly 
missing in school literature, but the future 
will remedy this defect by utilizing the 
stories of Garrell, Lear, Herford, Ruth Mc- 
Enery Stuart and Kate Douglas Wiggin 
among others. 

By no means should the moral be so 
prominent as to waken a dislike for the 
story in the heart of the child. Neither 
should the story be too instructive in its 
character. The moral should be felt rather 
than expressed and instruction in nature, 
for the sake of instruction, might better be 
reserved for the nature period. 

To create an interest in the Bible so that 
the pupil will wish to read for himself that 
most classic of literature would be an ex- 
cellent reason for the introduction of 
Biblical literature; but there are other 
reasons. Why should the Bible be reserved 
for the Sunday-school? It should become 
part of the daily instruction, for is not 
every day life six times as long as Sunday 
existence, and does it not therefore need 
six times as much emphasis? We have 
daily need of the lessons of truth, wisdom, 
faith, patience, duty, filial love and sacrifice 
that the Good Book teaches. The stories 
will in many cases need to be adapted, 
especially for young children ; but as one 
authority has said, "It should not be for- 
gotten that there is no literature too sacred 
to be cut or mutilated in any way, if it can 
really be made more effective with 
children." 

Language a little in advance of the 
pupil's resources should be indulged in, as 
it is stimulating- and tends to increase the 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



119 



vocabulary of the child. Relative to writ- 
ing for children, Hawthorne said, "The 
author has not always thought it necessary 
to write downward in order to meet the 
comprehension of children. He has gen- 
erally suffered the theme to sear whenever 
such was its tendency." 

Scarcely less important than the kind of 
story is the teacher as a story-teller. Too 
little importance has been attached to this 
side of the question. It is certainly an art 
to be able to tell a story graphically and 
although all are not gifted naturally in this 
line, yet each may cultivate the power that 
will pay for the time spent in the acquire- 
ment. The facial expression and the 
gesticulations that will accompany the tell- 
ing will hold the attention of little children 
much more readily than the readings from 
a book; and the glow of satisfaction that 
results from knowing that the mind is a 
rich store-house of facts and fancies will 
give a poise, a self possession to the nar- 
rator that nothing else can. Good story 
tellers deal very little in abstractions and 
are very liberal in the use of figures of 
speech that make more vivid the meaning 
by rousing the imagination and fancy. 

What is the aim of English teaching? 
Correctness in speech? Knowledge? No, 
culture, and that in its broadest sense. Not 
merely refinement in speech and manners 
but a larger heart, with deeper sympathies, 
a broader view, a kindlier spirit. 

Folk stories are the recorded traditions 
of the common people. They are poetical 
fancies that have been handed down from 
mother to child. Some authorities claim 
that a fairy story is a form of folk story 
and different compilers contradict each 
other in their classification. "The fairy 
story," says Hamilton Wright Mabie, "is 
an instinctive endeavor to shape the facts 
of the world to meet the needs of the 
imagination, the cravings of the heart." 
"In the fairy story, men are not entirely 
free from their limitations, but by the aid 
of faries, giants, and demons they are put 
in command of unusual powers and make 
themselves masters of the forces of nature." 

What is the educational value of fairy 
tales? Primarily, they arouse the emotional 
nature, which at the present time needs 
arousing in order to counteract the 
materalistic tendency of the times. They 
are the stepping stones to the child's 
spiritual independence. As life progresses 
and he is hedged in by circumstances over 



which he has no control, (like the people in 
the fairy tale,) he will rise superior to these 
forces by the aid of the giant will and assert 
his mastery over them at least in spirit. 

McMurry says, "The moral ideas incul- 
cated by the fables are usually of a practi- 
cal, worldly wisdom sort, not high ideals of 
moral quality, not virtue for its own sake, 
but varied examples of the results of rash- 
ness and folly. This is, perhaps, one rea- 
son why they are so well suited to the im- 
mature moral judgments of children." 

Injustice, pride, greed, selfishness, boast- 
fulness, etc., are illustrated clearly with the 
result that must inevitably follow. Refer- 
ences to the fable are so frequent in liter- 
ature that its value extends far beyond 
childhood. The truth it embodies is ex- 
pressed clearly and forcibly and for that 
reason leaves an indelible impression upon 
the child's mind. 

"The myth differs from other stories and 
legends because it is an explanation of 
something that happened in earth, sea, or 
sky." Stanley Hall says, "They are pro- 
foundly true, not to the external world as 
the child knows and may be freely told, 
but to the heart and the world within. 
With the good as the pretty and the bad 
as always ugly and the ethical judgment 
freely exercised where it is sure to go right, 
myth forms are about as near pure object 
teaching as ethics can get." 

"The legend belongs to a later period and 
often reflects the large meaning of the 
myth and the free fancy of the fairy tale. 
The legend differs from the myth in hav- 
ing some basis of fact. As a guide to his- 
torical truth it is worthless although stimu- 
lating to historical imagination. 

Historical stories are best introduced by 
anecdotes of people famous in history. 
Eggleston says that some of these stories 
have become a kind of national folklore and 
should be familiar to every child. Not only 
warriors and patriots but statesmen, dis- 
coverers, inventors, and men of letters 
should be included in the list. 

"With the great, one's thoughts and 
manners easily become great — what this 
country longs for is personalities, grand 
persons, to counteract its materialities," 
says Emerson. 

FIRST YEAR. 
FOLK STORIES. 

The Elves and the Shoemaker. 

The Moon in the Mill Pond. 

The Man in the moon. 

The Old Woman and Her Pig. 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



The Story of Chicken Little. 
The Three Bears. 
The House that Jack Built. 
Jack and the Bean Stalk. 
Little Red Riding Hood. 

FAIRY TALES. 

The Four Musicians. 

The Buffalo Leather Boots. 

The Four Winds. 

The Good Little Mouse. 

Hensel and Grethel. 

The Hut in the Wood. 

The Magic Mirror. 

Snowdrop. 

One Bye, Two Eyes, Three Eyes. 

The Ugly Duckling. 

The Pine Tree. 

SECOND YEAR. 
FOLKS STORIES. 

Dick Whittington and His Cat. 

Belling the Cat. 

The Sheep and the Pig. 

Cindrella. 

Puss in Boots. 

Tom Thumb. 

The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood. 

FAIRY TALES. 

The Bronse Ring. 

The Golden Goose. 

The Princess and the Pea. 

The Fir Tree. 

The Flax. 

Little Snow White. 

The Valiant Little Tailor. 

Little Golden Head. 

Why the Sea is Salt. 

The Wishing Ring. 

The Wonderful Musician. 

The Little Match Girl. 

THIRD YEAR. 

FOLK STORIES. 

The Fisherman and His Wife. 

The Golden Bird. 

The White Cat. 

Beauty and the Beast. 
FAIRY TALES. 

Aladdin or the Wonderful Lamp. 

Ali Baba. 

The Conceited Apple Branch. 

The Enchanted Stag. 

A Drop of Water. 

The Little Mermaid. 

Princess May Blossom. 

The Princess on the Glass Hill. 

The Snow Man. 

Hare and the Turtle (Japanese). 



FOURTH YEAR. 
FOLK STORIES. 

A Country Fellow and the River. 
The Star Gazer. 
Hans in Luck. 
FAIRY TALES. 
Bluebeard. 
The Light Princess. 
The Twelve Brothers. 
Last Dress of the Old Oak. 
The Old Street Lamp. 
The Wonderful Sheep. 
The Fair One With Golden Locks. 



FIRST YEAR. 

MYTHS. 

Aeolus and His Children. 

Apollo and Clytic. 

Arachae. 

Echo and Nareissus. 

Hermes' Cattle. 

Iris. 

Penelope's Web. 

FABLES. 

The Ant and the Grasshopper. 
The Dog and His Shadow. 
The Lion and the Mouse. 
The Mice in Council. 
The Wolf and the Shepherd. 
The Fox and the Grapes. 



MYTHS. 



SECOND YEAR. 



The Flocks of Apollo. 
The Golden Fleece. 
Hyacinthus. 
Phileson and Baueis. 
Orpheus. 

FABLES. 

The Ant and the Dove. 
The Donkey and the Salt. 
The Lark and Her Young Ones. 
The Shepherd's Boy. 
The Wind and the Sun. 

THIRD YEAR. 

MYTHS. 

Apollo and Pan. 

The Labors of Hercules. 

Latena and the Rustics. 

Perseus and Audremeda. 

Ulysses and the Bag of Winds. 

Venus and Adonis. 

The Dragon's Teeth. 

Psyche. 

FABLES. 

The Country Mouse and the City Mouse. 

The Crow and the Pitcher. 

The Fox and the Goat. 

The Hare and the Tortoise. 

The Peasant and the Apple Tree. 

The Wolk in Sheep's Clothing. 

FOURTH YEAR. 

MYTHS. 

Jupiter and Io. 

The Three Golden Apples. 

The Golden Touch. 

The Gorden's Head. . 

How Odin Lost His Eye. 

The Guest of the Hammer. 

The Apple of Idua. 

The Star and the Lily. 

Prometheus. 

The Do-as-you-likes. (Kingsley). 

FABLES. 

Union Gives Strength. 
Tne Wolf and the Lamb. 
The Fox That Lost His Tail. 
Hercules and the Wagoner. 
The Fox and the Crow. 
The Arab and His Camel. 
The Stag and the Lion. 

THIRD AND FOURTH YEARS. 

BIBLE STORIES. 

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Johsua, 
Samson, David. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



121 



LEGENDS. 

Legend of Arthur. 

Legends of Alfred. 

Siegfried. 

William Tell. 

Stories of Robin Hood. 

Historical Anecdotes — Eggleston. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

How to Tell Stories to Children — Sara Cone 
Bryant. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co). 

The Place of the Story in Early Education. — 
Sara E. Wiltse. (Ginn & Co.) 

The Story Hour. — Kate Douglas Wiggin. 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co). 

Special Method in Primary Reading. — Charles 
A. McMurry. (The Macmillan Co.) 

Special Method in the Reading of English 
Classics. — Charles A. McMurry. (The Macmillan 
Co.) 

Monographs on Education. How to Teach Read- 
ing. — G. Stanley Hall. (Heath <&) Co.) 

National Education Association Report 1905; 
pp. .~4, 868, 871. 

Method in Education. — Reark. Chap. II. Char- 
acter Building. (American Book Co.) 

The Teaching of English. — Percival Chubb. 
(The Macmillan Co.) 

Books and Culture. — H. W. Mabie. (Dodd, 
Mead •& Co.) 

Old Stories of the East. — James Baldwin. 
(American Book Co.) 

Myths Every Child Should Know.- — H. W. Mabie. 
(Doubleday, Page & Co.) 

Graded Literature Readers. — Third Book. (May- 
nard, Merrill ■& Co.) 

Stories of Old Greece. — Emma M. Firth. (D. C. 
Heath ■& Co.) 

Stories of Heroic Deeds. — James Johnmet. 
(American Book Co.) 

Parables from Nature. — Margaret Gatty. 
(Thomas Y. Crowell ■& Co.) 

In the Child's World. — Emilie Poulsson. (Mil- 
ton, Bradley Co.) 

Boston Collection of Kindergarten Stories. (J. 
L. Hammett Co.) 

A Graded List of Poems and Stories. — Gilbert 
& Harris. (Silver, Burdett &i Co.) 

Folklore Stories and Proverbs. — Sara E. Wiltse. 
(Ginn & Co.) 

Fables and Folk Stories. — Horace E. Scudder. 
(Houghton, Mifflin ■& Co.) 

Children's Rights. — Kate Douglas Wiggin. 
What Shall Children Read? 
Children's Stories. (Houghton, Mifflin •&> Co.) 

Stories or Great Americans. — Edward Eggleston. 
(American Book Co.) 

MISCELLANEOUS STORIES. 

Kate Douglas Wiggin. 
Sara Wiltse. 
Elizabeth Harrison. 
H. B. Stowe. 
Margaret Gatty. 
Ouida. 

Louisa Alcott. 
Dinah M. Craik. 
Josephine Jarvis. 
Emilie Poulsson. 
T. B. Aldrich. 




SCIENTIFIC BASIS UPON WHICH 

KINDERGARTEN IS FOUNDED. 

BY HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Supervisor, Savannah, 
Georgia. 

COMMON objection to the 
Kindergarten is that it is a 
place where children do 
nothing but play. 

The truth of the matter is 
that the Kindergarten is a 
place where children's play 
is directed and utilized for educational ends. 
If we stop for a moment to think about it, 
this fact constitutes the strongest scientific 
argument in favor of the Kindergarten. 
State it scientifically and see how it reads. 
Children are tremendously active. The 
natural expression of that activity is play. 
Here we have a great natural force. Shall 
we utilize it for wise ends, or shall we sub- 
stitute an artificial power alien to the 
nature of the object upon which it is sup- 
posed to work? The answer is obvious. 

"The miller looks to his mill race, the 
engineer replenishes his coal bin, the 
motorman sees to his current, the sailor re- 
gards the quarter of the wind." And we as 
educators, if we are wise, will work with 
nature and not against it. 

OUTLINE FOE OBSERVING KINDERGARTEN. 
TO FEEL OF THE PLACE. 

A Kindergarten should feel happy. You 
should be conscious of this from the first 
moment that you step into the room. 

Happiness is a moral quality and comes 
only through the right ordering of our re- 
lations with others. 

The Kindergarten age is from 4 to 6. 
Children of this age easily cry and quarrel. 

To have forty or fifty little children 
working and playing together and happy is 
a great moral achievement. 

A KINDERGARTEN SHOULD BE A BUSY PLACE. 

Children learn to do through doing. 

Directed activity, not suppressed activity, 
is what we want. The normal child is very 
active. The wise educator utilizes this 
natural force in directions that will train 
and develop the child. 

THE KINDERGARTNER SHOULD BE ABLE TO 
SHOW YOU A WRITTEN PLAN OF WORK. 

While all that goes on in a good Kinder- 
garten seems perfectly simple and spon- 
taneous, it is really the product of that true 
art that conceals all art. Nothing the Kin- 
dergartner does is accidental. 



122 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



Each bit of the day's plan has been made 
for a special purpose ; namely, to meet some 
need in the child's growth. 

To this end is planned: 

(i) The subject of thought suitable to 
the season of the year or to the line of 
activity and ideals that we wish to bring 
before the child. This selected line of 
thought is illustrated and reinforced by 
appropriate, 

Talks, 

Stories, 

Poems, 

Songs, etc. 

(2) An opportunity is given the children 
to get this thought into action through con- 
duct, through the hand work and the 
games. 
THE KINDERGARTEN SHOULD BE ORDERLY. 

By orderly, we do not mean military 
discipline and silence. We mean, rather, 
the order that comes naturally through 
absorption in what one is doing, through 
interest and through care not to interfere 
with the rights of others. 

OBSERVE THE CHILDREN. 

The children should be unconscious, 
spontaneous, all alive — paying no attention 
to visitors. 

Notice the quality of attention that the 
children give to their work and play. 

It should be involuntary attention, atten- 
tion born of genuine interest. Notice the 
quality of control or self direction possessed 
by the children and remember that six 
years is the age of the oldest child. 

Notice the discipline. If no discipline is 

needed, be sure you see the product of wise 

guidance in the beginning. If discipline is 

used, notice its character — not an arbitrary 

or personal infliction, but the natural 

penalty of a broken law. 

MORNING CIRCLE. 9:00-9:30. 
OBSERVE. 

Reverence during devotion. 

Glad morning greeting. 

Expressions of good comradship — happy 
living together. 

The thought for the day given to the 
children by the Kindergartner, either in 
talk, poem or story. 

Singing of the songs (preceded by exer- 
cises for good tone production.) 

During the morning circle opportunity 
is given the children to relate individual ex- 
periences to the Kindergartner. This 
means growth in individuality, personality 
and in the power of expression. 



RHYTHMIC EXERCISES, 9:30-9:45. 
OBSERVE. 

The movements of the children should 
be strong, graceful, free; not mechanical 
and cramped. 

With children of kindergarten age, we 
use large, bodily movements, and the rea- 
son is physiological. The large muscles 
come into play first in the order of the 
child's development. The development of 
the small muscles does not come until after 
the kindergarten age. 

These exercises, though carefully planned 
to help the child's physical development, 
are conducted in the spirit of play. Joyous 
activity is always of 'the most physical bene- 
fit. With little children we seek always 
to avoid formality, drill, the merely 
mechanical — because these methods do not 
educate and develop; they eradicate and 
suppress. 

HAND WORK. 9:45-10:10. 
OBSERVE. 

The child's conquest of materials; the 
training he is getting in the power to do, 
to produce; the control of hand and eye — 
which means control of the brain centers 
that lie back of the hand and eye. 

All good educational hand work gives the 
child an opportunity to develop his own 
powers, to express his self activity. 

In the child's ability to apply his own 
simple ideas lies the test of his growth and 
our success or failures as educators. 

THE GAMES, 10:10-10:50. 
OBSERVE. 

The social side of the games; the right 
and happy ordering of the child's relation 
with other children in play. 

If the game is a success, all must help. 
This is as truly good training and good 
discipline as the "team work" so much com- 
mended for the moral qualities it develops 
in the college student. 

Game time gives the Kindergartner the 
best of opportunities for getting close to 
her children. This close companionship, 
being a good comrade with the children, 
gives great opportunity to help the chil- 
dren's moral development. Notice how 
often the children choose the Kindergart- 
ner to take part in the games. 

Through the representative and dramatic 
games the children come better to under- 
stand the life about them. 

From 10:50 to 11:05 we have another 
Hand Work period. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



123 



RECESS. 11:05 to 11:15. 
OBSERVE. 

A period in which the children do what 
they like. 

If the morning's programme has been 
successful recess will not be a period of 
wild license; it will not seem as if the chil- 
dren had escaped from prison. It will be 
a period of free yet well directed, self- 
activity. It will show that the children are 
really learning how to play. 

LUNCHEON, 11:15-11:30. 
OBSERVE. 

Training in service, in courtesy, good 
form and the ability to conduct simple con- 
versation. 

STORIES, 11:30-11:50. 
OBSERVE. 

Shining eyes, absorbed attention. 

Training of the emotions, the imagina- 
tion and the building of ideals. 

Preparation for dismissal and good-bye. 
ii :5o-i2:oo. 

"There are doubtless many ways in 
which men may make a new heaven and a 
new earth of their dwelling places, but the 
simplest of all ways is through a fond, dis- 
cerning and individual care of each child." 



EDITORIAL. 



In looking back over the year just ended 
we have many reasons to rejoice for results 
accomplished. While the country at large 
has passed through a financial crisis, edu- 
cation has proven itself capable of a healthy 
adjustment even to the most trying situa- 
tions, j 

Its manifest determination to educate 
boys and girls for life and to make the pro- 
cess as vital as possible is one of the most 
• hopeful things that have been prominent in 
the educational world during the past year. 
The school has proved itself ready to modify 
its methods as the needs of life are modified, 
and has apparently gotten beyond the stage 
when it considered itself the supreme and 
ultimate repository of the wisdom of the 
ages which the child was merely to imbibe 
and as a result become possessed of all he 
needed to make an immediate success of 
life. 

This tolerance in general of life, as it is 
found here and now, is going over, we are 
glad to say, into the special departments 



of school activities, not least among which 
are the kindergarten and primary. 

It is hopeful to record the fact that there 
seems to be less dogmatism and more of a 
tendency to bear with the views of others 
as containing" possibly something of real 
value rather than limiting the educational 
horizon to the traditions or prescience of a 
few. This tolerance has probably resulted 
from the larger spirit of tolerance that is 
manifest in the scientific world of today. 



The editorial committee of the Kinder- 
garten Magazine wishes to invite the co- 
operation of training teachers and training 
classes throughout the country. What it 
wants in particular are the reports of de- 
vices used daily in the kindergarten in the 
working out of special program matter 
with a careful record of the results 
obtained. It wants, furthermore, brief 
abstracts on the Mother Plays, on the 
Stories, and Nature Collections, as well as 
Essays on General Educational Theory and 
Practice and Program Method and Ma- 
terial. 

Consequently it makes this offer to all 
training schools. It will give one year's 
subscription free to the Kindergarten 
Primary Magazine to any student whose 
work has been selected and approved by 
the training teacher under any of these 
heads. Some suggestive titles follow: 

The Place and Value of My Nature Col- 
lection. 

How I Made Up My Picture Folio. 

The Best Pists of Kindergarten Stories 
Suited to the Periods and Activities of the 
Year. 

The Relation of the Materials of the 
Kindergarten To Those of the Early 
Primary. 

Illustrations and Suggestions for Hand 
Work. 

To graduate kindergartners the same 
offer is made for the above, or any other 
articles that the Magazine accepts and 
prints. We urge training teachers to in- 
terest their classes in these matters and 
ask kindergartners throughout the country 
to send us in their contributions. This is 
one of the ways all may co-operate in sus- 
taining the standard of the Magazine and 
keeping it in touch with the actual needs 
of the child today. Above all we want 
practice articles and suggestions. 




^LETTERS TO A YOUNG KINDER- 
GARTNER. 

My Dear Young Kindergartner : 

You can scarce understand how deeply 
your letter appealed to me, nor how swift- 
ly it carried me back to the time when I, 
too, faced the full responsibility of caring 
for a group of kindergarten children, and 
felt the same deep need for guidance and 
inspiration which you express. 

Your letter reveals to me more, perhaps, 
than you are aware. Your evident con- 
sciousness of your limitations as a beginner 
in kindergarten teaching argues well for 
your possibilities of growth; and the very 
definiteness with which you have stated 
your problems indicates the earnestness of 
your purpose to solve them. It will be a 
pleasure to take up correspondence with 
you; indeed it will be a privilege to follow 
your endeavor to find yourself in the ser- 
vice of childhood. 

You write in your letter "I am weak in 
organization;" and then what follows be- 
trays you. Your very nearness to your 
training is a hindrance to you. It leads you 
to think of your problems in terms of train- 
ing-class philosophy, psychology, and 
pedagogy; hence your approach to the 
problems you would solve is that of the 
class room rather than that of the kinder- 
garten itself. Now do not take this state- 
ment too seriously, for it marks a very 
legitimate stage in your development. The 
class room approach is, at present, the only 
one you can make, since you lack the actual 
basis of practical experience. Many of the 
cherished theories of training-class days 
will not seem to bear the test of practice; 
and here you must guard against judging 
too hastily. These theories will work — 
they must if they are based upon the prin- 
ciples of education as applied to the kinder- 

*A11 rights reserved. 



garten. When you have tested these 
theories in the crucible of practice, enlight- 
enment will come to you, gradually, surely, 
inspiringly; for, theoretically and practi- 
cally the principles underlying the kinder- 
garten are safe and sound. 

Let us, then, adopt the practical and 
common-place approach to every problem, 
and I will ask you to trust me to point out 
to you at the end of each consideration, the 
philosophy involved therein. That this 
philosophy will be according to Froebel, 
goes without saying; yet, lest you fall into 
the too common error of thinking him the 
repository of all educational wisdom, I 
shall sometimes direct you to other masters 
in education. 

Since the problems we would solve con- 
cern organization, let us sieze our dilemma 
by the horns and make it serve us as we 
now proceed to organize our problems; 
and since we must have order in this, I 
will submit a plan of action for your con- 
sideration. Will you study it carefully, and 
when you write do not hesitate to suggest 
changes. You should discard points in 
which you are reasonably certain of your 
position, and you may feel at liberty to sub- 
stitute other points in which you need as- 
sistance. 

Shall we not, then, let the order sug- 
gested by the daily routine of the kinder- 
garten direct our efforts? If so, the order 
may be somewhat as follows : 

I. The Organization of the Morning 
Circle. 

II. The Organization of Marching and 
Rhythms. 

III. The Organization of Table Exer- 
cises. 

IV. The Organization of the Play 
Circle. 

V. Organization as Involved in the 
General Management of the Kindergarten. 

And now, that we may lose no time, I 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



125 



will outline somewhat minutely the points 
involved in the first of these problems. If 
this plan commends itself to you, will you 
write your views very fully, keeping strict- 
ly to the outline which I now suggest. 

I. The Organization of the Morning 
Circle. 

(1) Before kindergarten — what? 

(2 The office of prayers and hymns. 

(3) The function of instrumental music. 

(4) The legitimate activities of the 
morning circle. 

(5) The function of imitation. 

(6) The law of repetition and its appli- 
cation. 

(7) The Sanctions of the Morning 
Circle. 

(8) The principles and processes in- 
volved. 

And now, my dear young teacher (I use 
the word "teacher" because it signifies so 
much that is humble and lowly, so much 
that is high and beautiful), you must re- 
member that in order to receive you must 
give; so when you find the way growing 
clear, I hope you will write to me; thus 
you will inspire me to greater zeal in help- 
fulness. When you doubt, you must state 
your doubts clearly. When you disagree, 
you must disagree courageously and open- 
ly, else the result of our correspondence 
will not be as we wish. So, too, if I some- 
times seem to criticise some cherished form 
or exercise gathered in training-class days, 
do not let partisanship blind you to the fact 
that the ways are indeed many; and that 
the purpose of our seeking is that we may 
together find a better way, knowing that 
the best way is the ideal goal that lures us 
to enter upon this course of Self-culture. I 
shall watch for your response with interest. 

It is the privilege of your chosen profes- 
sion to "make the plays of childhood a 
round in that ladder of experience over 
which the soul climbs toward self-realiza- 
tion and self-knowledge ;" while the com- 
pensation it offers to you is also self-reali- 
zation and self-knowledge. 

Faithfully your friend, 

HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS. 



MOTHERS' MEETINGS AND READ- 
ING CIRCLES. 

DR. JENNY B. MERRILL. 

Note I. Kindergartners will find a list 
of simple topics for Mother's Meetings in 
the Kindergarten Magazine March, 1908. 

2. The author of the paragraph on 
errands quoted last month is Mrs. M. E. 
Boole. The name was misprinted. Several 
kindergartners have reported the success- 
ful issue of a discussion on "children's 
errands;" we will quote further from Mrs. 
Boole upon another practical subject, viz: 

Carrying Out Orders. 

"As early as possible you choose some 
little function, which the child has learned 
to perform, such as washing his own hands, 
as a means of training him further into the 
sense of responsibility in carrying out 
orders. For instance, when you see that 
he is able to wash his hands properly, you 
explain to him that it is not safe for him to 
touch the hot water tap, as the water is 
sometimes hot enough to scald him. You 
tell him that he is not to touch the hot 
water tap unless you are there to give him 
leave. If you intend that any other person 
shall have authority to give leave, mention 
that person fondly at once; say 'Unless 
nurse or I, or father gives you leave,' and 
having said so, let it be understood that any 
other grown up person may draw hot water 
for the child, but may not give leave for 
him to touch the tap. 

At that point there will probably come 
little difficulties with servants and relatives. 
'As if I didn't know as well as his mother.' 
You must explain to the complainer that 
Jacky is just now getting a lesson about 
what he is responsible for and to whom, 
and that no confusion should be introduced 
into his mind. A little tact and a little 
firmness are needed to soothe affectionate 
jealousies in regard to authority, but the 
results of this method are so satisfactory 
to the whole household, that people soon 
begin to say that after all the mother seems 
to have known what she was about. Well 
you send Master Jacky up to wash his 
hands, giving him minute directions as to 
his order of procedure, which you make 
him repeat each day until you find that he 
no longer needs to be reminded. 

Every day he comes back with his report 
which may be as follows : Cook was up- 
stairs; I asked her to draw me some hot 



126 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



water; I washed my hands; I used soap; 
I rinsed the soap off; I used my own towel; 
I think I wiped my hands quite dry; I did 
not touch any one's else towel; I put my 
own towel back on the proper ring. The 
report must include all the details upon 
which you cautioned him. Amongst its 
other advantages this has a tendency to 
check a child's natural inclination to occupy 
the conversation with details of his own 
affairs and performances at the wrong time. 
He understands that reporting the details 
of what he has been doing is a piece of busi- 
ness to be done at a certain time and heard 
no more of." 

Questions For Discussion. 

i. How often during a day should a 
child under six be required to give such an 
accurate report? (Mrs. Boole says "not 
more than once or twice, for the rest of 
the time he should be allowed to be his 
natural, careless, impish self; and other 
people, not himself, should guard him from 
mischief and danger.") 

2. What would be the result of over- 
doing such a lesson in exactness? It would 
make the child either peevish or priggish. 

3. What other examples of similar acts 
can you suggest as appropriate for these 
early lessons in responsibility? 

4. How could such lessons be applied in 
visiting in a friend's house in order to pre- 
vent accident ? 

5. What good reaction upon the mother 
would such a daily report bring about ? 

It would tend to make her more accurate 
in giving directions to a child. It would 
lead to a habit — respectful attention to a 
child's report. It would develop a simple 
dignity in dealing with household affairs. 
The mother would realize that she is truly 
the child's first and best teacher. 

6. Would such careful daily reports 
have any effect upon the habit of truth 
telling? 

7. Ask mothers to test this method and 
report several months hence. 

Note — Kindergartners will render practical ser- 
vice if they will send reports to the writer of this 
article if any mothers try the method suggested. 



AFTER CHRISTMAS. 

January. 

We are enjoying our Christmas tree so 
much. Fortunately it was not thrown out 
as happened last year. The children have 
been sawing off branches and today we 



made a table and started a bed which we 
hope to finish tomorrow. F. B. B. 

During December the Christmas Tree 
was the central object of interest. We 
talked of where it grew, drew and painted 
pictures of it and decorated it for the 
mothers to see at the Christmas party. 
While talking of the woodman and carpen- 
ter this month, January, we have used it 
for illustration, sawing off branches, chop- 
ing, etc. We are now using it for a pole 
for a game with a string and ball. R. B. H. 

We had a very interesting time with the 
carpenter. The children responded well 
and had many things to tell about him and 
his work. We had some very good clay 
reproductions of tools, also did some free 
cutting. The stories of trees, saw-mills and 
logging camp were much appreciated. This 
work was all remembered and spoken of 
again and again during our study of holly, 
fir, pine and mistletoe sprays. We had a 
great deal of fun with the pine needles and 
the prickles of the holly. J. J. E. A. 

The central object of interest for January 
will be the Christmas tree. Each child has 
already climbed it, and had a swing in its 
branches. They have played they were in 
the woods and picked a branch they liked 
the best calling it a tree. We have taken 
the needles off the twigs and had stick 
lessons with the twigs. By and bye we will 
play carpenter and wood-chopper and saw 
off the branches and then make dolls' fur- 
niture. The trunk that is left will be our 
flag pole and later our may-pole. G. H. 



"Whoso to dull and narrow lives 
Doth ope the sky's wide blue, 

The gold of sunset, rose of dawn, 
The diamond gleam of dew, 

Vast space on space of free, fresh air, 
Green hilltop, outlook new, 

And forest path but seldom trod, — 

Whoso doth this doth work with God." 

Annual welcome of N. Y. P. S. Kinder- 
garten Association Nov. 20, 1908. 



Father in Heaven, we thank Thee, 

We thank Thee. 
For mother love and father care, 
For brothers strong and sisters fair, 
For love at home and here each day, 
For guidance lest we go astray, 
Father in heaven, we thank Thee, 

We thank Thee. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



127 



PROGRAM SUGGESTIONS FOR 
JANUARY. 

BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

"f N JANUARY a variety of topics present 
-*- themselves as suggestive points of de- 
parture for a kindergarten program. In 
many public schools the older children are 
about to leave the Paradise of Childhood 
for the sterner realities of the First Grade, 
and new children enter to fill the vacancies 
thus made. This, with the fact that Janu- 
ary is the beginning month of the New 
Year makes the subject of "Time" par- 
ticularly timely. We give below a few 
parallel suggestions along this line. A talk 
about the grades above, and visits of the 
kindergarten children to the first grade and 
vice versa for an early morning song or 
talk, are quite in order. This has been 
done in several schools in Chicago. Now, 
too, if it has not already been taken up at 
the beginning of the school year, the 
"clock" may be made the center of attrac- 
tion. See November number of Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine. 

The "trades" are made the center of in- 
terest in many kindergartens in January, 
and in the city, as preliminary to this, the 
street and its manifold interests present 
opportunity for helping the child to see and 
feel and act rightly. This is' especially true 
in the crowded tenement sections where 
the abnormal conditions make it imperative 
to so nurture the best in the child that the 
evil is overcome by good. 

We will give first a few suggestions in 
connection with the city streets. 

Can the child, on the morning circle, 
show, without words, some of the things he 
saw or did on the street this morning? 
Act out street car, horse and wagon, slid- 
ing on ice, throwing snowballs, policeman 
helping someone across the street, baby 
wheeled in carriage, etc. Speak of grocery 
stores, florists, and other kinds of business. 
The country child sees trees, shrubs, barns, 
sleighs, icicles, horses, cows, sheep in fold, 
etc., school-house, library, etc.) This leads 
naturally up to the trades from one direc- 
tion and to the important Froebelian prin- 
ciple of interdependence so well expressed 
in Emerson's noble poem "Each and All." 
The entire poem is well worth committing 
to memory by the kindergartner. We give 
but two lines : 

"All are needed by each one 
Nothing is fair or good alone." 



If the thoughtful kindergartner has 
saved the kindergarten Christmas tree, the 
various ways of disposing of its needles, 
tings and trunk leads naturally to the trade 
from another direction — to the woodsman 
and the carpenter. But to return to the 
Street with our program ideas. 

FIRST GIFT. 

Let the balls represent fruit in shops or 
on fruit stands. Pile upon a table in 
pyramidal form and let children count how 
many apples, etc., there are. Buy two or 
three; how many are left? Emphasize im- 
portance of giving fair pay. 

Errands — This is a good time to practice 
suggestions given last month by Dr. Mer- 
rill in her paper on "Running Errands." 
Send child to buy three green cooking 
apples. See that he returns with three 
green balls. 

Let balls represent flowers in window or 
street cars that take mother to the shops 
when she goes shopping. Does she take a 
red or a green car? Do we wait patiently 
in the store for our turn to be served? 

Let balls represent bells of churches that 
we hear on the streets on New Year's 
night. Which is pleasanter to hear, the 
rich, deep tones of the church bells or the 
harsh clanging of the factory horns and 
whistles? What can we do with the green 
apples. We can make an apple pie or 
pudding. If we do not care to make pies 
or cake at home, what can we do? We can 
go to the baker whose enticing window we 
see from the street. 

THE STREET-CLEANER. 

The "street-cleaner" opens up a far- 
reaching topic. How does he help? How 
can we help? We need not throw papers 
or banana-skins in the street. We want to 
help keep our city beautiful and clean. Let 
the child act out a little plav. Plav buy 
fruit at a stand, eat the imaginary fruit- 
look about for a receptacle in which to place 
skins and paper bag. Failing in the search. 
roll up the skins in the paper and put in 
hand-bag or pocket. The fact that the 
street-cleaner, however humble his office, is 
a city employe, working for the civic wel- 
fare gives him a dignity that does not 
inhere in the organ-grinder or scissors- 
grinder. There is a chapter in that beau- 
tiful classic translated from the French, 
"The Attic Philosopher," which tells how 
a patriot served his country in many ways, 



128 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



including fighting in the wars and when dis- 
abled, he finds service on the street clean- 
ing force. It was retold in simple form in 
the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine a few 
years ago. 

THIRD AND FOURTH GIFTS. 

Lay the oblongs as straight, level, even 
pavements in the street. (Group work) 
Arrange the cubes as houses. Let the 
cylinders of the Second Gift. Beads be the 
ash cans and refuse receptacles. 

PAPER CUTTING. 

Cut dolls (street-cleaners) of paper and 
also brooms- — observe kind used by street- 
cleaners. 

CARDBOARD MODELING. 

i. Make wagon-bodies, and attach 
wheels made by button-molds. These are 
the wagons for carrying away the city 
trash and refuse. 

In winter the snow must be carried away 
— make shovels of cardboard attached to 
small wooden handle, (burnt match). 

3. Make refuse-receptacles by cutting 
oblong 3x5 inches. Paste one short edge 
to overlap the other. Cut many slits into 
the lower end about J /\ inch up, bend, and 
to the surface thus made paste a circle to 
form the bottom. 

Bent surface to which 
to attach circle. 



^-Vvv\A/V^ 

This can be used as trash-basket for doll- 
house or to hold tooth-picks or burnt 
matches. 

Speak of the many things found in the 
receptacles and of how they are sorted and 
classified and men have learned to make 
use of everything; old tin cans, bones, 
papers, rags, etc. How does the city dis- 
pose of garbage ? When we grow up are 
we going to help work out plans so that 
there shall be no waste at all, and that 
rivers and bays shall not be polluted with 
city waste? 

THE BAKER. 

In Germany and England the baker plays 
a more important role than in America. 
Very often the people prepare the meat and 
dough and depend upon the baker to roast 
or bake them. He therefore serves as a 



good illustration of the principle of inter- 
dependence. But city life even in the United 
States could ill afford to spare the man who 
gives us good bread and breakfast rolls, 
and cakes and pies of all kinds. 

Speak of clock by which we know when 
the goodies have been cooking long 
enough. 

GIFTS— SECOND GIFT. 

Let the box represent the baker's wagon 
on its rounds, with the ball for the spirited 
horse. Or it may be the oven into which 
are popped the good loaves of bread and 
cake, or it may be the grocery store from 
which the baker gets his barrels (cylinder) 
of flour or baking apples, and boxes (cubes) 
into which the wholesale baker puts many 
of the crackers and fancy biscuit he makes. 
The lid of the box may be used as the in- 
clined plane up which the barrels are rolled. 

The sphere may stand for the lively cat 
which helps the baker by keeping the place 
free of rats and mice. 

The cylinder suggests the barrel, baking- 
powder box, flour-roller, etc. The cubes 
may represent loaves or separate biscuit. 
Make a stove oi the oblong box with the 
cylinder for the pipe. The tables will serve 
as cookies of various shapes. Let the chil- 
dren play at buying and selling; counting 
the dozen of cookies, etc. Telling what 
shapes of cookies they want — circles, 
triangles, etc. 

THIRD GIFT. 

With this may be built, (1) the bakery, (2) 

counter (3) glass cases for holding fine 

cakes. Tell what kinds of cake are made. 

(4) Range with smoke-pipe and at one side 

1 




/ / ZZ - 



Bakery 



Glass Case 




./~7 



Shelves for loaves, Range with 
pies, etc. oven door open 



y^M. 



Kneading Flour bar- 
table rel or basket 
in which are 
loaves 



Desk Counter Tables 

the kneading-table and also the flour-bar- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



129 



rel. (5) After leaving the kitchen where 
we see the cooking done we return to the 
room, above where, before we leave, we sit 
at one of the two tables in the rear and 
eat some cookies and milk, then pass in 
front of the counter and pay at the desk for 
our pleasant treat. 

NUMBER PLAY. 

(a) A man bought some boxes of 
crackers. How many? 

(b) Two men carried them into the 
grocery — each carrying half? How many? 

(c) He had to put them in a long narrow 
space, carrying two at a time ; count them 
by twos — 2, 4, 6, 8. 

He sold one half the first day. How 
many left? 

(e) Sold one of these. How many left? 

(f) Gave two away. How many left? 

FOURTH. FIFTH. SIXTH GIFTS. 

Build bakery, or street with bakery, and 
also build fine, beautiful wedding cake. 

TABLETS. 

Make fine floor for bakery. Also give 
geometrical names and let children buy and 
sell cookies of various shapes. Play you 
have a large cake and wish to make a 
design with colors to decorate it. Give 
practice in counting, in recognizing angles, 
(sides, corners, etc.) in placing with regard 
to balance and symmetry. 

LENTILS. 
Play they are caraway seed candies and, 
giving the children large circles of paper to 
represent cakes let them arrange the lentils 
in various line designs. Circles, crosses, 
fylfot, etc. 

OCCUPATIONS— CLAY. 

Mould of the clay, all kinds of cakes, 
patty-cakes, crullers, jumbles, etc. Also 
some of the things mother and the baker 
use in cooking; the big mixing bowl, the 
measuring-cup, etc. 
Sand. 

SAND. 

With the little tin moulds, make a num- 
ber of cakes, count them, buy and sell, etc. 

CUTTING. 

Cut pictures of utensils used in cooking 
by mother or baker — the spoons for stir- 
ring, the knives, forks, chopping-knife. 
Paste these on cardboard. 

Illustrate by cutting "Little Jack Hor- 
ner." 



Illustrate rhymes found in "Mother Play 
Book." 

CARDBOARD MODELING. 

Make deep head pan and shallow baking 
pan. Also measuring-cup. Use tablets or 
parquetry circles for cookies and play at 
baking. Make stove (See November num- 
ber.) but make oven especially prominent. 

Make clock by which baker knows the 
time for putting in and taking out his 
cakes and pies. (See November issue.) 

Make bakery window. Cut oblong of 
7x8 inches. Cut two slits in one long side 
about one inch long, one inch from and 
parallel to each short edge. One and one- 
half inches from same long side and on line 
with each slit put a dot. Two inches from 
each dot make a second one. Unite these 
dots by three lines as shown in drawing 
and cut along these lines. Bend along 
dotted lines and you have a bakery window 
with shelf on which to place the things the 
baker makes. 





Bakery Window Working Drawing 

from inside. 

PAPER FOLDING. 
1. The clean top of kneading table. 



The clean top of 
kneading table 

2. Recipe-book. 



Receipt Book 



Bakery window 



Oven into which the pans 
are shoved 



3. Bakery window. 



C 



Pan Another oven 

4. Oven into which the pans are shoved. 

5. Pan. 

In the "life-form" series of paper folding 
the so-called "box" makes a good baker's 
cap. The "wind-mill" is appropriate here 
also as representing the mill that grinds the 



130 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



flour. The intervening forms may repre- 
sent : 

i. The salt-cellar used by baker; 2 
(Tadpole) the baker's skimmer with short 
handle; 3 (bird) cuckoo in cuckoo-clock, 
that "cuckoos" and flaps its wings ; 4 
(Duck) swims on pond of wind-mill; 5 
table cloth folded; 6 cup and saucer; 7 
windmill ; 8 Double boat that carries grain 
to mill ; 9 pocket book from which we pay 
for what we get at baker's; 10 box or 
baker's cap. 

THE CARPENTER. 

The carpenter is an important factor in 
both country and city life. To his skill and 
integrity we owe the comfort and safety of 
our homes. Can we show on the game 
circle some of the tools he uses, and how he 
uses them? We will suggest in just a few 
words some of the ways in which the gifts 
and occupations may be used with refer- 
ence to this subject. 

First Gift — Give a color lesson, letting 
the balls represent the paint to be used 
both inside and outside the house. Which 
can of paint shall we chose? Speak of the 
colors used inside the rooms. Which color 
is pleasantest if the room is on the shady 
side of the street? Which color is pleasant- 
est in cold winter weather on the sunny 
side? 

Now is a good time to begin to make a 
doll house of soap boxes or other boxes. 
Place it so that the little rooms get the sun- 
light and the shadow at different times. 

Second Gift — Make a derrick crane of 
the cylinder, sticks, etc., with such tacks 
and hairpins as may be needed. If building 
is going on near the school the older chil- 
dren may be able to give ideas after watch- 
ing the cranes. The principles of the lever, 
the pulley and the inclined plane may be 
illustrated with this Gift. Play that the 
cover of the box is the long board up which 
the workmen walk with their hods. Let 
the Second Gift Bead cylinders be the 
workmen. How steadily they walk. Let 
them make a high wall of Second Gift 
cubes. Play that the Second Gift Bead 
cylinders are barrels of lime for mortar. 
Show how easily they are rolled up the 
inclined plane. 

Turn Second Gift cylinder into wheel- 
barrow by running a stick through it and 
then placing two sticks as handles beneath 
the ends. It will roll along nicely with 
care. 



Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth Gifts give 
opportunity for a great variety of expres- 
sion. Build houses, school-houses, churches, 
railway stations, monuments, shops, etc. 
Why do frame country houses have 
such sloping roofs? What becomes of 
snow that melts on top of city houses? 

Second Gift Beads — Make fences of 
various sorts. 

Sticks — Outline buildings of various 
kinds. 

Outline ladder used by workmen. 

CLAY. 

Make small bricks, let dry and next day 
build into wall of house. Let children see 
need of making them of exact size. Why 
do we arrange them so that one rests upon 
two beneath? * 

CARDBOARD MODELING. 

Cut and bend into houses, barns, sheep- 
folds, etc. Also make watering-troughs. 
Give practice in cutting straight lines in 
making boards ( ?) of different lengths. 
Pile these up in imaginary woodyard on 
table and play buy and sell, thus making 
counting and measuring lesson. 

Make cardboard wheelbarrow. See 
rougfh drawing:. Fold on dotted lines and 




cut where indicated to make legs. Bend 
down small front flaps and through these 
run slender axle upon which rolls a card- 
board wheel. 

Paper cutting — Cut pictures of various 
tools used by carpenter. 

Peas and sticks — Make ladder used by 
carpenter. Also make pictures of tools. 
Make framework of house. 

WOOD. 

Let older children have genuine experi- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



131 



ence with saw, hammer and nails. Give 
them blocks of various sizes and shapes 
and let them see what they can do — chairs, 
tables, etc., can be made. Boxes can be 
made into houses. Let them paint these 
with real paint. 

Tell of the need of doing work perfectly. 
Once a carpenter built a fine, expensive 
house, but when finished the roof, as it 
seemed, leaked in every rain storm. One 
carpenter after another tried but could not 
find the trouble. At last one came who 
tried something else. He played the hose 
on a window frame and showed that the 
trouble was not with the roof but with the 
window. When we build we want to build 
perfect shelters for the fathers and mothers 
and children who will live in our houses. 



LEARNING TO READ. 

SO CLOSELY associated with the kin- 
dergarten is the name of Froebel that 
it is necessary to remind ourselves 
occasionally as well as our co-workers in 
the elementary school, that no other 
writer has given us a more valuable outline 
of the "chief groups of the subjects of in- 
struction. We know well that it was 
Froebel who taught us to keep school with- 
out books, and who urged educators to re- 
member that "the A, B, C of things must 
preceed the A, B, C of words." 

Less familiar are we with his apprecia- 
tion of what it is to learn the alphabet. It 
was Froebel who wrote these strong 
words : "Writing and reading, which 
necessarily imply a living knowledge of 
language to a certain extent, lift man be- 
yond every other known creature and bring 
him nearer the realization of his destiny. 
Through the practice of these arts he 
attains personality." 

The endeavor to learn these arts makes 
the scholar and the school. 

The possession of the alphabet places the 
possibility of self-consciousness within his 
reach, for it alone renders true self-knowdedge 
possible by enabling him to place his iron 
nature objectively before himself, as it were; 
it connects him clearly and definitely with the 
past and future, brings him into universal 
relationship with the nearest things, and 
gives him certainty concerning the most 
remote. 

The alphabet thus places man within 
reach of the highest and fullest earthly per- 
fection. Writing is the first chief act of 
free and self-active consciousness. 



If every young teacher who begins to 
teach a child to read and to write would 
occasionally . read these inspiring words, 
the great task would be lightened. 

Froebel also wrote a charming little 
story entitled "How Lena learned to read," 
in which he describes a child who having 
passed through the kindergarten, has be- 
come exceedingly anxious to learn to write 
and to read. 

Froebel makes the desire to learn to read 
the initiatory step. 

I claim that the good kindergartner 
always puts the child in this attitude 
towards the work of the first school year. 

While there is no reading taught in the 
kindergarten proper, the children often 
play " read a story" from a little folded 
book. 

They learn to love picture books, story 
books and song books and should be 
trained to handle them with care. The 
illustrated song books have often been very 
attractive to the children of our kindergar- 
tens. Many little ones can find the songs 
by the pictures or general "look" of the 
page. 

In a similar way stories and nursery 
rhymes are sometimes recognized by very 
young children in the home. 

Mrs. Ellen Kenyon Warner calls this 
"The Natural Method of learning to read," 
and has written a primer arranged so as to 
take advantage of this power of the child 
to recognize a whole story, rhyme or song. 

Her method is embodied in "The Culture 
Readers"* and as teachers are becoming 
more and more interested in this "natural 
way" of introducing a child to reading, we 
have secured permission to present Mrs. 
Warner's recently published manual in the 
Kindergarten Magazine. 

We hope also to have a special article on 
primary reading from the pen of this 
gifted writer who is so well known all over 
the country. No one has given more 
thought to the phonic work connected with 
all good methods of reading and full atten- 
tion is paid to phonics in connection with 
the natural method. 

*The Culture Readers. Ellen Kenyon Warner, 
Dd. D. Books 1 and 2 edited by Jenny B. Merrill, 
Pd. D., published by D. Appleton Co., N. Y. 



Personal — Will the mother wbo subscribed for the 
Kindergarten-Primary Magazine for her daughter Daisy 
without giving us postoffice address, kindly send address 
to J. H. Shults, Manistee, Mich.? 




TONY AND HIS FRUIT STAND. 

BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

OLD TONY kept a little fruit stand on 
the crowded corner of a big city. 
There, every day, he arranged in at- 
tractive pyramids, his store of red apples 
and russet pears from faraway orchards; 
long, yellow bananas from Cuba, round 
oranges from Italy and heavy clusters of 
purple grapes from California. So beauti- 
ful did they appear that people passing by 
would often turn to take a second look at 
them, and sometimes would turn back and 
buy. Little children would often stop, too. 
on their way to school, to buy an apple or 
a plum for lunch. 

But there was one group of boys, led by 
a large, thoughtless boy who liked to tease 
Tony; they would call him names, laugh at 
his way of talking, and then, when he grew 
angry and stamped his foot and shook his 
fist at them, they thought that was great 
fun. They did not stop to think that he 
was old and gray, and stiff with rheuma- 
tism; they did not think of all the pains he 
took to make his little stand look beautiful ; 
they did not know of the little grandson 
who lived with Tony and went to kinder- 
garten every day and that it took all of 
Tony's pennies to feed the little boy and 
himself and pay for rent and clothes. Thev 
only thought it was a big joke to make 
Tony lose his temper and then race away 
from him as hard as they could go. 

One day Tony was feeling very anxious 
about the little grand son. He was sick 
that morning and could not go to kinder- 
garten; and Tony felt very down-hearted 
indeed. 

As he stood there in the cold, alone came 
a runaway horse. He dashed bv Tonv's 
corner, the wagon was dragged against 
Tony's stand so that the stand was over- 
turned and away rolled apples, pears and 
grapes into the sidewalk and even far into 
the gutter and the road. 

The big boy leader (whose name I do not 
like to give you) was standing near with a 
small soap-box wagon, and the moment he 
saw that fruit-stand overturned he made a 
dash for it, with his little wagon, calling to 



his boy and girl followers to take a chance 
too. Then there was a scramble and soon 
the little wagon was filling up with the 
fruit while Tony ran hither and thither like 
one distracted and stamped his foot and 
called in vain for the boys to stop. 

But help was at hand for now Jack came 
upon the scene. Jack was also a big boy. 
He lived in the same house that Tonv 
and knew of the good care he gave little 
Pietro, and how hard it was for him to get 
out to his stand in all kinds of weather — ■ 
when the streets were slippery with ice and 
when they were slushy with melted snow. 
Jack had no patience with a coward. "Get 
out of that," he cried. "Drop those apples." 
And he started toward the other big boy. 
"You mean sneak," he called. "You're a 
coward too. One big boy and eight little 
ones against one poor old man. Put up 
that stand and place the apples back where 
they belong." The other children stood 
still for a moment. They had never thought 
of their fun in just that way before. Then, 
as big Jack began to pick up some of the 
bananas they all began to help and soon it 
was a race to see who could do it most 
quickly. They washed the mud off at a 
faucet in a bi g building near by and soon 
the apple-stand looked just as fine as ever, 
and Tony gave big Jack three apples to 
divide amongst the children. And one fine, 
large apple Jack cut open in such a way 
that a beautiful star could be seen in the 
center and that apple tasted the best of all. 



KINDERGARTEN LIGHT OPERA. 

AUGUSTI S EARLE 

' I ^HE child is here and he reigns, he com- 
-*- mands, and oh how happy are we to 
follow his commands, for does he not reign 
in the land of joy, happiness and love? In- 
deed then are we happy to be subjects in 
this beautiful Fairyland. 

The child moreover reigns not only in 
the home, and the school and church but 
also in the theater; for did not the greatest 
individual theatrical manager of the world. 
Charles Frohman, see three years ago the 
needs of introducing the adult to the child's" 
Fairyland, and thus the exquisite "Peter 
Pan" took us with delirious abandon into 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



the "Never never Land." Last year, 
Heinrich Conr'ied, then the American 
Impressario, led us tunefully into the Kin- 
dergarten grand opera with "Hansel and 
Gretel," and this year we are carried into 
another psychological experience — "Little 
Nemo in Slumberland," a child musical 
comedy, sum of the two previous. 

Little Nemo is the work of Windsor Mc- 
Cay, a staff artist of the New York Herald. 
For several years, several thousands of 
children have been gladdened by the Sun- 
day Herald's Nemo experiences. 

Little Nemo is a dear little chap with 
dark brown ringlets, a perfect little darling, 
who dreams wonderful dreams, which Mr. 
McCay illustrates. Klaw and Erlanger, 
giants in staging musical comedy, are re- 
sponsible for the production, and a more 
gorgeous production were hard to con- 
ceive; Herbert Grecham, the greatest stage 
manager of the age; Victor Herbert, king 
American composer of high opera ; Harry 
Smith, the most popular of librettists, with 
New York's best scenic artists, all these 
have been called upon to sing and live 
through the dreams of childhood again, to 
become a Nemo, the "Nowhere Child." 

The story may be placed under four 
headings. First, the loneliness of the only 
child for a real playmate, which is laden 
with every device known for childish en- 
tertainment. Second, a city playground is 
shown, emphasizing the thought and' atten- 
tion a great public is paying a great move- 
ment. Third, the patriotic side so graphic- 
ally illustrated in the Fourth of July dream. 
Fourth, the ethical side illustrated in all the 
characteristics, and particularly when Little 
Nemo turns to the Little Princess, and to 
the vast audience, saying, "If you will still 
be my playmate I will give you all my toys, 
all my money and all my love." 
SCENE ONE, ACT 1. 

Shows Slumberland as a vast place of 
beauty reigned over by King Morpheus. 
The king's daughter, the Little Princess, 
begs for a new diversion — a real playmate. 
Sweets in the form of the Candy Kid are 
declined by her, and then the large story 
book opens to admit the characters every 
child has learned to love — Little Red Rid- 
ing Hood, Puss in Boots, Jack the Giant 
Killer, Cindrella, Simple Simon, etc., etc. 
For an instant the Little Princess is 
pleased and rightly so for the charm of this 
human story book is irresistible. Ennui soon 
appears however and her ever plea for a 



really truly playmate provokes the services 
of the Candy Kid and several attendants, 
among them Flip, an ugly child who is the 
nephew of the god of Dawn, to come to 
find little Nemo, who has been described 
as a real boy, living on earth, and who has 
been suggested as a playmate for the little 
princess. 

SCENE II. A CITY PLAYGROUND. 

Its charm is its simplicity. For any who 
may doubt the consideration the people are 
paying the vital question of public play- 
grounds for the child's physical welfare, he 
will quickly see that even theatrical mana- 
gers are cognizant of the needs of the chil- 
dren, for the second scene is a public play- 
ground. The simple activities of the child 
are shown, and the joyousness of the May 
parties and the swings, and the delight of 
the open space are cheerfully guarded by 
that happy benefactor so often abused, the 
policeman. The policeman, a joyous whole- 
some father when about to lock the play- 
ground for the night, discovers sleeping 
, within the shade of a huge tree a little bit 
of humanity, and a sense of protection 
asserting itself he takes up the child, wraps 
the only available article of warmth about 
it (which happens to be a table cloth left 
by picnicers) and with a surprised expres- 
sion exclaims "Oh this is little Nemo," the 
curtain lowers with the audience satisfac- 
tion of little Nemo being safely carried by 
the big jolly policeman to his home and 
mother. We are now introduced to the 
main characters and as the story centers in 
Slumberland we are ready to accept our in- 
troduction to Fairyland for Nemo is safely 
tucked in bed, and his beautiful dreams 
about to begin. 

The first dream leads Nemo, the little 
Princess, and the accompanying party into 
the beautiful land of St. Valentine. The 
Little Princess and Nemo are seen wan- 
dering about, singing and calling, happy 
and longing, finally meeting in a joyous 
embrace with tuneful burst into the alluring 
little song, "Won't you be my Playmate?" 

The next scene shows a distressing 
dream, for due to Flip's interference the 
mystic ship on wdiich Nemo and the Little 
Princess are sailing through the mysterious 
Slumberland, is wrecked on Cannibal 
Island, called the Isle of Table D'hote. 
The ethical element again is manifest here 
when the hungry Cannibals are converted 
from their savage purpose by the sweet 



134 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



"songs and games" of the Little Princess, 
and her dreamed of Knight, Nemo. 

Nemo's next dream is a magnificent 
pageant and a splendid lesson in patriotism. 

Nemo falls asleep and dreams of the 
Fourth of July. In a vision he sees the 
Palace of Patriotism in Slumberland. He 
joins the dream-children in a joyous cele- 
bration of Independence Day. The never- 
to-be-forgotten heroes of his country's past 
appear and thrill the little dreamer's heart. 
The Liberty bells ring out amid a sudden 
burst of glory. 

Song — "Remember the Old Continen- 
tals" — A. 

The final dream brings them back to the 
Palace of King Morpheus in Slumberland 
where little Nemo is surrounded by all the 
beautiful subjects of royalty. A splendid 
vision of reality is shown of the future of 
every little Nemo, by a future little Slum- 
berland Princess in the dream of love, and 
the dream of service, and the celestial 
dream of reward. The curtain goes down 
on the mystic land in which we have lived 
our entire life in a few hours, and as we 
prepare to leave the Country of Slumber- 
land for the realities outside, Little Nemo 
steps to the foot lights, his little playmate 
the Princess at his side, both surrounded 
by the joyous subjects of the country of 
dreams, and says, "To all children from 
seven to seventy, may all have dreams like 
mine in Slumberland," repeating as a 
climax the ethical purpose so manifest 
throughout the play, namely his beautiful 
sweet unselfishness. 

I could wish with all my beart that every 
child from "seven to seventy" could wit- 
ness this performance, which words are in- 
adequate to describe, for it is a memory 
and a pleasure it were hard to estimate. 
Figures mean but little when they run into 
thousands, but when a great theatrical 
syndicate sees the justice of expending $80,- 
000 on a child's performance we realize in- 
deed that the child is here and that he 
reigns and he commands. Happy child! 



We are printing in this month's issue of 
the Magazine an outline for intelligent lay- 
observation of the work of the kindergar- 
ten. This outline was written some months 
ago by Miss Hortense M. Orcutt, Super- 
visor of the Kate Baldwin Free Kindergar- 
tens of Savannah, Ga., and privately printed 
by Mr. George J. Baldwin, President of the 
Kate Baldwin Free Kindergarten Asso- 



ciation for public distribution in Savannah. 

A few copies of this outline found their 
way to New Orleans at the time of the I. 
K. U. and since then so many requests for 
the outline have come to Miss Orcutt from 
kindergartners, supervisors and school 
superintendents that the Savannah edition 
has been exhausted. Since it is ever the 
aim and purpose of the Magazine to meet 
the needs of kindergartners and teachers 
all over the country, we take pleasure in 
putting this strong, practical and sugges- 
tive outline in their hands through the 
columns of this Magazine. 

We recommend it for discussion at a 
Mothers' meeting to assist parents in 
observing more thoughtfully the various 
phases of a kindergarten day. 



SOCIAL CELEBRATIONS IN NEW 
YORK. 

MARI RUEF HOFER. 

'HpO the outlander and stranger in New 
■*- York many of the local happenings 
and customs taken as a mere matter of 
course by the native habitant are a con- 
stant source of amazing wonder. When 
asked "what it is all about" the old New 
Yorker gravely shakes his head and rever- 
ently expounds "no one knows why, we just 
do it — it is the custom," and proudly adds, 
"it is done nowhere else in the world — New 
York is different you know." 

Awakening on Thanksgiving day morn- 
ing in New York City, one is greeted by the 
blare of trumpets and strange festal noises 
mingled with the usual roar of city traffic 
and tramping pedestrians. A strange sense 
of the unusual is in the air. Windows are 
thrown open. Your excited head in com- 
pany with many other excited heads are 
questioningly protruded to be answered by 
the animated scene below. 

A streaming Mardigra of quaintly garbed 
and bedizzened crowds mingle, with cheer- 
ing or jeering onlookers — as the case may 
be — and sober the plodding citizens push- 
ing their way through to the New England 
Thanksgiving sermon. In the masquerad- 
ing throng are fools in motley, bands of 
ragamuffin children begging from door to 
door, Uncle Sam leading gay Columbias, 
in stars and stripes, bands of ragged sol- 
diery brave in tarnished cap and gilt bands, 
Red-coats besmeared and spattered, bear- 
ing old fashioned hauberks and battle axes. 
Indian braves in beaded buckskins and 
feathers, men in women's skirts and alack 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



135 



occasionally women making brave in jer- 
kin and breeches. Old revolutionary fire 
arms down to water pistols serve for arms ; 
fifes, drums, rattles, flags, mysterious 
insignia, make the scene wild and gay with 
color and sound. In vain the onlooker 
seeks for some solution of the scene, in vain 
ask questions, no one knows, everybody is 
good natured and participative in the fun, 
even to a liberal spattering from one of the 
irresponsible water pistols. The beggars 
are fed and feed liberally in a universal 
sense of irresponsible gaity. 

Shades of tradition and history assist in 
untangling this medley of suggestion. 

THE DUTCH CONTRIBUTION. 

To begin at the beginning of today's 
masquerading as far as New York's Dutch 
ancestors are concerned, away back in the 
fifteenth century, so story hath it, Holland 
had a famous band of Rag-a-muffins 
destined to leave a historic laud mark no 
less than that the great Netherland wars 
necessary to establish a Dutch Republic. 
Suffering under insult and repression from 
a foreign court the Nobles of old Holland 
went to the King to sue for their rights and 
to demand greater freedom for the people. 
The King and his courtiers scorned their 
request with a royal scorn and call them 
beggars and ragg-a-muffins for the pains. 
The disappointed nobles retorted to the 
taunt, declaring as they left the presence of 
royalty that they would hence forth be- 
come beggars until they had gained what 
the King had refused them. Then followed 
the famous beggars' banquet where clothed 
in rags and beggar's wallets they bound 
themselves with solemn oath to Prince 
William of Orange for the cause of Hol- 
land's freedom. This thrilling story can 
be read in Motley's Dutch Republic and 
other authentic histories. 

THE ENGLISH CONTRIBUTION. 

Another element which has undoubtedly 
contributed to New York's masquerading 
is the equally famous, or infamous guy 
Faukes Gun Power episode. This occured 
in November, 1605, and its suppression was 
thereafter celebrated for many years in a 
Jubilee of great fervor and noise, with 
masquerading and blowing of horns and 
carrying simulated traitor's heads on pikes 
in procession through the streets in Don- 
don. It is easy to be seen how both these 
interesting historic occasions must have 



been handed over as traditions to the New 
World by the early English and Dutch 
settlers and helped to make gay early 
Colonial and New York life. 

EVACUATION BAY. 

Greatest and most recent of all is New 
York's own contribution, the commemora- 
tion of America's throwing off British rule 
when November 25, 1783, our own tat- 
tereddemalion soldiers drummed the Red 
Coats out of New York Harbor. So recent 
and notable is this great event that it is 
almost incredible to believe that it has 
already fallen into decay and its celebration 
left to the chance revivals of children and 
the mass of the people wholly ignorant of 
the significance of the occasion. As a re- 
sult we hear a great deal of complaint 
about the rag-a-muffin nuisance and a con- 
demnation ot the general noise and lawless- 
ness of this annual event. In view of the 
Hendrick Hudson celebration proposed for 
September of next year serious reflection 
is brought to bear on local and city history 
of New York and the possibilities of in- 
corporating this in suitable pagents and 
public exercises. Since the educational 
condemnation of the use of the worn-out 
George Washington myth we are reminded 
that if there is one place where the George 
Washington story can be properly vitalized 
possibly minus his hatchet, this place 
should be New York City, where every 
turn and corner is marked with his 
memory. Is here no opportunity for 
teachers and social workers ? To revitalize 
things worthy of place in historic memory, 
also to make good to the children the 
shreds and snatches of once great public 
enthusiasms by proper interpretations of 
remaining local customs. Until this is done 
play on ye merry revellers your mad med- 
ley of facts and fiction which preserve to us 
these things until moralist and pedagogue 
rightly instal ye in the temple of world's 
great events. 

NOTE — An interpretation of the above historic 
events in a series ot tableaux and pictures with an 
illustrated talk was given at Asacoy Boys' Club, 
Brooklyn, with great success on the eve before 
Thanksgiving this year. The begging and license 
in that particular neighborhood was greatly 
mitigated by the fact that the children under- 
stood the situation better. 



New Years Day. 

The New Year can mean very little to 
a young child. But he will hear his elders 



136 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



speaking of it and a little time may be 
given in kindergarten to telling of the 
twelve months which come in succession 
and in reviewing the special days in each 
of which the kindergarten takes note. 
Ask the children if they know of any par- 
ticular clay in January which we celebrate. 
Perhaps some child will of his own accord 
step out and say "I wish you a Happy New 
Year." Then, for February, some child, 
big or little, may represent a scene in the 
story of Washington. This year comes in- 
auguration day in March. Speak of how 
the President is installed in office. April 
is the month of rain, etc. As each month is 
named let a child stand up to represent it 
and when all twelve are up, count and see 
how many months there are. What kind 
of weather does each month bring? Each 
one brings many pleasures. Even stormy 
March does his part to freshen the earth 
with his winds and prepare for the rains of 
April and flowers of May and June. Sing 
"I am the Little New Year" found in the 
Jenks and Walker book. 



THE CULTIVATION OF BEAUTY PERCEPTION. 

I shall say nothing new — I but echo 
what has been said by Ruskin and others. 
If new it might be questioned. An ideal for 
our children — good, useful, beautiful. The 
moral alone is not sufficient. The useful 
alone is not sufficient. The beautiful alone 
is not sufficient. We want a full life. Do 
these three form an impossible ideal? 
What could we substitute for them? — 
Respectable? Rich? Fashionable? Do 
not fear high ideals or distrust the man who 
says "Utopian!" 

The brain is a highly sensitive receptacle 
— hundredth of a second photographic 
plate is not so quick. The five senses are 
our means of contact with the world out- 
side us. Small inlets, for light waves, 
sound waves, they are all touch in a way. 
Each of the senses supplies what the other 
four are deficient in. But by the combina- 
tion of the five we. get a broad idea of what 
things are. The eye supplies most of our 
information. Two of these have great arts 
dependent upon them — the ear art, music. 
The art of the eye — the resemblant arts, 
painting, sculpture, architecture, and all 
the lesser arts. 

These arts have taken a prodigious time 
to evolve, and are closely interwoven with 
human ideals, and must not be lightly 
thought of, as for amusement only. Each 



has played a great part in life. The art 
dependent on the eye, the greater part, I 
think; music being a more abstract, less 
definite art, though, perhaps none the less 
potent, we must not forget the fable of the 
Trumpeter, who though he did not himself 
fight, roused the fighting spirit in others by 
his music. We give a good deal of the edu- 
cational period of a child's life to learning 
something of music. 

Music is not my subject however — I only 
introduce it to help in illustrating my sub- 
ject. What I am anxious about is the 
training of the eye to see things truthfully 
— fully. By learning first to see things 
truthfully we acquire the language which 
will help us to understand artists who will 
teach us to see things beautifully. 
Mediaeval artists painted with very limited 
eye vision. Turner with the very fullest. 

Think of the abundance of beautiful 
things which nature has laid before us. I 
have often stood in the street to look at a 
fine sky, and felt inclined to cry out "Dook !" 
Can we see them without training? So far 
as the organ of sight goes yes ! But we do 
not see them consciously, so as to get full 
pleasure from them. Compare the average 
person's attempt to paint a leaf, with the 
trained person's attempt. The average per- 
son is easily satisfied. Not so the trained 
person who sees more than he can give. 

Considering not only what nature has 
given us to look at, but also the energy 
and money man spends in making things 
look nice, should we not spend a good deal 
of time in learning to appreciate them? 

If you take the general subjects in school 
you will find sight training is given a very 
poor place — reading, spelling, writing, 
arithmetic, history, languages, geography, 
music, science — most of these are a burden 
of words to children. At the end may come 
drawing for one hour a week, and very 
often taught by a teacher who does not 
know the value of it — or who takes the value 
commonly set upon it, and who teaches it 
in quite the wrong way. Of course other 
subjects may be contributory to sight. 
Take botany for instance. Drawing and 
painting are the best ways of getting the 
knowledge of a thing into the brain. We 
have done too much word-teaching, and 
should do more sight-teaching. Children 
usually like drawing and painting and it can 
be made a pleasant aid to teaching many 
subjects. Memory drawing is the best way 
of teaching" children drawing. And it is 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



m 



the way they draw by nature. Know first, 
and draw after. The ordinary teacher who 
shows them how by doing, but instead 
should lead them on by exciting their ob- 
servation. Show them how a little. Of 
course teachers should be able to do. 

Children ought not to be encouraged in 
cleverness, so as to shine. Children are 
very fond of conventions, or clever tricks. 
They should be discouraged, as they hinder 
accurate observation. If a child is clever 
in a showy sense, that cleverness will not 
forsake it, should it later on become com- 
mercially valuable. But restraint is better 
than cleverness. Truth is what should be 
sought. It is the grown-ups who divert the 
child's vision from the truth to untruth — or 
prejudiced vision. People like convention 
as a rule, often because they don't know 
what truth is. 

- I have been speaking up to this of the 
getting of the knowledge of the appearance 
of things. While children are learning 
that, they may also be coming in contact 
with Art — i. e., learning to see things 
beautifully. But it should not be too ad- 
vanced for them. What does learning to 
see things beautifully mean? The percep- 
tion of unity and perfect types. The sub- 
ject or story of a picture may not mean 
much — the unity or harmony of it is of 
greater value — Abraham and Isaac may 
teach unquestioning obedience to a higher 
power, but the value of such a picture by a 
great painter will depend on its unity more 
than upon its moral. 

Looking at these unities continually, 
unity enters into the habit of our thought, 
and we have the key to all the arts, and to 
the greatest of all arts, the art of life, the 
blending of all the complexities into one 
great unity. A hatred of muddle, a desire 
to have beautiful homes, and beautiful 
cities, a dislike to change and fashion, a 
liking for modest and beautiful clothing. 
The beautiful art of embroidery has been 
almost killed by the changes of fashion. 

Without a live and understanding of art, 
we shall never have beautiful life. Much 
effort as all know is now being made to im- 
prove the look of things, but it is not a 
general effort. Now to get this under- 
standing time must be given, if you don't 
insist upon it you will not get it, for science 
of some sort, or some other subject will be 
pushed in front of your children, with the 
idea of making them more practical 
citizens. 



It may be thought science should hold a 
higher place compared with art. But few 
of us can indulge in science. While every 
one of us have eyes and cannot help seeing. 
But we want instructed seeing. E .E. 




THE CITY STREET. 

DR. JENNY B. MERRILL. 

A kindergartner in Man- 
hattan invited a little girl 
who was playing in the street 
to come to kindergarten. 
The child replied "Is there 
a sidewalk in the kindergar- 
8" ten?" "No." "Is there a mud- 
gutter?" "No, but there is a big table full 
of sand like Coney Island." 

I think we can make a side walk and a 
gutter. The child was partly convinced. 
So few realize the joy of the city child in 
his playground — the side walk, the street. 
It means the great out-of-door world. This 
great joy showed itself quite unexpectedly 
when a kindergartner proposed taking a 
walk to the children in an orphan asylum. 
"What," exclaimed one, "on the side walk? 
are you going to take us out on the side 
walk? The children had not been out for a 
month. Upon reaching the street, one little 
child stooped down and touched the side 
walk with his hand. 

The street gives to the city child a sense 
of space, of freedom, of people, of activity. 
This is all felt, not realized consciously. 
Many kindergartners who cannot reach 
parks or the river, will not miss it by taking 
a walk round the block, a walk to the cor- 
ner even, a run across the street to look up 
at the big school or the flag, a walk to the 
nearest tree, or at the different seasons to 
market to discover what new fruit or vege- 
table has arrived. Even in the city street 
the sky is overhead. The clouds and birds, 
the sunshine and shadows give glimpses of 
nature. Even the mud-gutter is not to be 
dispised. It has given many a child his 
first unconscious lessons in geography. He 
finds a river in it, even dams and water 
falls. He watches a paper boat on a chip 
on its journey in the gutter and forgets or 
rather fails to see the lurking evil that 
troubles his elders. 

"In the mud and scum of things 

There's something, something always sings." 

I never pass a little child playing in the 
mud gutter that I do not stop and watch 
and try to think his little thoughts. 



138 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



THE FORTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION 
N. E. A. 

The Executive Committee of the National Edu- 
cation Association announce that the next annual 
convention will he held in Denver, Colorado, July 
5 to 9, 1909. 

THE DEPARTMENT OE SUPERINTENDENCE. 

Owing' to the destruction hy fire of the leading 
hotel of Oklahoma City, in accordance with 
previous announcement, the next meeting of the 
Department of Superintendence will be held in 
Chicago February 23 to 25, 1909. The Audi- 
torium hotel will be the headquarters. The rail- 
way rates for this meeting Avill be one and one- 
half fare on the certificate plan from all territory 
east and south of Chicago and St. Louis, and there 
is a fair prospect that a similar rate will be 
granted from the territory of the Western Pas- 
senger Association. In any case, the rate will not 
be more than 2c per mile each way, which is the 
same as the one and one-third fare on the cer- 
tificate plan which was formerly granted for this 
meeting on the basis of 3c per mile. 

It is expected that the Chicago meeting of the 
Department of Sunperintendence will be the 
largest in the history of the Department. 

A special Bulletin containing a preliminary pro- 
gram will be issued about January 15. 

For the Executive Committee, 

IRWIN SHEPARD. 

Secretary. 



Helena, Mont., Oct. 17th, 1908. 

To the Editor of the Kindergarten Magazine and 
Pedagogical Digest: 

Dear Sir: We would like to announce that the 
Council held its opening meeting Oct. 13th. The 
subjects discussed this year will be anything help- 
ful or suggestive that the different committees 
may choose, as we will have a committee for each 
meeting. 

At the first meeting Miss Alice Neill, one of the 
Helena Kindergartners, who has recently returned 
from a year abroad, told of her observation and 
study in Germany and England. Last winter from 
a long article in a German paper we learned of a 
work Miss Neill accomplished while there. Miss 
Neill was informed that she would be among the 
last to visit Froebel's birthplace as the house was 
to be destroyed. But Miss Neill determined this 
would not be the case and although there were 
many difficulties succeeded in interesting the 
citizens of Oberweissbach to the extent that a 
large petition was sent and money guaranteed to 
preserve Froebel's first home, that others may 
visit the scenes of his childhood which will be 
transformed into a kindergarten and museum. 

Sincerely yours, 

FLORENCE GAGE, 
Sec'y Helena Kindergarten Council. 



MY COUNTRY SCHOOL. 

I have 40 scholars and seven grades in my room; 
one boy is 19 years old and the youngest just 5 
years; there are five in the chart class, and until 
I began to use kindergarten material I found it 
much more difficult to interest them. I did not 
then like to ask the board for kindergarten 
material, and took $2.00 from my slender purse 
and sent it to a kindergarten supply house. I 



should now go to the board and ask for necessary 
material. I purchased with other things some 
small rubber balls with zephyr of the true standard 
colors, and with the aid of two older girls knit a 
covering for one of each of the standard colors. 
The next day I gave each one a ball, and they 
were greatly delighted. I told them they could 
play with the balls if they were careful not to 
drop them on the floor, or be noisy. A half hour 
was spent bouncing the balls about on the desks, 
whirling them around by the string, squeezing the 
balls and watching them return to original shape, 
etc. I then snatched a few minutes to ask them 
something about the balls. All could give the 
name ball, and could tell that they were round, 
but none could name all the colors, though each 
could give the names red and blue. I said now I 
will show you how the name of the ball looks on 
tne blackboard. I wrote "BALL" and afterwards 
"RED" and held up the red ball so that all could 
see it. I asked each child to hold up their balls, 
and gave them the colors which they represented 
two or three times, red, orange, yellow, green, 
blue, violet. I gave each one a pencil and paper, 
and asked them to write the word ball very large 
as I had written it. A little later I asked them 
all to write the word "red," as I had written it on 
the board. 

A little later I gave the little ones a few 
moments' time, and I hung the red ball against the 
wall telling each one to look at it very often dur- 
ing the day, and try to bring me something to- 
morrow the color of the ball, a bit of ribbon, paper, 
cloth, etc. I then gave each child a shoe string 
and six of the half inch kindergarten beads, which 
I had previously prepared. They were told to 
place them on the string. I resumed my work with 
the older classes. A few let them drop on the floor, 
but this was soon overcome, and the forenoon was 
spent pleasantly in this way. 

In the afternoon I gave each pupil more kinder- 
garten beads and asked them to string first all 
the red, then the orange, then the yellow; not 
many could remember the yellow color, and I gave 
them a sample and most of them did very well. 
After a while I gave each a handful of 3 inch 
colored sticks, (which pleased them very much), 
and told them to play quietly with them. After a 
while I went around and found each child trying 
to make something with the sticks; some build- 
ing corn cribs, houses, barns, etc. All were very 
crude, but each child had attempted to build some- 
thing. I drew a rectangle on the board and told 
them to make something like it with their sticks 
which they did, calling it a box. I asked them to 
make a deeper box, and they did this by building 
up with the sticks. Then I wrote the word 
BOX on the board in large letters, permitted them 
to play with the sticks a little longer, and then 
required each one to write the word box in large 
letters on paper. 

For the last exercise of the day we had a little 
game with the balls singing a little song. 

Just before dismissal I asked them all to look at 
the red ball carefully and see if they could bring 
me something like it in the morning. Then the 
next morning I took a piece of cardboard about a 
foot square, placed it on the board near the red 
ball, and pasted all the bits of ribbon, paper, cloth, 
etc., on it, and asked them to decide which looked 
the nearest in color like the red ball; which they 
did correctly. I announced that Mary brought the 
bit of ribbon that looked most like the ball, and 
would be entitled to play with the red ball that 
day. I found that all the children could recognize 
and spell the words ball, red and box. 

I fear this letter is too long, and I will close, but 
may write again for next month. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



139 



QUERY COLUMN. 

To the Editor of the Kindergarten Primary 
Magazine: 

"May I ask you where to find a story called 
'The Little Gray Spider?' It is I believe par- 
ticularly suited to the Christmas thought of work- 
ing for others, but I have not been able to find it." 

Canada. A. H. C. 

The story asked for is undoubtedly that 
called "The Golden Cobwebs," which will 
be found in "How to Tell Stones to Chil- 
dren" by Sarah Cone Bryant, published by 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

In the November number a question was 
asked concerning the sprouting of the 
lemon seeds inside the lemon. The ques- 
tion was submitted to the Nature Study 
Department of Cornell University, and 
Professor Herbert J. Webber of the De- 
partment of Experimental Plant Breeding 
kindly replied at length, as follows : 

"With reference to the germination of lemon 
seeds in the fruit, I beg to state that while this 
phenomenon is not very common, nevertheless it 
cannot be said to be uncommon, as I have per- 
sonally seen quite a number of instances of this 
kind in lemons, oranges and grape-fruits. The 
germination of the seeds in the fruit is liable to 
occur when the fruit is held beyond a certain 
length of time especially on the tree so that the 
juice in the interior of the fruit is absorbed, 
leaving the seed to some extent dry or partially 
dry. I am not certain that this could be con- 
sidered to be the true cause of the germination, it 
is only a suggestion relative to it. 

The surprising thing about this development is 
that the leaves become green in the fruit. It would 
seem that sufficient light penetrated the coats so 
that the chlorophyll assumes the green color. This 
is not so surprising, after all, when we remember 
that the cotyledons of certain citrus fruits such 
as the kid glove variety of orange, are commonly 
green in the seeds. We must conclude that either 
sufficient light reaches the interior of the fruit to 
stimulate this chlorophyll development, or that the 
green color can be assumed in this limited way 
without the action of light." 

"Is it true, as hinted at in some of the daily 
papers, with reference to Roosevelt's hunting trip, 
that tigers are not found in Africa? I had always 
thought that they were common to both Asia and 
Africa." J. B. 

Primary teachers are requested to ask 
their children to look this question up in 
geographies or encyclopedies, and send in 
replies. 

"In the use of the Gifts should we always insist 
on the children employing every block belonging 
to the Gift used?" S. T. W. 

Kindergartners please reply. 



The latest word concerning the Froebel 
House in Oberweissbach is, that it is not 
to be pulled down but to be put in thorough 
repair as the Pastor's House. Fraulein 
Heerwart rejoices over this as it indicates 
that her petitions have impressed the Gov- 
ernment. Her committee would have liked 
to have bought the House which would 
have necessitated the building of a more 
modern one in another place. Now, the 
Church Party, the committee and the 
community have to joim expenses. Fraulein 
Heerwart says that the more money the 
committee puts into the fund the more 
voice it will have in the matter as to what 
is to be done. The committee, will there- 
fore, be very thankful for contributions. 

The British Foreign and School Society 
in London has promised to help, and Miss 
Knighton, Miss Lister and Fraulein 
Froebel have collected some money al- 
ready. Those in this country who are in- 
terested are asked to contribute also. 

Money may be sent directly to Fraulein 
Heerwart or to the Treasurer of the I. 
K. U. 



A REFORMATION 
THE OLD KING COLE 
Old King Cole was a jolly old soul, 

And a jolly old soul was he. 
He called for his pipe and he called 
for his bowl , 

And he called for his fiddlers three. 

THE NEW KING COLE 

Kind friends, I want you all to know 
That verse was written long ago, 

I've changed my life since then; 
Although I'm still a jolly soul, 
I never touch my toddy bowl , 

Nor drink what injures men. 

My pipe is laid upon the shelf, 
I never smoke cigars myself, 

Nor do my fiddlers three; 
Just come and visit at my court, 
You'll find us living as we ought, 

And none so gay as we. 



"Whatever you are, be that; 

Whatever you say, be true; 
Straightforward act, be honest; 

In short, be nobody else but you." 



GOOD MORNING 

By L. R. S. 

Good morning, good morning, 

Our work has begun! 

The little stars faded one by one; 
They faded away, at dawn of day, 
Wee little stars quite tired of play. 
So gladly we greet you, 

We greet you, bright sun, 
Good morning, good morning, 

Our work has begun! 



140 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

A new book of Alphabets by H. W. Sliaylor 
(Ginn ■&' Co.) aims at giving assistance to students 
who desire proficiency in lettering. It may be 
used in special classes in lettering or by the in- 
dividual who desires skill and variety in the vari- 
ous style of alphabets. 

It should be of special service to teachers in 
the Kindergarten and Primary grades who may 
make their blackboard work and exhibitions par- 
ticularly attractive by a pleasing variety of letters. 

Little, Brown >&' Co. have just brought out a new 
edition of the works of Louisa M .Alcott, so well 
and profitably known as the Spinning Wheel 
Stories. The binding, paper and illustrations are 
pleasing. The books are always a profitable 
adjunct to every library whether in the school or 
the home. Miss Alcott's contribution to literature 
and education has been a true up-lift in the noblest 
sense of that word. 

Kindergarten Primary teachers would always 
find in these books suggestive and ready material 
to aid them in their daily work. 

The Little Women or Meg, Joe, Beth and Amy 
will always be a storehouse of interest and infor- 
mation. Miss Alcott's books will always serve to 
keep us close to the simpler and truer things of 
life. 

Prom the same publishers conies Rover the Farm 
Dog by Lilly P. Wesselhoeft who is already 
familiarly known by her Animal stories. Rover 
the Farm Dog combines all the elements of excel- 
lence found in her other dog stories with a sure 
application to the tests and knowledge of matters 
of our present day children. It may be profitably 
read entire in any school or may be used for 
excerpts where inducing interest is aimed at. One 
of the chief elements of the book is that it pre- 
serves the element of true story telling and holds 
the interest to the end. 

The Quest Flower — Houghton Mifflin Co. Pub- 
lishers will prove a rival to Mrs. Burnham's pre- 
vious success. Hazel Wright is a girl of winning 
personality and freshness combined with a rare 
amount of confidence in a child. The title of the 
books suggests where the emphasis is placed, as 
the child's love of flowers used as a true human 
appeal is one of the great means used in winning 
over an opposing Aunt and Uncle to a public re- 
union. The book furnishes an excellent help for 
children. Paper is excellent, the type clear, large 
and firm, and the illustrations of an equal excel- 
lence. The religious element of Christian Science 
in it is properly subordinated. 

"The Happy Chaps," by Carolyn Wells. This 
cheerful jingling fairy tale tells in clever, spark- 
ling verse all about the doings of the Happy Chaps 
who are a quaint little people akin to gnomes and 
elves; always happy, always busy at work or play. 
The narrative of their doings and those of the 
Skiddoodles upon the national holidays and at the 
County Fair ending with the Christmas festivities, 
carries us well through the year. In the main the 
verse, although varied is smooth, but there is an 
occasional unnecessary jar that vexes the ear and 
that could have been rectified, often by the mere 
transportation of a word. The clever illustrations 
are by Harrison Cady. Published by the Century 
Co., N. Y., $1.50. 

"Fresh Posies — Rhymes to Read and Pieces to 
Speak," by Abbie Farwell Brown. This handsome 
volume is beautifully illustrated with a few full- 
page pictures in color by Anna Milo Upjohn. It 
contains a variety of subject matter which inter- 



prets, in most cases with success, the child's point 
of view, touching child-nature upon many sides 
as indicated by the chapter headings of which a 
few are: Heart's Desire, A Country Child in the 
City, City Romp, Out of Doors, Little Thoughts, 
Story Rhymes, Nonsense, Songs Made for • Music. 
As is perhaps unavoidable in such collections, a 
few poems are included that add nothing to its 
value. Time passes so quickly and the child of 
today has so much to read that it is a question 
whether it is best to give a child a volume con- 
sisting entirely of poems by one author, however 
gifted, and these all written with childish interest 
in mind, rather than a carefully edited compilation 
of many poets suited to all ages which thus leads 
the child from childish imaginings to higher 
flights of poetic insight and expression. Published 
by Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. $1.50. 



TRADE SCHOOLS, OUR CHILDREN, OUR 
SCHOOLS AND OUR INDUSTRIES, by Andrew 
Sloan Draper, Commissioner of Education of New 
York State. This is the address given before the 
State Educational Association at Syracuse, Decem- 
ber, 1907, and educators may well be pleased to be 
able to have recourse to it in this permanent and 
accessible form. The writer shows conclusively the 
need of such schools, not only as a means of culture, 
but as leading to a life work. He shows the rela- 
tionship of good citizenship to the good workman. 
"The good workman, successful workman, is a hap- 
pier man and a more reliable citizen, a much larger 
factor in giving strength and balance to his country 
than the unsuccessful or the only half successful 
professional man". He, while not advocating a 
strict copying of Germany's system or methods, 
points out much that we may learn from her and 
tells as well of certain experiments in our own 
country, notably in Cleveland, Cincinnati and Mil- 
waukee, that will give light upon this subject. Dr. 
Draper believes that the public "snould supply to 
the children of the wage earners something equiva- 
lent to the literary and professional instruction pro- 
vided for the children of the better-to-do classes in 
the high schools and colleges". He has viewed the 
subject from the standpoint of the taxpayer, the em- 
ployer, the Federation of Labor, the nation at large. 
We have often asked ourselves and others, What 
can be done to bring into being the leaders, the 
great inspired captains who will be the Armstrongs, 
the Howes, the Jane Addams of tomorrow, the Lin- 
colns? Has Dr. Draper given the clue when he says: 
"Have no fear for the future of the higher learning in 
the United States. Its only danger is in the inade- 
quacy of the elementary and fundamental training. . . 
There need be no fear of any lack of generals. If 
we train and guide the crowd, the leadership will 
then take care of itself. If we undertake to favor 
only or mainly the materials of which leaders are 
made, we are likely to be fooled about it — for it is 
generally the unexpected that happens in the matter 
of leadership; and we then surely withhold from the 
masses what is theirs and the country's due. All 
experience shows that the real captains in all lines 
of human activity have come out of the crowd that 
worked with their hands. The love and the capacity 
for drudging work are the fundamental basis of 
leadership in all employments, whether of the head 
or of hand, and any educational system which fails 
to recognize the fact, which does not honor the 
blouse shirt and the clean smut of honest labor, is 
at once misleading the innocents and moving direct- 
ly towards the defeat of its own ends. The address 
is a plea for the development of the workmen rather 
than of professional. It is a frank demand for the 
teaching of dates, and the argument closes with a 
number of recommendations. Among these we men- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



141 



tion: Require eight years instead of seven in the 
public schools. 

Require attendance at seven years of age in- 
stead of eight and let it continue in the elementary 
or trade school to seventeen. (Exceptions are sug- 
gested to this main regulation). 

Trade schools to be open both day and night. 

Establishment of continuation schools. 

Shorten the time in the elementary schools to 
seven years. Take out what is not vital to the child. 
Ask him that he will learn and do things on his own 
account, if he has the power, and give him the power 
and expect that through it he will gain knowledge. 
Then push him along to have him finish the ele- 
mentary school in his fourteenth year, and if he has 
finished it or not when he is fifteen, send him to the 
trades school. Put into the elementary schools from 
the beginning some form of industrial work. 

Expect the schools to keep track of him until he 
is seventeen. Let the teaching be done by real 
artisans who are intellectually balanced and can 
teach, rather than by teachers who can only use 
tools indifferently. 

Modify the child labor laws so they will articu- 
late with the plan and enforce them. Require em- 
ployers to regulate their affairs so that employees 
may attend continuation or trades schools four or 
five hours a week. 

Let these schools be supported by the town. 

Make it possible lor one in a trades school to 
go to a manual training school, and vice versa, but 
avoid the inference that one is to prepare for the 
other. The volume is a splendid plea for democ- 
racy and the truth. 















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Outline of U. S. History 

SUITABLE FOR THE GRADES. SECOND EDITION NOW READY. 

A SUCCESSFUL TEACHER SAYS: 
The Palmer Co., Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen; — During the passing term, I have used the Kingsley's Outline of United States History with 
my teachers, who were preparing to take the examination for licenses to teach in New York City. I am glad to say 
that we are satisfied with that book. It is more than a mere outline; it is in itself sufficient for review, without the 
aid of a large text- book. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Yours truly, T. J, McEVOY. 

The above-named book will be sent postpaid on receipt of 35 cents. 

THE PALMER COMPANY 

50 Bromfield Street, Boston, Mass 



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ORDER T0=DAY 



A Few Valuable Books for Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

We keep in stock many books not found in this list, and supply ANY book on the market at lowest prices. 
Put right in your order the book you want, give us the name of publisher if you can, and we will send it. 

Kindergarten Hand Books Especially for Primary Teachers 




Price, 25 Cents 



These books give just the 
information desired by pri- 
mary-kindergarten teachers 
The works are all amply ill- 
ustrated and are bound in 
limp cloth. 

The First Gift in Primary 
Schools. By J. H.Shults. With 
several illustrations, songs 
and games, price 15c. 

A Second Gift Story or Miss 
Arden'sWay. By Violet Lynn. 
This volume tells in attract- 
ive story form how teachers 
can use the second gift in 
correlation with the regular 
primary work. Price 25 cents. 
Illustrated. 

The Third Gift in Primary 
Schools. — Bu ild i ng with 
Cubes. By J. H. Shults. 
Written especially for Pri- 
mary teachers, containing 
lesson suggestions and hints 
relative to correlation with 
primary school work. Fully 
illustrated. Limp cloth. 

Price 20c. 

The Fourth Gift in Primary 
School s. — Building with 
Bricks. By J. H. Shults. AJhandbook for the primary teacher 
on the use of this gift in correlation with primary school 
work. The only work of this kind written especially for pri- 
mary teachers. Fully illustrated. Limp cloth, price 20c. 

The Seventh Gift in Primary Schools. — Tablet Laying and 
Parquetry Work. By J. H. Shults. With many illustrations 
hints and suggestions, enabling primary teachers to use the 
gift in correlation with their primary school work. Limp 
cloth. Price 20c. 

The Tenth Gift — Stick Laying— In Primary Schools.-- By 
Alice Buckingham. The only book of its kind published in 
America. Contains nearly 200 illustrations with complete 
instructions for the use of the gift in primary schools; price 
25c. 

Eleventh Gift— Ring Laying in Primary Schools—With many 
illustrations for both ring-laying and ring and stick-laying 
combined. Limp cloth, price 20c. 

The Thirteenth Gift- The Point-In Primary Work. By J. 
H. Shults. Illustrating the work with lentils, corn, peas and 
other seeds. Limp cloth, price 15c. 

Peas and Cork Work in Primary Schools. By J. H. Shults. 
Illustrated. Limp cloth, price 15c. 

Reed and Raffia Construction Work in Primary 
Schools. By Mary A. Shults. Fully illustrated. It teaches 
how to use both reeds and raffia in primary schools, with 
children of every grade. Complete instructions for making 
mats, baskets, and many other articles, both from reeds and 
raffia alone, and with a combination of both; price 25c. 

Stories, Games, flusic, Etc. 

All books sent prepaid on receipt of price 
unless the postage is iudicated. 

One Hundred New Kindergarten Songs, $1.00 
Cloth. The latest and best. 

Graded Memory Selections 10 

A Christmas Festival Service, paper. . . .25 
By Nora Smith. 

Instrumental Characteristic Rhythms. 

Part I, boards, $1.50; Part II, paper, 1.00 
By Clara L. Anderson. 

Boston Collection of Kindergarten 

Stories, cloth 60 











Songs and G;i. 

Postage. 15 
By Harriet S 



ties for Little Ones, net. 1.50 
Jenks and Gertrude Walker. 



Song Stories for the Kindergarten, 

boards 1.00 

By Mildred J. and Patty S. Hill. 

St. Nicholas Songs, boards, net 1.25 

Postage, 24c. 



The Songs and 
Mother Play, 



Mnsic of Froebel's 
cloth 1.50 











ffc II 




llfe^f 




101 




|S[, %0NGS 





Send to us for 
any book pub- 
lished and we'll 
supply it at low- 
est prices. Give 
name of pub- 
lisher, if possi- 
ble and price. 



Timely Games and Songs for the Kin- 
dergarten, paper 60 

By Clare Sawyer Reed. 
In the Child's World, cloth 2.00 

By Emllle Poulsson. 

Half Hundred Stories (207 pages), cloth ,1b 
Dozen and Two Kindergarten Songs. 

Paper | .JO 

Louis Pauline Warner. 

Folk and Other Songs for Children 1 50 

Jane Bird RadcllfCe-Wkltehead. 

Kindergarten Chimes, paper 1.00 

" boards 1.25 

" cloth 1.50 

Kate D. Wlggln. 

Little Songs for Little Singers 25 

W. T. Glffe. 

Motion Songs 25 

Mrs. Boardman. 

Posies from a Child's Garden of Verses. 1.00 

Wm. Arms Fisher. 

Sixty Songs from Mother Goose's Jubilee 1.00 

L. E. Orth. 

Song Echoes from Child Land 2.00 

Miss Harriet S. Jenks and Mrs. Mabel Rust. 

Songs of Nature 30 

E. U. Emerson and K. L. Brown. 

Songs of Sunshine 1.00 

Stories in Song 75 

Thirty Songs for Children .50 

Master St. Elmo 1.00 

Postage, 12 cents. 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Musical Poems 1.50 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Flower Ballads, cloth 1.00 

" " paper 50 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Calisthenic Songs, cloth. ■ 35 

By Flora Parsons. 

Finger Plays, cloth • 1.25 

By Emllle Poulsson. 

The Story nour, cloth 1.00 

By Kate Douglas Wlggln. 

Myths and Mother Plays, cloth 1.00 

By Sara Wlltse. 

Flower Ballads, paper, .50; cloth 1.00 

By Caro S. Senour. 

riiscellaneons 

Commentary on Froebel's Mother Play. .$1.25 

By J. Denton Snider. 

The Psychology of Froebel's Play Gifts, 1,25 

By J. Denton Snider. 
Mottoes and Commentaries of Froebel's 

Mother Play l.oO 

Translated by Susan E. Blow. 

Outline of a Year's Work In the Kin- 
dergarten 60 

By Anna Deveraux. 

Blackboard Designs, paper .50 

J3y Margaret E. Webb. 

Education by Plays and Games JSO 

By G. E. Johnson. 

The Study of Children, cloth 1.00 

By Frances Warner. 
Nursery Ethics, cloth l.Oo 

By Florence Winterburn. 
The Color Primer. Price, Teachers' Edi- 
tion. .10; Pupils' Edition 05 

The Color Primer is Issued in a paper 
cover. The teachers' edition, including as a 
part of Itself the pupils' edition, has 80 
pages and the pupils' edition alone 24 
pa ges. 

Water Colors in the Schoolroom. Price, 

boards 25 

By Milton Bradley. 
This Is a practical handbook on the us* 
of Water Colors. 

An artistic book, illustrated with twelve 
colored plates. 



Address all orders to 



American Kindergarten Supply House 

276-278-280 River Street. Manistee, Mich. 



A BAKER'S DOZEN FOR 



CITY CHILDREN 

New Book of Kindergarten Songs 

By ISABEL VALENTINE and LILEON CLAXTON 

Two Practical Kindergartners of the New York City Public School System 

With introduction by JENNY B. MERRIL, Supervisor of Kinder- 
gartens, New York City Public Schools. 



THIRTEEN SONGS w | I |lf I || r ^ E RESTJLT 0F YBAM 0F teaching 

7HIRTEFN SONGS THAT HAVE BEEN THOROUGHLY TRIED AND 
i i iiim ll-i ti ^>yyi ^viu PROVEN IMMENSELY SUCCESSFUL. 

THIRTEEN SONGS EXPRESSIVE OF THE CHILD'S OWN EVERYDAY 

— LIFE. 

THIRTEEN SONGS READILY DRAMATIZED FROM THE CHILDREN'S 
■ mm lli ^wi tvj^> SUGGESTIONS 

THIRTF.FN SONCS THAT CITY KINDERGARTNERS MUST HAVE AND 
XilllYl L.J-IH \Q\JV\\jvJ OTHER KINDERGARTNERS SHOULD HAVE 

THIRTEEN SO NC»S BRIGHT. CHEERY. NEW. WITH SMOOTH FLOWING 
xi hi vi j^un ^unu>j HARMONIES AND SIMPLICITY OF RYTHYMA. 

The thirteen songs are clearly printed °n good paper and bound with strong linen mak- 
ing a very attractive and durable book, just the thing for an EASTER GIFT. 

Prir a 5ft f Atitc Add 5c extra for Postage 

1 1 1WC dV V^llld if or dered sent by mail. 

NOTE- We wil1 send the KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE for one 

year and a copy of "A BAKER'S DOZEN FOR CITY CHILDREN," 

%pl.«5«5 prepaid, to any address in the United States on receipt of $1.10 

* (Canadian or Foriegn subscribers add 20 cents or 40 cents respec- 

tively, for postage.) You may use this offer to renew your sub- 

^| fif\ scription if you like. 



This offer may not appear again, so attend to it today. Address 

The Kindergarten-Magazine Co 

59 West 96th. Street, NEW YORK. 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCIES OF AMERICA 

Every progressive teacher who desires promotion should take up the matter with some wide-awake Teachers' Agency. Beyond 
the scope of a teacher's personal acquaintance there is not much hope of advancing unaided. Some agencies have positions wait- 
ing for experienced teachers and all should be able to advise you to your advantage. If you contemplate moving to a distant sec- 
tion, let some agency secure you a position before you go. Any of the following will doubtless send particulars in reply to postal: 



TEACHERS 



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strong Primary Teachers. 

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LOCATES KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS 

Because of the scarcity of candidates we will 
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We also extend time in payment of com- 
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Write To=day. Send Photo 

Syracuse, N..Y. We have placed hundreds of others, Wbymay 
we not help you? 

Empire Teachers' Agency, 

An Agency with agents. Syracuse, N. Y. 



THE EMPIRE 

TEACHERS' AGENCY 

D. H. COOK, Manager 



OUR 15th YEAR BOOK j^^Kv^jThe HAZARD TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Western States, and what we are doingr if west- 3]7 Kasota Building. - MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
?£.«£ £fiirwS2e,5W re State Buiidin, SPOKANE. WASH, 
office 224 R ailwg y Exchang e. - DEN VER. COLO. 



SABIN'S EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE 

HENRY SABIN 1907 14th Season ELBRIDGE H. SABIN 

During last year placed teachers in 80 counties in Iowa, and in Minnesota, North and So 

Dakota, Nebraska. Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Washington and Ore 

gan. Address, HENRY SABIN, flanhattan Building, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Pioneer Teachers' Agency, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Will help you get a new or better position, whether you are a Teacher, Clerk, 
Book-keeper, or Stenographer. Enroll now for fall vacancies in schools. 

The demand for good teachers in all the Western and Southern States is far 
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Write for application blanks and full particulars. 



ROME 



TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Teachers wanted for good positions in all parts of the United States 
Registration fee holds good until we secure a position for you. 

W. X. Crider, Rome, New YorK 



Primary Teachers Wanted 



Vacancies not 

taoae frith lomr 

THURS1 



Because of &r . mind, offer FREE retrUtratlos to 
xperlenrr. VIVA M. THURSTON, Manager, 

W'S TEACHERS' AGENCY, 378 Wabaiih Ave.. Chlcaaro. 



Minneapolis 

Teachers' 

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1. Admits to membership only the better class of teachers 
registration fee returned to others at once. 

2. Returns fee if its service is not satisf acrory . 

3. Makes specialty of placing members in the Middle 
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Coast or in Montana or Idaho, it will 
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Pacific Teachers' Agency 

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 

Send for Manual and Registration 
blank. Address 

B. W. BRINTNALL, Manager, 
523 New York Block, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Teach in the 
Sunny South 

This section offers better in- 
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than any other, and teachers are 
in great demand. If you want a 
good position for next school year 
you can secure it in this field. For 
full information write 

CLAUDE J. BELL, 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Proprietor the Bell Teachers' 

Agency, 

GO SOUTH 

Many Teachers Wanted 



An Agency that 
Recommends in 15 Southern States 
Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ky., Md., 
Miss., Mo., N. C, S. C, Tenn., 

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Also conducts a 

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Supplies Teachers for Universities, 
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Send for OUR PLATFORM, giving full infoEmation and nve nunui 
teachers and school officers. 



BOISE, IDAHO 



FEBRUARY, 1909 



sSaPSK 




INDEX TO CONTENTS 




Stories, and Games, vs. Five Cent Theaters 




and the Sunday Supplement - Jennjr B. Merrill, Pd. D. 


143 


The I. K. U. at Buffalo ...... 


144 


The I. K. U. and the N. E. A. - - ... 


145 


Comic Supplements Again, ...... 


146 


A Policeman Father at School, ..... 


146 


Mother's Reading Circles - 


147 


A Practical Suggestion to Mothers, M. E. Boole, 


147 


The Significance of the Recent National 




Festivals in Chicago - - Amalie Hofer, 


148 


Letters to a Kindergartner - Harrietta Melissa Mills, 


153 


Nature Study in the Home - Rev. Thorn ley, M. A. 


160 


The Natural Method in Reading - Ellen E. K. Warner, 


164 


Suggestions for Singing Time - Edyth J. Turner, 


168 


Story ..... Florence Tristram, 


173 


Whale School ..-.-.., 


174 


Nya-gwa-ih, How the Bear Lost its Tail, Harriet M. Converse, 


175 


The Wise Man and the Ink Well - Doris Webb, 


176 


Copyright, 1938, by J. H. Shults. 





Volume XXI, No. 5. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



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PRIMARY TEACHERS 

will be Interested to know 
that we put up 

Kindergarten Material 

! Especially for primary schools and will 
send with our catalogue FREE instructloas 
for using the material In primary schools. 
Address J. H. SHULTS, flanlstee, Mich. 



EREE! 

iKinde 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Massachusetts Training Schools 

BOSTON 

Miss Laura Fisher's 

TRAINING SCHOOL FOR 

KINDERGARTNERS 

Normal Course, 2 years. 

Post-Graduate Course. 

Special Course. 

For circulars addresss 
292 Marlborough St., BOSTON, MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars addresss 
MISS LUCY BARKIS SYMONDS. 



MISS ANNIE COOLIDGE RUST'S 

Froebel School of Kinder- 
garten Normal Classes 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Regular Two Years' Course. 

Post-Graduate Course. Special Courses. 

Sixteenth Year. 

For circulars address 

MISS RUST, PIERCE BLDG., 

Copley Square. 

BOSTON 

Perry Kindergarten Normal 
School 

MRS. ANNIE MOSELEY PERRY, 
Principal, 



18 Huntington Ave., 



BOSTON, MASS. 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

134 Newbury Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

Regular Two Years' Course. 
Special One Year Course' for graduate 
students. 

Students' Home at the Marenholz. 
For circulars address 

IXCY WHEELOCK. 

BOSTON 

The Garland 
Kindergarten Training School 

Normal Course, two years. 
Home-making Course, one year. 
MRS. MARGARET 3. STANNARD, 
Principal. 

19 Chestnut Street, Boston. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training Schools 

Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 

Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

SPRINGFIELD— LONGMEADOW, MASS. 



New York Training Schools 



The Kraus Seminary for 
Kindergartners 

REGULAR AND EXTENSION 
COURSES. 

MRS. MARIA KRAUS-BOELTE 

Hotel San Remo, Central Park West 
75th Street, - NEW YORK CITY 



THE ELLIMAN SCHOOL 

Kindergarten Normal Class 

POST-GRADUATE CLASSES. 

Twenty-fifth Year. 

167 W. 57th Street, NEW YORK CITY 

Opposite Carnegie Hall. 



Miss Jenny Hunter's 
Kindergarten Training School 

15 West 127th St., NEW YORK CITY. 

Two Years' Course, Connecting Class and 
Primary Methods. 

ADDRESS 
2079 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF THE 

Buffalo Kindergarten Assoc'n. 

Two Years' Course. 
For particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
86 Delaware Avenue, - Buffalo, N. Y. 

Connecticut Training Schools 

BRIDGEPORT 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

FOR 

KINDERGARTNERS 

IN AFFILIATION WITH 

The New York Froebel Normal 

Will open its eighth year September IS. 
For circulars, information, etc., address 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal 

179 West Avenue, 
BRIDGEPORT, - - CONN. 

The Fannie A. Smith 

Froebel Kindergarten 

and Training School 

Good Kindergarten teachers have no 
trouble in securing well-paying positions. 
In fact, we have found the demand for 
our graduates greater than we can sup- 
ply. One and two years' course. 

For Catalogue, address 

FANNIE A. SMITH, Principal, 
Lafayette Street, BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



ADELPHI COLLEGE 

Lafayette Avenue, St. James and Clifton Places. BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 

Normal School for Kindergartners 

Two Years' Course. Address Prop. Anna E. Harvey, Supt 



Established 1896 



The New York 

Froebel Normal 

KINDERGARTEN and PRIMARY TRAINING 



College Preparatory. Teachers' I Academic. Music 

E. LYELL EARL, Ph. D., Principal, 

HARRIETTS M. MILLS, Head of Department of Kindergarten Training. 

MARIE RUEF HOFEK, Department of Music. 



Eleventh Year opens Wednesday, Sept. 18, 1907 

Write for circulars. Address, 

59 West 96th Street, New York, N. Y. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Michigan Training Schools 



Grand Rapids 
Kindergarten Training School 



Winter and Summer Terms. 

Oct. 1st, 1908, to June 1st, 1909. 

July 1st to August 31st, 1909. 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal. 
MAT L. OG1LBT, Registrar. 

Shepard Building:, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



Maine Training Schools 

Miss Norton's Training School 
for Kindergartners 

PORTLAND MAINE. 

Two Tears' Course. 

For circulars addresss 

15 Dow Street, - PORTLAND, ME. 

Miss Abby N. Norton 



Ohio Training Schools 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 231:4 AsMand Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL KINDBRG IRTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MART E. LAW, M. '».. Principal. 

Kindergarten Training 

Exceptional advantages — daily practice. 
Lectures from Professors of Oberlin Col- 
lege and privilege of Elective Courses ii 
the College at special rates. Charges 
moderate. Graduates readily find posi 
tions. 

For Catalogue address Secretary 
OBERLIN KTNDERGARDEN ASSOCIA- 
TION. 
Drawer K, Oberlin, Ohio. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGF 

Corner of Cdar and Watkins Apes., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

(Founded in 1S94) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten Course. 

MISS NETTA PARIS, Principal. 
MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



Indiana Training Schools 



The Teachers' College 
of Indianapolis 

For the Training: of Kindergartners and 
Primary Teachers. 

Regular Course two years. Preparatory 
Course one year. Post-Graduate Course 
for Normal Teachers, one year. Primary 
training a part of the regular work. 

Classes formed in September and Feb- 
ruary. 

90 Free Scholarships Granted 

Each Year. 

Special Primary Class in May and June. 
Send for Catalogue. 

Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker. Pres. 

THE WILLIAM N. JACKSON MEMOR- 
IAL INSTITUTE, 
23d and Alabama Streets. 



The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

14 West Main Street. 



ALICE N. PARKER, Frinclpal. 

Two years in course. Froebei's theory 
and practice. Also a third year course 
for graduates. 

SPECIAL LECTURES. 



Kentucky Training Schools 



TRAINING SCHOOL OF THE 

T .ouisville Free Kindergarten 
Association 

Louisville, Ky, 
FACULTY: 

'Tiss Mary Hill, Supervisor 

Mrs. Robert D. Allen. Senior Critic anc 1 
Training Teacher. 

Miss Alexina G. Booth. History and Phil- 
osophy of Education. 

Miss Jane Akin, Primary Sunday School 
Methods. 

Miss Aliene Seaton, Manual Work. 

Miss Frances Ingram, Nature Study. 

Miss Anna Moore, Primary Methods. 

Miss Margaret Byers, Art Work. 



New Jersey Training Schools 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING- 
SCHOOL 

Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. J. 



OHIO COLUMBUS 

Kindergarten Normal Training School 



17th and Brood 
Streets 



-E1QMTEENTH YEAR BEGINS SEPTEnBER 25, 1907- 



Illinois Training Schools 
Kindergarten Training School 



Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 

Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 

For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich, 
ave., Chicago. 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

at CHICAGO COMMONS, 180 Grand Ave. 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mis Amelia Hofer, Principal. 

THIRTEENTH YEAR. 

Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Mailing. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement. Fine equipment. For 
circulars and information write to 

MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 
ISO Grand Ave., Chicago. 



Chicago Froebel Association 

Trainiug Class for Kindergartners. 

(Established 1S76.) 

Two Years' Course. Special Courses un- 
der Professors of University of Chicago 
receive University credits. For circulars 
apply to 

MRS. ALICE H. PUTNAM, or MISS M. 
L. SHELDON, Associate Principals, 

1008 Fine Arts Building, Chicago, 111. 




INSTITUTE 

Gertrude House, 40 Scott Street 



Regular Course — Two Years. 
Post-gfraduate Course — One Year. 
Supplementary Course— One Year. 
Non-professional Home Making: 

Course — One Year. 

University Credits 
Residence for students at Gertrude 

House. 



DIRECTORS 

Miss CAROLINE C. CRONISE 
Mrs, MARY B. PAGE 
Mrs. ETHEL ROE LiNDGREN 
Miss FRANCES E, NEWTON 

Send for Circulars 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Pennsylvania Training Schools 



Miss Hart's 

Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Re-opened Oct. 1st, 1908, at 1615 
Walnut Street, Philadelphia, The 
work will include Junior, Senior 
Graduate and Normal Trainers' 
Courses, and a Model Kindergar- 
ten. For particulars address 

Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, 
Model Kindergarten 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



The Philadelphia Training 
School for Kindergartners 

Reopens October 2, 1908. 
Junior, Senior and Special Classes. 
Model Kindergarten. 

Address 

MRS. M. L. VAN KIRK, Principal, 

1333 Fine Street, - Philadelphia, Pa. 



Pittsburgh and Allegheny 
Kindergarten College 

ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

Regular Course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. 
Seventeenth year begins Sept. 30, 1908 
For Catalogue, address 
Mrs. William McCracken, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avenue, PITTSBURGH, PA 



California Training Schools 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING CLASS 

State Accredited List. 
Seventeeth Tear opens September, 1907. 
Address 

Miss Grace Everett Barnard, 

1374 Franklin Street, OAKLAND, CAL. 



Wisconsin Training Schools 



Milwaukee State Normal 
School 

Kindergarten Training Department. 

Two Tears' Course for graduates of 
four-years' high schools. Faculty of 
twenty-five. Special advantages. Tuition 
free to residents of Wisconsin; $40 per 
year to others. School opens the first 
Tuesday in September. 

Send for Catalogue to 
NINA C. VANDEWALKER, Director. 



Washington Training Schools 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Columbia Kindergarten 
Training School 

2115 California Ave., cor. Connecticut Av. 

Certificate, Diploma and Normal Course 
Principals: 

SARA KATHARINE LIPPINCOTT, 
SUSAN CHADICK BAKER. 



Virginia Training Schools 

The Richmond Training School 

for Kindergartners 

Richmond. Va. 

Alice N. Baker, Principal. 

Two years' course and Poat 

Graduate course. 

For further information apply to 

14 W. Main Street. 



Georgia Training Schools 



Atlanta Kindergarten Normal 
School 



For particulars address 

WHXETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
?39 Peaehtrec- Sireet, ATLANTA, GA. 

Normal Training School 

of the 
KATE BALDWIN FREE KINDERGAR- 
TEN ASSOCIATION. 

( Established 1899) 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor 

of Kindergartens. 
Application for entrance to the Train- 
ing Schools should be made to Miss M. R. 
Sasnett, Corresponding Secretary, 

117 Rolton St., EAST SAVANNAH, GA. 



If your Training School Is not represent 
ed in these columns, kindly send us you 
copy, and let us put it among the others 
Aside rom the advertising value, both 
your pupils and your graduates will be 
pleased to see your training school have a 
place among the others of America. 



1874 — Kindergarten Normal Instituti is — i 908 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. 0. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



Repton School 

Tarry tow n=on=Hudson, New York 
A School for young boys between the ages of 7 and 14. A few of 
o ur special advantages are: 

Specially designed, modern buildings, costing over $ 100.000.00. Numbers are limiteo 
to Forty, giving an average of Five boys in a class, thus ensuring every boy, practicaihy in 
dividualtuition 

A Physica Instructor, qualified in Europe, attends to the Swedish and other exer- 
icses, under the supervision ot the School Physician, who prescribes the exercise for each boy 

A resident nurse, and hospital building. 

Fee for the school year $400.00— $500.00. 

Apply to THE HEADMASTER. 



Reeds, Raffia, Splints, Braided Straw, Matting and General Construction Material 



Postage at the rate of 16c per pound must 
In all cases be added to these prices when 
goods are to be sect by mail. 

COLORED RAFFIA (Florist Fiber). 
Colors: Red, Orange, Yellow, Greou, Blue, 
Violet, Brown and Black. 

Per pound Net, (0.40 

Per Mi-pound Net, .25 

Per 14 -pound Net, .15 

%-lb. bunch, assorted colors Iff 

PLAIN RAFFIA (Florist Fiber). 

Per 2 ounces 06 

Per ^4-pound ....._, 10 

Per %-pound 15 

Per pound 20 

Per pound, 5-pound lots 15 





REEDS. 
Our reed Is all put up In POUND PACK- 
AGES OF EACH SIZE, and we do not sell 
part of a package except at an advance 
or Be per package. 

No. 1, fine, per pound 1.00 

No. 2, medium, per pound 95 

No. S, medium coarse, per pound 75 

No. 4, coarse, per pound 75 

No. 5, coarser, per pound .50 

No. 6, coarser, per pound 50 

LOOMS. 

Todd Adjustable— No. Al, no needle... .15 

Postage, 18c. 

Todd Adjustable — Perfection $0.30 

Postage, 23c. 

Xodd Adjustable— No. 2 75 

Little Gem— No. 1, 9x12 25 

Little Gem— No. 2, 7xay a 25 

Faribault, hammock attachment 85 

Other Looms Furnished. 
Above should be ordered by express. 
MOUNTING BOARD. 

Good quality, 8-pIy mounting board, colors, 
dark green, steel blue, black, per sheet, .08 

Kodack Mounts, colors as above, per sht.. .04 
Both above are 22x28 inches, but will be cut 
in J4 or '/& sheets at lc per sheet extra, or free 
in lots of 12 sheets at a time. 

Bristol, in colors, 22x28, per sheet $0.05 

Heavy Manila, SZy 2 xZSy a 02 

Straw Board, 22x28 02 

Postage on a single sheet of above, 4c, to 
which must be added postage on the packing for 
same, as follows: If cut in quarters and rolled, 
lc per sheet, 4c per doz. sheets. If sent full 
size and rolled, 5c per sheet, 8c per doz. sheets. 
Full sheets, packed flat, per sheet, 30c. Per 
dozen sheets, 35c. State how preferred. 

Japanese Manila, 20x30 .01 

Leatherette, 20x25 05 

Cardboard Modeling Paper, 18x24 02 

Postage on above, 1 sheet, 2c; per doz., 17c 

Coated Paper, 20x24 04 

Engine Colored Paper, 20x24 .03 

Gilt and SUver Paper, 20x24 .00 

Postage on above, 1 sheet, 2c; 1 doz., 8c 

Oak Tag for Construction Work, 9x12, 
dozen sheets 00 

Postage, 10 cents. 
Oak Tag for Construction Work, 8V&X 
10%, per dozen 0} 

Postage, 9 cents. 

Oak Tag for Construction Work, 7V4x 
9%, per dozen .00 

Postage, 9 cents. 
Colors — Dark Green. Yellow, Turquoise- 
Carpet Warp, per skein 15 

Add 12c for postage. 



ZEPHYR. 





Faribault Uoom. 




















MM 


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T 



















farib aalt-lo oVft 



With"""* 

Hawmo«* ftttach- 



Macreme Cord, per ball Net, .12 

Add 4c for postage. 

Rubber Balls, 2-inch, plain, per doz 60 

Postage, each, 4c, per doz., 37c. 

Rubber Balls, 2-inch, plain, per doz. . . .60 

Postage, each, 4c; per doz., 37c. 

Rubber Balls, 3-Inch, plain, each 10 

Add 6c for postage. 

Rubber Balls, 4 '/i-tnch, plain, each 25 

Rubber Balls, 4%-inch, red, each 85 

Add 7c for postage for either above. 

Brass Paper Fasteners, per 100 20 

Conductor's Punch .80 

Add 4c for postage on either above. 

Copper Wire, per spool .20 

iron Wire, per spool 10 

Add 7c for postage on either above. 
Following sent postpaidjon receipt of price : 

Gormantown Yarn, skein 12 

Single Zephyr, per lap 08 

Seine Needles, wood, each 15c; doz.... 1.50 

Toy Knitter, per dozen 50 

Brown's Pictures, each..%o, lc, So and .05 

Silver and Gilt Stars, gummed, rer 100 .10 

Order the following by freight or express. 

Schute Weaving Discs, 4-inch, doz 16 

Schute Weaving Discs, 6-inch, doz 25 

Schute Weaving Discs, 12-lnch, doz 50 

The Multiple Perforator 3.00 

Orwig Punch 2.50 

Modeling Clay — 5Jb. bricks 25 

Modeling Clay Flour — 5-Ib boxes 25 

Modeling Clay — by the barrel 8.00 




WHITE BRAIDED STRAW. 

Per yard $0.02 

Postage, lc. 
Per piece, 120 yards 60 

Postage, per piece, 15c. 

COLORED BRAIDED STRAW. 

Half-inch wide, In colors, as follows: Nile 
Green, Red, Pink, Yale Blue, Bright Green 
and Ecru. 

Per yard O3 

Per piece, 120 yards 60 

Postage, same as for white braided straw 





Indian Ash Splints and Fillers. 

15c. per ounce; $1.20 per pound. Assorted 

colors. Postage, on ribbon and packing 

2c. per ounce. 20c per pound, 

We also keep In stock Wood Ribbon, Sweet 
Grass, T. K. Matting, Ash Splints for basket 
handles, Basket Bottoms, ete. Send for sam- 
ples or circulars and prices. 

We furnish everything on the market In 
the line of construction material at lowest 
prions. 



Address all orders to 




Germantown 




Multiple Perforator 




Orwig Perforator 





RAPHIA FRAMES 



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American Kindergarten Supply House 

276-278=280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 



Ol)£ TJiin6erosarten- jp rimat T ^tlaga^ine 

VOL. XXI—FEBUARY, 1909— NO. 5 
The Kindergarten- Primary Magazine 



Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 9fth Street, New York, N. Y. 

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

E T,yell Earle. Ph. D Managing Editor 

J.^nn'y B. Merrill, Ph. D., Supervisor Kindergartens. 

Manhattan. The Bronx and Richmond 

Harriette M. Mills New York Froebel Normal 

Mari Rutf Hofer Teachers' College 

and N. Y.F.N. 
Bertha Johnston New York Froebel Normal 

Special A r tides 
Ray V. Strickler, Illustrator, Hillsdale, Mich. 

All communications pertainingto subscriptions andadvertising 
or other business relating 10 the magazine should be addressed 
to the Michigan office, J. H. Shults, Business Manager, Manistee, 
Hichigan. All other communications to E. Lyell Earle, Managing 
Editor, 59 W. 96th St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 27S River 
Street. Manistee. Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. 
Single copies. 15c. 

Postage is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
the United States. Hawaiian Tslands, Philippine Islands. Guam, 
Porto Rico. Tutuila (Samoa). Shanghai, Canal Zone. Cuba, 
and Mexico. For Canada add 20c and for all other countries 
in the Postal Union add 4Cc for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, hut it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired nntil notice of discon- 
tinuance is received. When pending notice of change of ad- 
dress, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Remittances should be sent by draft. Express Order or 
Money Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Com- 
pany. If a local check is sent, it must Include 10c exchange. 



STORIES AND GAMES VS. FIVE- 
CENT THEATERS AND THE SUN- 
DAY SUPPLEMENT. 
JENNY B. MERRILL, Pd. D. 

I have never entered a five-cent theater, 
and my mother who still rules in the home 
will not have a Sunday newspaper around. 
Hence you may judge that I am badly pre- 
pared upon at least one-half of my subject. 

But if there are those who having found 
evil in these two amusements seek a 
method of substitution they are certainly 
wise for the best way to chase darkness is 
to let in light when lo the spectre is no 
more. 

The fact that our good chairman has sug- 
gested stories and games as two possible 
substitutes for the five-cent shows and the 
funny stories of the supplements has led me 
to seek a point of connection between them. 

I find it in what an English writer has 
called "The Instinct of Pursuit." 

If I raise a ball to throw it, you are at 
once interested to follow its course and to 
see where it will strike. So a story begins, 
proceeds and ends. So likewise a game 



begins, proceeds, ends and so does a show 
and a series of funny pictures. In this then 
they are all alike. 

The mind of a child, yet of an adult, loves 
to follow a course, to start — to go — to 
arrive, it has in other words an instinct of 
pursuit. The question is "Do we provide 
well for the natural instinct in our educa- 
tional schemes and in our amusements? 
If not by pushing the story and the game to 
the front, will we not be able to let in more 
light which will help to drive out the dark- 
ness? 

Notwithstanding my confessed ignorance 
of two elements in my topic I must admit 
that I have seen Sunday supplements and 
that I have catechised quite vigorously a 
young friend who patronized five cent 
shows. 

I hope I will not shock you by saying I 
have found good elements in both. It is an 
old question, is there positive good and 
positive evil or are they comparative terms? 
We need not solve the mystery today, for 
if we decide that we want our children to 
have as near the best as we can give them 
that is all that is necessary. I can conceive 
a five cent show to be better than no show 
at all, and a funny supplement better than 
no pictures and no nonsense. I can con- 
ceive some games to be worse than some 
shows for some children. 

I remember well years ago that a remark 
of Dr. Lyman Abbott in regard to theaters 
made a great impression upon mv mind. I 
had been brought up to condemn the 
theater as inimical but said Dr. Abbott "We 
should not condemn all theaters because 
there are bad ones any more than we con- 
demn all books because there are bad books. 
We must train our young folk to feel and 
know the difference between the good and 
the bad in theaters as in books. 

A child will know good food from bad if 
he has been served well from childhood in 
a good home. He will almost instinctively 
reiect injurious food as he grows in years 
but his vouth must be protected until his 
judgment is formed, otherwise he will have 
no high ideals, no correct standards. 

Standards and ideals are the products of 
experience and we must furnish them to the 
young. 

Annie M. Allen, in her excellent book, 
"Home. School and Vacation," calls atten- 
tion in the chapter on Amusements to the 



i 4 4 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



fact that we have erred in permitting over- 
stimulation and "under regulation." 

Mrs. Allen says, "Congestion and stag- 
nation are both gross errors, easy to avoid 
when once they are recognized." She fur- 
ther says "To judge of the probable value 
of any occupation or amusement to any 
special child, we must have a lively concep- 
tion of what the child is in his best estate 
and what sort of creature he is to grow to 
be. Our success must depend upon our 
own sense of proportion, upon the fineness 
of our feeling for balance and adjustment." 

But others are to report upon a wish 
selection of stories and games. That they 
have elements capable of crowding out less 
worthy amusements, I am certain. 

The child cannot be in two places at the 
same time and if we furnish well equipped 
playgrounds in the home, in the school, in 
the park, the five cent show will have less 
chance. Furthermore if we have story 
tellers in all our branch libraries, if we have 
story hours in the home, story tellirtg upon 
the door-steps on summer evenings, if we 
have story hours in our church houses and 
in our schools, again the children will be too 
full of happy thoughts to wander far afield. 

To be very practical it has even occurred 
to me that there might be a story hour in 
every school house to which good children 
would have access after school hours in- 
stead of a room for the detention of trouble- 
some boys and girls. The school house 
must be so homed that it cannot be a 
punishment to remain an extra hour with- 
in its walls. Teachers will volunteer to con- 
duct these story homes in turn and the 
teachers will be the best story tellers. 

Dr. Thomas Hunter, the President of the 
Normal College, was a famous story-teller. 
In teaching classes of rough boys in night 
schools in his younger days he would say 
"Now if we get through our work in time, 
I will tell you a story." And there were no 
bad boys to prevent the work from moving 
rapidly along. 

It has also occurred to me that the five 
cent shows may be encouraged to improve- 
ment if teachers will visit them and kindly 
point out the most objectionable features 
and suggest stories, pictures and song that 
will please without vulgarizing children. 

The boy whom I interrogated had seen 
good old fairy tales illustrated, he had seen 
sports of foreign countries ; he had seen the 
naval review at San Francisco and other 



present day history. I have faith to believe 
such shows could be extended and possibly 
even good evolved where evil now exists. 
At least I mean when opportunity offers to 
see what is being shown the children in my 
own neighborhood. Again the schools 
must help in improving the funny picture 
page. Why not? We can surely raise 
artists who can be funny without being low 
and vulgar. 

The art work now being accomplished in 
our schools will in time raise the taste of 
the whole community. 

In his last annual report to Dr. Maxwell, 
our distinguished supervisor of the Manual 
Arts, Dr. James P. Haney, said". "It is to 
be noted that the long time restriction for- 
bidding pupils to sketch in the museum was 
removed by Sir Purdon Clarke immediately 
after his acceptance of the directorship. 

A large number of teachers have since 
availed themselves of the opportunity to 
send their pupils or to visit the museum 
with them for the sake of studying the in- 
valuable collections and of making notes 
and sketches useful in classwork." 

Dr. Haney speaks further in his report of 
"the study of pictures both in the form of 
canvases, photographs — -and reproductions 
of visits of pupils to the galleries of the Fine 
Arts Building, of loan exhibitions etc. 



THE I. K. U. AT BUFFALO. 

The local committee in conference with 
the Executive Board of the I. K. U. an- 
nounces the following plan for the exhibit 
in connection with the meeting in Buffalo 
April 26~30th: 

I An exhibit giving suggestions for the 
Architecture and Furniture of a Kinder- 
garten room, along hygienic and artistic 
lines. This will include material, photo- 
graphs, and lantern slides. 

II An exhibit of the Jessie Davis' Genetic 
Construction Work. 

III Nature Work — including material, 
photographs and students' note-books. 

IV Work with Mothers' Clubs. 
Contributions or suggestions along anv 

of these lines will be welcome. 

Applications for space should be made by 
March first. Address Miss Marry E. Wat- 
kins, 86 Delaware Ave., Buffalo. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



»4'5 



The I. K. U. and the N. E. A. 

Dr. Earle, 

Editor of the Kindergarten Magazine, 
59 West 96th St., N. Y. 

My dear Dr. Earle : The Board of the 
I. K. U. has appointed a committee to in- 
vestigate the problem of some sort of future 
relationship with the N. E. A. in response 
to the request from the N. E. A. to con- 
sider seriously the necessity for uniting the 
kindergartners to some larger body of 
education. The committee appointed is as 
follows : 

Miss Caroline T. Haven of New York, Chairman. 

Miss Bertha Payne of Chicago. 

Miss Lucy Wheelock of Boston. 

Miss Anna Williams of Philadelphia. 

Professor Forbes of Rochester. 

Superintendent Elson of Cleveland. 

Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler. 

This committee has been in consultation 
with prominent educators for advice with 
regard to some future relationship to the 
N. E. A. The enclosed letter from Dr. 
Butler I will be glad to have published in 
the next number of your magazine, and I 
hope it will be followed by letters from 
Professor Eorbes and Superintendent 
Elson, giving their points of view. 

A circular will go out to all branches of 
the I. K. U. in January, and I have asked 
Miss Haven to send one of these circulars 
to your magazine as soon as possible, so 
that it may be printed before the different 
branches take action upon it. 

Will you publish Dr. Butler's letter as 
early as possible, so that everything can be 
done to make all of the branches intelligent 
as to what is being considered before they 
vote upon the subject. 

Thanking you in advance for your co- 
operation, I am 

Sincerely yours, 

PATTY S. HILL. 

December 18, 1908. 
Miss Patty S. Hill, 

President, International Kindergarten Union, 
Teachers College. 

My dear Miss Hill: The question which you put 
to me today as to a possible formal relationship 
between the International Kindergarten Union and 
the National Education Association, is both im- 
portant and interesting. That some relationship 
between the two organizations would be mutually 
advantageous seems to me obvious. The papers 
and discussions of the International Kindergarten 
Union would, if included in the Proceedings of the 
National Educational Association, go to a large, a 
widely distributed, and a highly sympathetic body 
of readers who do not now see them. The personal 
association of those primarily interested in kinder- 



garten teaching with students of education and 
teachers in other fields of activity would be broad- . 
ening and helpful in many ways. 

It so happens that as a member of the Executive 
Committee of the National Education Association, 
I am much interested in this matter from another 
point of view. It has seemed to many members of 
the National Education Association that the time 
has come when we cannot longer postpone consid- 
eration of questions touching the readjustment and 
possible consolidation of some of the existing de- 
partments of the association. The number of de- 
partments has been increased of late until the de- 
partments have lost all relation to any fixed prin- 
ciple of orderly classification, and to such an extent 
that the printing of their proceedings in the an- 
nual volume has become a serious and very ex- 
pensive matter. 

Have you thought of some such plan as the fol- 
lowing, which I think would be advantageous both 
to the International Kindergarten Union and to the 
National Education Association? 

Suppose the members of the International Kin- 
dergarten Union were all to qualify as active mem- 
bers of the National Education Association — 
which many of them now are — and continue to 
hold their annual meetings in the spring, as has 
been customary for some time past, under the title 
of International Kindergarten Union: Department 
of Kindergarten Education of the National Educa- 
tion Association. 

Suppose that the existing Department of Kinder- 
garten Education was consolidated with the De- 
partment of Elementary Education, and that those 
kindergartners who attended the summer meeting 
of the National Education Association would 
either take part in the Department of Elementary 
Education for the purpose of studying and discuss- 
ing questions and problems that are on the border 
line between the kindergarten and the elementary 
school, or would take this opportunity to hear 
papers and discussions, either at the general ses- 
sions or in other departments, which appeal to 
them individually as interesting and instructive. 

In this way, the International Kindergarten 
Union, while composed entirely — at least so far as 
voting members were concerned — of active mem- 
bers of the National Education Associaton, would 
preserve its identity and the advantages of its 
existing form of organization, while gaining the 
benefits of membership in the larger body. 

Perhaps you will observe that the Department 
of Superintendence as now conducted stands in 
just this relation to the general association. This 
department holds its meetings in mid-winter and 
they are very successful and largely attended. The 
Superintendents, or very many of them, also attend 
the summer meeting and distribute themselves 
among those departments and sessions that promise 
most usefulness and interest. In this way, the 
Superintendents get the advantage of a meeting de- 
voted to their own special concerns, and also of 
membership in a body which takes the whole of 
education for its province. It has seemed to me 
that the International Kindergarten Union might 
like to follow this precedent. 

Of course, I am writing only as an individual 
member of the National Education Association. 
The Board of Directors of that body could, how- 
ever, if they so wished, by vote consolidate the 
existing departments of Kindergarten and Ele- 
mentary Education, and could give authority to 
the International Kindergarten Union, provided the 
terms of its membership were made to conform to 
those of membership in the National Education 
Association, to meet at a time other than that 
fixed for the general summer meeting, in accord- 
ance with the plan which I have outlined . 

If the officers and members of the International 



146 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



Kindergarten Union should think it worth while 
to take action to put this plan into effect, it would 
be well for them to be represented at Denver next 
July by a committee whose members should present 
the question in all its phases . to the Board of 
Directors of the National Education Association. 
It would be helpful, too, if the matter might find 
discussion in the educational publications of the 
country between now and next July, in order that 
the largest possible number of persons interested 
might be informed as to the proposal, and that any 
criticisms which it may call forth might receive 
due consideration. 

Commending this plan, or something on similar 
lines, to your consideration, I am, 

Faithfully yours, 

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER. 



COMIC SUPPLEMENTS AGAIN. 

From time to time the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine has called attention to 
the mischief "that lies hid" in the usual 
comic supplements of the daily and Sunday 
papers. The matter has been subject for 
discussion in the I. K. U. It should be 
brought up in parents' meetings at least 
once a year, until some impress has been 
made upon the collective parent of the 
country. Someone has said that a man 
can be judged by what he laughs at — by 
what he considers funny. All children need 
to laugh — what would a world be without 
childish laughter? But we must give the 
environment which will provide fun that is 
pure, uplifting, not degrading, kindly and 
not cruel. We would recommend that a 
kindergartner save, for a time, the comic 
pictures as they appear in many papers — ■ 
classify, study them, then judge what is 
their several tendencies. What is likely to 
be the effect upon a sensitive mind of week- 
ly impressions of the kind. One such 
picture may soon be obliterated by others 
of a higher type — but innumerable impres- 
sions of the kind cannot fail to deaden the 
appreciation for more delicate, kindly 
humor ; cannot fail to harden, to coarsen, 
and so to deprive of the power to enjoy the 
genial humor, the delicate wit, the pene- 
trating satire of the masters of literature ; 
cannot fail to develop the cruel, dishonest 
side of the child nature. We subjoin two 
letters reprinted from The New York 
Times, whose testimony may prove useful 
in mothers' meetings : 

"MISCHIEF IN COMIC PICTURES 

A small boy of my acquaintance became highly 
'nterested not long ago in the adventures of a 
naughty youth, presented in the comic supplement 
of a well-known newspaper. The youth in the 
newspaper shampooed his sister's hair, and anointed 
Hie poodle with a mixture of ink, glue, and the 
Tamily hair tonic, leaving the remainder of the 



compound in the bottle for the use of his father 
and mother. The results as pictorially set forth 
were so intensely amusing that the small observer 
immediately took steps to repeat them in real life. 
Much mischief is suggested in such ways as this, 
and the suggestions come from artists who have 
little sympathy with children." 

"COMIC SUPPLEMENTS NOT PROPERLY A PART 
OF THE LITERATURE OF CHILDHOOD. 

I beg the attention of your readers to your report 
of the session of the American Playground Congress 
on Sept. 9, with Miss Maud Summers' attack upon 
the comic supplements of the Sunday newspapers. 
That is a straightforward thrust at a crying evil, 
and demands earnest consideration from all who 
are responsible for the children of our day. And 
who of us is free from that responsibility? 

I indorse every statement that Miss Summers 
makes so clearly and pithily. It is true that in 
these papers "emphasis is placed on deceit, on cun- 
ning, and on disrespect for gray hairs;" upon these 
qualities hinges the smartness of the young per- 
sons therein depicted, which amuses impression- 
able little souls and often allures them to emula- 
tion. Humor has indeed "its place in the litera- 
ture of childhood," and a prominent place. But 
"genuine fun from gifted writers," to substitute 
for "the coarse, vulgar type now so prominent," is 
not lacking, and new supplies only await demand. 

I call upon those who have charge of these mat- 
ters and upon all whose influence goes to form en- 
lightened public opinion to make this demand per- 
sistently — that writers and limners for childhood 
keep to "the most vital purpose of the story * * * 
to give high ideals which are reproduced in char- 
acter." Otherwise the malicious, sordid, and law- 
less ideals will be reproduced in our rising genera- 
tion. 

My personal gratitude to Miss Summers is 
strengthened by the fact that only once before have 
I found in print any serious, comprehensive protest 
against this careless sin. 

Will not right-minded men and women add their 
voices to hers?" 



A POLICEMAN FATHER AT SCHOOL 

An exchange recently gave a column to 
an ex-police lieutenant forty-eight years 
old, of New York, who for three years has 
been studying at the New York Free Even- 
ing School. As this furnishes an example 
of a rarely thoughtful father we call it to 
the attention of our readers, noting espec- 
ially his recognition of the fact so seldom 
realized by the paternal parent that the 
memory of a father's companionship, his 
intelligent interest in his child's doings 
means far more to children and community 
than leaving them mere money. This 
father said to the inquiring reporter: "I 
found that if I asked one of my children 
about his or her grammar lessons I could 
be fooled easily because I knew nothing 
about it myself. They could talk to me 
about verbs and nouns — perhaps they knew 
the difference — I was not quite sure that I 
did. This was three years ago. I retired 
from the police force on a pension sufficient 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



HI 



to support my family with the help of the 
older children. I thought it all out and 
made up my mind that it was better for my 
children to help them personally in getting 
an education tnat would help them through 
lite than to continue to work and leave them 
out a small fortune at best which they 
might run through and become a burden 
on the community." Among the subjects 
studied by him are algebra, geometry, 
advanced arithmetic, chemistry, English, 
European history, economics, American 
history and civics. 



A new invention will make books for the 
blind less expensive than heretofore. Up 
to the present time, in preparing the em- 
bossed pages for those who must read with 
their fingers, it has been possible to use 
only one side of the paper. This nivention 
allows the embossing on one side of a page 
between the embossed lines on the other, 
making thus a great saving in the amount 
of the expensive paper required. Those 
who have worked out this new process are 
William B. Wait, Principal Emeritus of the 
New York Institute for the Blind, and B. 
B. Huntoon, Superintendent of the Ameri- 
can Printing House for the Blind, Louis- 
ville. 



MOTHERS' READING CIRCLES. 

JENNY B. MERRILL, PD D. 

The American School of Household 
Economics has published a series of help- 
ful books for mothers. One of these books 
is entitled "Study of Childlife," by Marian 
Foster Washburne. 

Kindergartners will find in Part I of this 
excellent work a chapter on "Children's 
Faults' and Their Remedies," which will not 
fail to arouse interest and discussion in a 
Mothers' meeting. 

We recommend discussion and illustra- 
tion of the following quotations taken from 
this chapter. 

i. "Many so-called faults of children are 
no more than inconvenient crossings of an 
immature will with an adult will." Ex- 
amples : Quiet, order, cleanliness. 

2. Richter says : "The faults that are real 
faults are those that increase with age." 
Mrs. Washburne says, "This rule ought to 
be put in large letters, that every one who 
has to train children may be daily reminded 
by it, and not spend his force in trying to 
overcome little things, which may perhaps 



be objectionable, but which will vanish to- 
morrow. Concentrate your energies on the 
overcoming of such tendencies as may in 
time develop into permanent evils." 

3. " 1 lie chief object of all training is to 
lead the child to prefer right doing to 
wrong doing; to make right doing a per- 
manent desire. Therefore in all the pro- 
cedures about to be suggested an effort is 
made to convince the child of the ugliness 
and painfulness of wrong doing. 

The object is not to make the child bend 
his will to the will of another but to make 
him see the fault itself as an undesirable 
thing. 

4. "A broken will is a worse misfortune 
than a broken back." 

5 "Where obedience is seldom required, 
it is seldom refused." 

6 "Prohibitions are almost useless. A 
prohibition acts like a suggestion." 

Froebel meets this difficulty by substitut- 
ing positive commands for prohibitions, 
that is, he tells the child to do instead of 
telling him not to do. 

NOTE — The mothers should be encouraged to 
give illustrations from home life and the kinder- 
gartner should add others from her every day note 
book. The serious faults considered in the chap- 
ter are as follows: Quick temper, sullenness, 
lying, jealousy, selfishness, laziness, untidiness, 
and impudence. Remedies are suggested. 



A PRACTICAL SUGGESTION TO 
MOTHERS. 

If we suspect that a child is giving a 
garbled version of some transaction to 
screen himself from blame, it is well, before 
asking any other person concerned what 
were the facts, to ask the child himself 
what version he thinks that other person 
would give; for example: When he says, 
"I didn't break the plate; I fell up against 
the table and the plate fell and broke itself;' 
if you ask, "What do you think nurse will 
tell me about it?' the child will perhaps 
answer "I think nurse will tell you that 
she had told me not to go near that table 
at all while the crockery was on it." A 
chil 1 who has thus corrected his own one- 
sided statement has had a very good lesson, 
and been helped to become clear-headed 
and truthful. 

M. E. BOOLE. 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RECENT 

NATIONAL FESTIVALS IN 

CHICAGO. 

AMALIE HOFER, Chicago. 

The national festival has to do with the 
heart history of a people, and ever centers 
about such experiences and events as lift 
the deeper passions of a race into united, 
heroic action. Groups thus stirred by some 
valid human exigent, are brought into co- 
herency, which in time assumes the form of 
picturesque provincialism, or of involuner- 
able nationalism. The traditional festival 
is a recurrent manifesto of these deeper 
feelings, and promotes and develops group 
co-hesion, in other words the patriotic and 
the national spirit. In the course of time 
the festival and its ceremonies may even 
become the symbol of unitedness, quite 
apart from the human and historic incident 
which furnished the original incitement. 

The most time-honored festivals such as 
the solstice carnivals are the outcome of 
folk experience and feeling as old and 
perennial as life itself. They are tap- 
rooted by instincts which reach further than 
historic circumstance, deeper far than 
religious creed, down into the very sources 
of being. 

The commemoration of different times 
and different peoples are found to have 
counterpart features, the same character- 
istics re-emerging at different periods. This 
fact indicates a probable substrate of feel- 
ing, common to, therefore significant to all 
men. 

For 300 years America has been the 
Bethel for groups that become alien and 
emigrant because of loyalty to some deep- 
ly grained human principle, or groups that 
seek to recover a sense of coherency which 
has been shaken by the altering conditions 
attending evolution. Twenty or thirty dif- 
ferent national groups have been bringing 
to this harbor their household gods of per- 
sonal feeling, local custom, historic tradi- 
tion and national traits. In the new co- 
herence which is bound to be established, 
what portion of these birthrights will sur- 
vive, or be eliminated or merged ? 

The transplanting of an old custom or an 
older race festival maybe attended by as 
serious dangers as the moving of an aged 
tree or person. The destiny of some of 
these foreign ceremonies is a matter of 
genuine concern to such as believe that the 
ultimate composit which we designate 



American, may even now be in the making. 

It is with some such theories in mind, 
that I have been observing the national 
festivals as preserved in our country, and 
have noted the adjustments and trasitions 
occasioned by the new conditions. In pro- 
portion to the length and the propitious- 
ness of stay in America have certain groups 
revived the old time customs. The new 
comers, like those first immigrants, the 
Puritans, do not immediately set up the old 
festival land marks, but self consciously 
wait for what will happen next, sometimes 
rigid under the sense of being different, 
otten reminded of this by the ridicule of 
those longer on the new field, — always 
watching out of the corner of the eye. Only 
when the present good makes the old 
wrongs fade into the past, and when the 
sense of belonging, when the home feeling 
emerges, and when its roots begin to go 
down into the new soil, only then are the 
old stories told again, the old days recalled 
and the good of the old times remembered. 
Then arises the desire for kinship and home- 
geniety, the necessity to be once again with 
those who understand and belong. It is 
then that groups of their own kind get to- 
gether, in Turner Hall or lodge or union, 
forming societies for mutual aid, or recrea- 
tion, or national self-preservation. An open 
air place is christened Waldheim, or Vogel- 
song or Edelweiss, where men may come 
together the way one used to come, when 
there was only one kind, and all of the 
same custom. Many of these life saving 
societies were crude and grotesque even 
vulgar in their methods and were con- 
sidered as Dutch or Irish picnics, by the 
Puritan who also preferred his own kind. 
The children of the earlier settlers called 
the later comers foreigners and nick-named 
them out of all national existence, as Dutch, 
or Micks, or Dagoes. • But the later comers 
in turn also won their spurs, and today the 
boys and girls of our schools are being 
taught the stories, songs, games and the 
poetic merry-making ways which have been 
preserved in our country by means of these 
same picturesque festivals of the foreigners. 
The embers of folk feeling are being in- 
vited to blaze up again, and folk song and 
folk dance are embraced by professional 
and amateur alike, to the credit of the in- 
diginous democracy of our American 
national spirit. 

If Thanksgiving had come at some other 
season of the year, say in the budding time 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



m 



or the time of the harvest moon, who knows 
what out-of-door characteristics may not 
have been developed as appropriate to this 
our greatest national festival. There are 
signs that point to a warming of the somber 
northern social coloring: for instance the 
sober hundreds who are drawn in the win- 
ter months to sport on sunny shores, to 
witness the Marde Gras frivolities or to 
participate in the rose battles and flower 
testa of the Pacific coast. There is no 
mistaking the return of our younger gen- 
eration to the delights of color, song, 
gaiety, even Pagan extravagances. Dur- 
ing the past season there have been pre- 
sented to the public in the name of charity 
many forms of riotous Kirmess, fancy 
dressing and stepping, theatrical posing and 
beauty competitions, which but yesterday 
would have been censured by the church- 
building fathers. The privileges of foreign 
travel abroad and the unavoidable foreign 
contacts at home have modified our provin- 
cialism, until many are turning to revalue 
the customs and celebrations and recrea- 
tions of the European American. 

The great Norwegian national day, 
Frihedsdag, is May 17th and is celebrated 
wherever Norwegians are settled. Out- 
side of 1000-year-old Norway, the most 
extensive festival is held in Chicago, and 
is participated in by the best of 70,000 Nor- 
wegian Americans who on that day, are 
again descendants of viking and explorer, 
as well as "immigrants in a foreign 
country." On that day for twenty years 
there has been singing and dancing and 
merry making because Norway secured a 
constitution and government of her own. 
This independence day which was once an 
end in itself, now becomes the day for Nor- 
wegian tradition, and the renewing of the 
characteristic folk nature which made of 
Norsemen a nation. On this day it is re- 
called that the first occupants of Ireland 
were Norwegians, and that good English 
blood of today is of Norman, Norse, 
descent, and that Liev Erikson was the first 
discoverer of America. 

At day break of May 17th the Norwegian 
colony of Chicago was awakened by the 
music of national hymn and choral as the 
band wagon carried the musicians from 
street to street. In the fatherland this 
same custom prevails, however with the 
far more stirring music of the ringing 
chimes and the Maennerchor and instru- 
ments sounding from the high towers from 



six to eight o'clock in the morning. 

At once preparations are made for the 
chief event of Frihedsdag, the morning pro- 
cession of children. Ten thousand Nor- 
wegian boys and girls assembled at Hum- 
bolt Park, costumed to represent the vari- 
ous provinces of Norway, children from 
six to youths of seventeen join in this his- 
torical procession, each carrying the flag 
of his choice. In the recent May 17th par- 
ade, it was found that 80 per cent, chose 
the Norwegian, the rest the American flag, 
or both. This assembling of the youth was 
witnessed by representative citizens whose 
care it now is to keep the younger genera- 
tion from becoming less and less Nor- 
wegian. In the Fiordland each school has 
its banner or pennant and the entire young- 
er generation (for education is compul- 
sory) marches, school by school, after the 
respective flag. When the national hymn 
was sounded by the band, and the song, 
Ja, vi elsker deete laudet, the entire assem- 
blage arose, and every head was uncovered 
to the sun. The afternoon was given to 
patriotic speaking, national games, athletic 
sports, folk singing and dancing. Three 
Norse Maennerchor assisted the singing, 
carrying the anthems and folk songs 
with a timbre and artistic power worthy the 
Grieg fatherland. I asked a young Nor- 
wegian whether any special proclamation 
ordered the day to be celebrated. He said 
with great warmth of feeling "Every child 
and every adult looks for this day to come 
as you do your 4th of July. It is like the 
sun coming up, — just so, — like the sun it 
can never be kept back any more." 

There is no American provision that I 
know of, by which this holiday is secured 
to the Norwegians. Some have questioned 
whether the foreign born should be en- 
couraged to keep these days, holding that 
it is unAmerican and may even block the 
way to Americanization. Others consider 
that some compromise may be desirable, 
for purposes picturesque as well as poetic. 

One of the oldest festivals of the present 
time is the midsummer national merry 
making of the Swedish people, set for June 
24th. Again no gathering outside the 
native country on this day is so large as 
that held in some one of the Chicago parks. 
Owing to the unavoidable thrift of the hard 
working middle class making up our 175,- 
000 Chicago Swedes, St. John's day is cele- 
brated on the Sunday nearest to the 24th. 
In the old country, where industrial inter- 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



ests are homogenius, the entire population 
is set free for whatever day of the week this 
date may fall. In this country no united 
recognition has as yet been secured for the 
date, and while Sunday is free, many Amer- 
ican and Swedish Methodists withhold 
their co-operation. Nevertheless the Euro- 
pean out-of-door Sunday custom prevails 
to draw the thirty or more thousands to this 
most completely reproduced of old world 
festivals. Family groups are every where 
conspicious, and intoxicants and vulgarities 
are entirely prohibited. 

The fifteenth annual midsummer day 
celebration in Chicago was held last June 
2 ist, and promptly at one o'clock the cus- 
tomary raising of the majestic May pole 
took place. The pole was seventy foot high 
bound with garlands and dressed in 
streamers, great wreaths decorating the 
upper end. 

In the old country each province has a 
different arrangement of the pole decora- 
tions, with various local emblems. The 
Chicago audience being representative of 
many different provinces, has adopted a 
decorative scheme of its own. One great 
wreath is bound toward the top of the 
pole and two others like the arms of 
the cross, on either side. These are inter- 
twined with the Swedish and American 
colors. 

As the pole is raised into place the 
Star Spangled Banner was played in with 
the Potpourri of Swedish national and folk 
songs. Then followed a carefully planned 
program of athletics, singing and dancing 
by various organizations, occupying dif- 
ferent platforms, that the eager thousands 
might be accommodated. Sixteen folk 
dances, representing the traditional dances 
and costumes of the different provinces ot 
Sweden were a highly applauded feature 
of the program. Some of the dancers are 
from the old country, some are now Chi- 
cago business men and their wives, notably 
members of the Philochorus Society, or- 
ganized fifteen years ago in Chicago for the 
definite purpose of preserving in full detail 
the folk games and dances of the old time. 
There was a wonderful exactness of move- 
ment and yet freedom of fine physiques 
which elicited continuous applause. Many 
of the dances were pantomine figures, tell- 
ing of courting, attracting and repelling, 
winning and losing, and competing against 
odds and carrying off the bride. In it all 
there was a clearness of good story telling 



and a purity of natural feeling and straight 
forward exhibition of the old law that the 
fittest shall be victor. It was on a level 
with epic poetry and bold saga, and as such 
was a delight to the lover ot the classic, of 
whatever nationality. The Viking band 
vied with the Iduna and the North Star. 

Midsommabrud was carried out in all 
the traditional detail, and proved to be 
not merely a pretty affair, but one that had 
a uniquely democratic fair-play purpose. 
Out of the great assembly six men were 
named, men of family, each of whom was 
responsible to nominate two married 
women who selected two of the most beau- 
tiful young women present, making twenty- 
four, probably all strangers to each other, 
possibly never having met until the after- 
noon of the festival. (How impossible this 
in the old country). These selected from 
their own number the loveliest of all and 
proclaimed her the "Midsommabrud." 
Standing tall and calm, surrounded by her 
twenty-three generous peers, all wreathed 
and decorated, she was crowned and gar- 
landed and formally presented with the 
customary gold medal. This medal is of 
handsome and elaborate workmanship, 
having from time immemorial the same de- 
sign of the Swedish arms, — the Chicago 
medal having added the stars and stripes. 
This annual crowning of the queen took 
place at four o'clock and thousands in his- 
torical as well as modern holiday costume 
gathered to witness the brilliant spectacle. 

There is a coherence in the audience of 
these national groups, a spirit of fellowship 
and patriotism which is substantial and 
solid and staid, almost devout, that differs 
much from the firecracker enthusiasm of 
young America. Recollections of the old 
home, regrets for the impulse which broke 
the old ties, disillusionment, hard, pioneer 
days and deferred hopes, — are all mingled 
in the revival of the national day on the 
far western prairie. And it is not unusual 
that a telegram of greeting is forwarded to 
the King of the fatherland and an answer 
returned by his majesty to the people wait- 
ing in the Chicago park. 

During the past three years the Hun- 
garian population of Chicago has grown 
from three to thirty thousand, chiefly from 
so-called working class to our day labor 
class. These are in solid earnest to acquire 
the language, the wage and the rights of 
American citizenship. The Hungarian's 
birthright is a demand for political freedom, 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



15* 



and every day laborer is more or less of a 
political agitator for this higher idea, — 
Hungarian National life. March 15th was 
celebrated in Chicago by thousands of Hun- 
garians, many of them for the first time 
away from their beautiful home country. 
This is the national day, to commemorate 
the high demands of the committee of '48 
for constitutional liberty, and is held in 
honor with that iooo year old St. Stephen's 
day, which marks the anniversary of relig- 
ious liberty. Two large celebrations were 
held in Chicago last March, by these sturdy 
patriots, one for the factory hands and the 
laborers of the outlying districts, and one 
in the heart of the city. The latter was 
conducted by the Hungarian Singing and 
Titerary Society, a group of young people 
who are pledged to preserve in tact and 
enjoy their mother tongue, national music 
and literature. 

How often it is the singing society of 
the foreign peoples which carries the ark of 
their covenant safely through the wilder- 
ness. 

The Hungarian national spirit has a 
cumulative intensity, unparalled by that of 
any other living race today. It broke out 
into ardent applause and continuous cheers 
as the Hungarian speaker outlined the pur- 
pose of the celebration. At the naming of 
Tois Kossuth, and the American sympathy 
extended to him in the fifties, patriotism 
flamed high, the audience shouting and 
cheering and stamping in one great burst 
of feeling. One of the leading dramatic 
members then read Talpra Madgar, the re- 
sponse of the audience reminding one of 
the excited Amens and gesticulations of a 
revival meeting. Prayer, home longings 
and stubborn determinations were all ex- 
pressed in the rendering of the national 
hymn, a composition which a young Hun- 
garian said is "so sad, you see, because it 
stands for all the history of our people." 
Then came folk dancing, the inevitable 
climax of the folk festival. The Hungarian 
Czardas, which has seldom been seen in 
our country, is the wildest and most tor- 
nado-like of all folk dances. It well repre- 
sents the letting loose from bonds a once 
free and irresistibly powerful spirit. The 
unbridled fury of rhythm and movement 
are accompanied by violins which pour out 
in one harmony defiance and tears and 
heart touching tenderness as only Hun- 
garian raphsodies may do. It is doubtful 
whether the Czardas may ever be repro- 
duced by imitation folk dancers. 



It exhibits a cumulative force of feeling 
and motor accompaniment scarcely to be 
acquired in a single generation. There 
would be as great a difference in power as 
that which exists between the epic com- 
posers and the amateur performers of the 
great raphsodies, which we Americans have 
long since loved. That such a native 
dance is a matter of deep reality is made 
plain by the profound reaction upon all who 
behold. A folk dance is far from a thing to 
amuse or to entertain, or to make graceful 
those who crave novelty. A significant in- 
stinct keeps those who have the primal gift 
of the dance reluctant to come before 
strange companies. L,et the imitation folk 
dancer try stepping the sod instead of the 
dancing floor, and discover what a vastly 
different set of co-ordinations are required 
and then he or she will gain a little notion 
of the heroic muscling of the Morris 
dancers who without losing step passed 
from village to village along the high road. 

Over three thousand Hungarians cele- 
brated Midsummer day, Aug. 2nd, which 
date is arranged entirely to suit American 
climate and conditions, and again there was 
play and sport, and games, which combine 
pantomine with dance. It is a heroic and 
over-whelming fact, that so many thous- 
ands, over-worked, numbed with livelihood 
getting and gnarled with physical and 
political burdens, still play, or seek the 
appearance of leisure and recreation, — on 
one or barely two holidays which even an 
American industrialism may not take away 
from them. Play is indeed freedom from 
economic pressure, — and it is in his play 
that the soul of the immigrant grows to the 
more stately purposes of the land of the 
free, — the house of the brave. 

And during our interviews in Chicago the 
groups have each in turn reminded the 
writer, that certain of their national athletes 
won honors at the London Olympian games. 
It is also noteworthy that the so-called 
American delegation alone comprised 
Anglo-Saxon, Teuton, Slav, Celt, Black 
Ethiopian and red Indian, while Finnish 
atheletes refused to be classed as Russians 
and the Irish regretted having to be listed as 
British, upon an occasion which placed na- 
tional prowess on record before all the 
world. 

Again Aug. 15th, less than a month ago, 
the Irish Americans of Chicago celebrated 
the 300th anniversary of Yellow Ford, 



*52 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



when Hugh O'Neill, the Prince of Ulster, 
routed the English in 1598. Just to hear an 
older Irishman tell the romantic story of 
this folk hero stirs to the uttermost ones 
vascular system, how must those feel who 
have inherited the patriotic fire and admira- 
tion for a dozen generations when they keep 
this holiday. Hugh O'Neill was held as a 
captive at the English court but was raised 
to high honor and titles by the queen, and 
counted as a subject. At last his heart 
answers to his own and he returns to his 
Ulster tribesmen and led them on to victory 
against the English invaders Aug. 10th, 
1598, and the following year Ballaghby was 
won. The commemoration of these two 
victories, together with Blessed Virgin 
Eady Day in Harvest, drew the United Irish 
Societies, the Irish Nationalists and the 
Clana-Gael to the green wood of Brands 
and other Chicago parks. The speeches 
were greeted with old Gaellic as well as 
United States, English shouts, and over- 
whelming enthusiasm streamed from the 
multitudes, — not because the particular 
words were so stirring, but because this 
fervor of patriotism and nationalism had 
been conserved for the great and appro- 
priate day. One of these gatherings was 
presided over by a brother of an Irish 
Parliament member, another was addressed 
by Hugh O'Neill, a direct descendant of the 
Ulster hero. Brands park was the scene of 
one of the greatest jig and step-dancing 
contests ever held in this country. The 
competitors were James Coleman and John 
Ryan, masters of old country step dancing 
from Ireland, they held the boards until 
every drop of Gaellic blood rose up and 
joined in the rhythm. Now indeed the bed 
rock of national sentiment was reached. 
The fineness of poise, the muscular preci- 
sion, the purity and deftness of movement 
of these experts can scarcely be described. 
Another program offered the Irish horn- 
pipe, danced by two young girls, where 
again was to be noted as conspicuous the 
exactitude and yet abandoned of the whole 
body the rapid rhythm, and again the 
accompanying nodding, stepping and clap- 
ping of hundreds throughout the audience. 
Nor was this enough, but there must be 
competitions between the dancing teams, 
of St. Eouis and Chicago, an athletic sport 
just being re-discovered by the teachers of 
men gymnastics. 

These are but brief glimpses of the festi- 
vals of the larger foreign groups which 



make up our international American city, 
merely indicating the historic or nature in- 
cident winch lies tathoms deep in their 
group lite. If there were time it would be 
interesting to witness the crude pageant of 
tne Sicilian colony, when the side streets 
and alleys blossom out with lanterns and 
decorations, the venders of useless and gay 
novelties make their way through the holi- 
day dressed crowds, all excited to tiie 
higliest pitch of patois talk and gesture, 
— or to go down Clark street wiien the 
Chinese JNew Year's celebration is in full 
and picturesque swing, when every store- 
iront may be mistaken for a Joss temple, 
wiien all debts are cancelled and every- 
body's birthday is celebrated in one glori- 
ous natal day. Or walk the endless 
lauarynth of the Jewish market into which 
rassover turns the streets and curbs off the 
gnetto, when every household must be 
punned and burnished; or the Eithuanian 
music festival, when a complete opera in 
the native language and music is rendered, 
in which hundreds of these high minded 
exsiavs participate, when, forgetting the 
Polish, Russian and Prussian reins tor a 
moment, revive their folk life in the heart 
of Chicago; or come out on Scotland's day 
in August, when the Chicago Caledonians 
go witn their families to the forests and fill 
whole long midsummer day with folk games 
and dances and cricket, and merry dronings 
of the old old bag pipe. Or to Elliott s 
park with the Svitmod Singing Society, to 
witness the initial out-door performance of 
an historical drama of the period of 1435 
and 36 of Swedish history. 

Then there are the Welsh folk to be 
noted, who with Chicago, as a center have 
held their great national Estedfod in our 
country. These are some of the higher 
pleasure forms growing out of the once 
crude and often unseemly picnic. 

It is the annual Play Festival of Chicago 
which brings together on one city green, 
as it were into one great concert program 
all these variously significant national 
games, dances, sports, physical and athletic 
accomplishments of her people without 
money and without price. The participa- 
tion is all voluntary and noncompetitive and 
group after group contributes its event with 
a democratic zest which bids fair to produce 
the most cosmopolitan festival ever held in 
any time. 

And so these unique freedom festivals 
with their enduring significance to great 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



*53 



peoples, are being transplanted one by one, 
to American Commons, and may they con- 
tinue to be celebrated by the tests of 
prowess, of physical freedom and the 
developing emulations of song, oratory, 
dance, and patriotic loyalty, for these are 
the credits which admit a people to the 
great battle royal of all times and tides, 
tne contest for the survival of the iittest. 

L,ike Chicago our entire nation may 
never reach homogeneity but we have 
today the opportunity to preserve some of 
the nnest traits of international life and to 
develop a higher variety of cosmopolitan- 
ism which would seem to be America's 
destiny. 

LETTERS TO A KINDERGARTNER. 
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE 

MORNING (JlKCLE. 

My dear young Teacher: Your enthu- 
siastic response to my proposed plan to 
concentrate our efforts upon problems of 
organization in the kindergarten is encour- 
aging; so we will at once consider the or- 
ganization of the morning circle. 

From the moment when the children be- 
gin to assemble in kindergarten, the im- 
mediate conditions must be controlled with 
a view to establishing that atmosphere of 
mutual good will which is a primary condi- 
tion of success. The personal greeting 
between child and teacher; the timely re- 
quests for assistance in the care of the 
room and preparation of work; the pro- 
vision for play with toys; free blackboard 
space for drawing; a miscellaneous collec- 
tion of blocks for building; a doll house — 
which is an ever new means of contented, 
co-operative play, — all these tend to create 
an atmosphere of harmony, so that the 
kindly voice of the teacher or a familiar 
strain from the piano will suffice to bring 
the children happily to the morning circle. 
A moment spent in seeing that each child 
is comfortably seated, that the light is ad- 
justed, that hands are free from trinkets, 
is time well spent. 

If the children assemble in a rollicking 
spirit, do not enter at once upon hymn and 
prayer, but lead them carefully until 
thought and feeling are consonant with the 
true spirit of prayer; otherwise the exer- 
cise will degenerate into a formal habit 
that has not even the grace of reverence to 
condone its lack of spirituality. Prayer 
and hymn should express the related feed- 
ing and emotion, even though understand- 



ing be limited. Here, music, speaking a 
language more subtle than words, may 
come to your aid. You may play for the 
children some such measure as Men- 
delssohn's Spring Song, moving from this 
into music of a more quiet nature — such 
as some of the shorter pieces of Schumann 
— until the spirit is attuned to prayer. Or, 
beginning with the greeting songs and 
plays, you may lead through song, activity, 
and conversation, toward a thoughtful 
appreciation of the good and pleasant 
things we share, until that moment of 
readiness comes when thought and feeling 
find true expression in prayer and hymn. 
The former course is the easier; but the 
latter is a higher form of the teacher's 
power and art. 

It is in the early morning period that the 
child's mind is most susceptible; hence it 
is the time for story telling and the pre- 
sentation of songs and poems. The morn- 
ing circle should never degenerate into a 
mere rehearsal of songs, the result of 
capricious choices of individual children. 
Because a song or game is chosen by a 
child, it need not necessarily be made the 
center of collective interest or expression. 
Again, the teacher may be too prominent. 
Imbued with the largeness or beauty of 
the experience she would present, she is 
unmindful that the elements of the selec- 
tion are within the collective experience of 
the group, and that she should draw out 
these fragments of experience and gather 
them into the whole which she would 
present. Too often the morning circle is 
made up of listening children only, recep- 
tive, and happy in their receptivity; but 
such a condition deprives the child of his 
right to be a contributing agent in an ex- 
ercise that should be essentially social. 
The morning circle should give oppor- 
tunities for the development of language 
power through its descriptive and expres- 
sive forms, and for the experiencing with 
others of the child's own age the situations 
and interests that belong to his own world. 
Watch, then, that the balance of self-activ- 
ity be contributed by the children rather 
than the teacher. 

A constant appeal should be made to 
activity. The morning circle may, very 
properly, become the arena for developing 
and perfecting models of activity to be 
used again under the freer conditions of the 
play circle. There is a tendency to encour- 
age the use of inferior models, due to the 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



belief that the initiative of the children 
should be utilized. I believe this also; but 
to be satisfied with this, is to remain upon 
a low plane of expression. It is imperative 
that each model set for the child shall con- 
form to the highest standards ; since, 

"Beginning with life, but knowing not as yet 
Even the letters of its alphabet 
He imitates each pattern set." 

No teacher can afford to trust to chance 
that her own activities, under the inspira- 
tion of the moment, will exemplify either* 
truth or beauty. Each new thought pre- 
sented is sure to call forth motor responses 
from the children. It is incumbent on 
the teacher to know what the rational re- 
sponses will be, and to practice and perfect 
these activities as a part of her preparatory 
work, since she must sometimes set the 
model. Again, some child will represent 
an activity with a grace and fidelity that 
are the very embodiment of truth and art. 
Here imitation enters, enabling each child 
to repeat the activity and grace of another, 
while through repetition and variation the 
developmental possibilities of each play 
may be realized. The fact that the children 
are comfortably seated makes the morning 
circle an ideal place for the dramatization of 
stories and rhymes. It may also be the 
place for delightful picture study or a close 
observation of objects, expressive or illus- 
trative of interests emphasized in the gen- 
eral program. Not all these interests and 
activities may be present in a single morn- 
ing. They are so many and varied that 
each morning circle may be fresh, delight- 
ful and unique. 

I have indicated the external aspects of 
the morning circle; but underneath its joy- 
ousness and play are fundamental prin- 
ciples of great dignity which the kinder- 
garten shares with all educational en- 
deavor. These principles are gathered 
from philosophy, psychology, physiology, 
sociology, aesthetics, and religion. This 
may seem a formidable array of large 
words, but nevertheless you must know 
that these are sources which furnish the 
sanctions for the morning circle, and 
should not only direct the selection of in- 
terests, but suggest the manner of conduct- 
ing the exercise. Let me indicate briefly 
some very simple ways in which each 
element is present in your work. 

Philosophy seeks to unify life in all its 
manifestations and meanings. The little 
child is a seeker after truth. His every 



thought and act is to unify his own life with 
that of the world in which he lives. The 
very form of your 'circle and the blending, 
umiymg agencies which you use are so 
many aids to the child's quest. The intel- 
lectual nurture that the morning circle 
affords through the presentation and repre- 
sentation of experience, has back of it the 
psychological reasons and activities which 
lilted humanity above the plane of animal 
life. When you make the conditions of 
your circle compatible with physical well- 
uemg; when you give free opportunity for 
physical activity; when you aid the young 
child in securing control of his body as the 
instrument of his mind and will, — you have 
back of your efforts the physiological 
sanctions which demand a sound body as 
the temple for the indwelling of a sound 
mind and an immortal soul. The sociologi- 
cal influences are present in the morning 
circle when you recognize the essentially 
social nature of the child, and that his life 
can unfold in none other than a social 
medium. When you provide opportunities 
for the exercise of social intelligence, social 
good will, and social efficiency, you are or- 
ganizing the child's world of the kinder- 
garten on the basis of that spirit, which in 
the world of human affairs we now name 
Universal Brotherhood. The aesthetic 
sanctions are an outgrowth of the social 
spirit which demand graciousness, cour- 
tesy, kindliness and beauty of expression, 
and action one toward another. And 
finally, through all the morning circle 
should run that thread of spirituality which 
lifts the exercise above mere material 
things, and nurtures the spirit none the less 
truly because unconsciously. 

Y our morning circle may be the most 
beautiful demonstration of the law of unity 
which the Froebel system affords. It is 
but a step from this law to the process of 
its realization, which is self-activity. It 
is the blending of the conscious self-activity 
of the teacher with the naive, unconscious 
self-activity of the little children, that gives 
to the morning circle its greatest value. 

It is because I believe that the morning circle 
affords the highest opportunities for growth, that 
I urge you to give to it your best thought. I be- 
lieve that it should give the point of departure for 
the entire morning by suggesting the common 
thought and action content for subsequent exer- 
cises; but, more than this, I believe that by means 
of the morning circle there should be created that 
psychic climate which makes the kindergarten a 
veritable child garden. 

Faithfully yours, 

HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



155 



Olive Oil. — The finest olive oil in the world 
is grown in Tuscany — the garden of Italy. 

The trees blossom in Tuscany in the 
month of May. The fruit begins to ripen 
in November and is generally in full 
maturity by January. 

It is a risky crop, maturing as it does dur- 
ing winter weather. A cold snap with frost 
may cause great damage to the fruit. 

Sometimes the fruit remains on the trees 
till May, yielding a pale, very thin oil, 
appreciated in some quarters, but which 
speedily develops rancidity. 

The process of extracting the oil is 
simple in the extreme ; the fruit is first 
crushed in a mill to a uniform paste, then 
the paste is transferred to circular bags or 
receptacles made of vegetable fibre. A pile 
of these are placed in a press and the 
exuding oil flows into a tank below. 

Essential conditoins are that the mill 
should not revolve too fast, or it will over- 
heat the olive paste and give a bad flavor to 
the oil ; that the bed of the mill should not 
be of metal for the same reason. 

Also the degree of pressure, when the 
object is to get the finest quality of oil — 
"oil from the pulp" as the term runs — must 
not be excessive. The finest olive oil is 
essentially a cold drawn oil. Heat is 
prejudicial to quality. 

However, when all possible care has been 
taken in the process the fact remains that 
olive oil can be made only from freshly 
gathered, perfectly sound, ripe olives of 
the proner kind. The big fat olives of hot, 
subtropical climates can never yield a deli- 
cately flavored oil. 

The newly made oil must be allowed to 
settle. It is then clarified simply by passing 
it through purified cotton wool in a suitable 
filter. Really fine olive oil calls for no 
other treatment whatever, chemical or 
otherwise, to render it fit for the table. On 
this point it is as well to be clear, as refer- 
ence has been made before now to pro- 
cesses of refining olive oil so as to obtain 
a specially fine quality — one might as well 
try to "paint the lily or adorn the rose !" 

After being brought to America, the 
clarified oil is preserved in warehouses in 
large slate lined tanks, holding up to 20,- 
000 gallons each, wherein the oil is main- 
tained at an equable temperature. For 
bottling and can filling purposes it is trans- 
ferred bv pipes from these large tanks to 
other smaller tanks in the packing rooms. — 
Exchange. 



PROGRAM IDEAS FOR FEBRUARY. 

BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

February brings the birthdays of Ameri- 
ca's two most eminent presidents and also 
the day that brings valentines to the little 
people — offering thus several points of de- 
parture for the kindergarten program. 

From the home as a center, at the begin- 
ning of the school year, the subject-matter 
has widened out to include the workers in 
field and forest; and those who serve in 
doing faithful work in the various neces- 
sary occupations under the general caption 
"trades;" several festivals have been cele- 
brated and this month we may naturally 
consider those who serve us as employees 
of the State, the postman, the fireman, etc., 
leading up to higher and higher forms of 
service to the soldier, the knight, symbolic 
of the "hero" who gives his life, if need be, 
for his country — his flag — that symbol of 
all that is great and good and worthy our 
deepest love and reverence — embracing 
home, state, church. 

In the kindegarten the work of the post- 
man, the fireman, the policeman are among 
the subjects taken up — their service to us 
and our obligations to them. The "post- 
man" co-ordinates naturally with St. Val- 
entine's Day in the early part of the month. 
The study of the "knights" finds a natural 
climax in America's great heroic figure of 
Washington, whose birthday comes late in 
the month. But this year the thought of 
the nation is centering around Lincoln, the 
centenary of whose birth falls on February 
12. As he will be very much talked about 
in all homes and as the spirit of the cele- 
bration should be contagious, let us help 
the little children to catch something of the 
glow of love and gratitude all feel for the 
great, wise, merciful President. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN CENTENARY. 

Lincoln's character, life and achieve- 
ments form such a noble heritage that we 
must guard against making it commonplace 
or an "old story" by too frequent repetition 
in the schools. A study of his life belongs 
best to the High School, the hero-worship- 
ing age. But this year being the centennial 
of his birth we may well choose such inci- 
dents in that life as make their appeal to 
childhood and seek to have them become 
a part of the little child's life. We will 
mention a few such. The teacher may seek 
out others in any good biography — and of 



156 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



these incidents may select such as will best 
meet the needs of her particular group of 
children. We refer especially to "The 
Boy's Life of Lincoln," by Helen Nicolay; 
Ida Tarbell's notable biography, and "The 
True Story of Abraham Lincoln," by 
Elbridge S. Brooks. It is pleasant to 
record that the later biographers find that 
Thomas Lincoln, the father, was not the 
lazy, shiftless man that he has been so 
often painted. 

Tell something of Lincoln's boyhood. 
The simple cabin in which he was born; 
one-roomed, one-windowed, having only 
one door, and a big chimney outside. When 
Abraham was four years of age, the family 
moved ; a few years later moved still far- 
ther away. They lived in the mysterious 
forest where wolves, catamounts, part- 
ridges, coons and deer might frequentlv be 
shot. 

In all his life the boy had, all told, but 
one year of school, learning only to read, 
write and cipher. But he knew by heart 
many parts of the Bible, i^Esops Fables, 
and the Pilgrim's Progress. 

Tell of the good mother who died when 
the boy was ten years old and of the good 
stepmother that loved and helped him so 
much. 

How was this boy of the wilderness 
clothed? He dressed in linsey-woolsev 
shirt, buckskin breeches, coon-skin cap with 
a tail behind and heavy shoes — though 
often barefoot. 

He read all books that he could borrow. 
One time he borrowed a famous book 
"Weem's Life of Washington." He put it 
on a shelf in the cabin, and from this it 
slipped to a crack between the logs and was 
soaked by the rain. To pay for it. Abra- 
ham Lincoln worked three days for the 
farmer who owned it. Thus he bought his 
first book. (This story might be good to 
reserve for some occasion when a child 
mav be seen using a book carelessly). 

Lincoln grew to be very tall — six feet 
four, when only eighteen years old. He 
could outrun, outwalk, outwrestle all com- 
oetitors. He could split rails, mow the fields 
and do all kinds of chores. He was 
awkward, thin, homely, but A^erv popular 
because always ready to do a kind act, and 
f o tell a jolly story — always good-natured, 
brave, honest. 

He read, read, read whenever he could 
?et a chance. He had no fairy-tales, or 
story books, but each book read seemed to 



help him to make a man of himself. He 
tried to remember what he read. His 
"slate" was a wooden shingle or the back 
of the wooden fire-shovel on which he 
would write, practicing sums and then 
shaving them off, or saving those shingles 
on which something precious had been 
written. 

Two books of the imagination, Young 
Lincoln did read, viz. : "^Esop's Fables" and 
the "Arabian Nights." How much they 
must have meant to this mind that so often 
expressed itself in parables ! 

Lincoln was very kind-hearted, and 
gentle toward any weak or helpless 
creature. Once, when riding dressed in his 
best, ready to make a call, he heard a pig 
squealing, caught in the mire. He rode on. 
but looking back, the wee bright eyes of the 
pig looked at him so despairingly that he 
jumped from his horse and got it out. 

When a boy he tried to make some boys 
stop tormenting some terrapins and wrote 
a composition on cruelty to animals which 
made his companions ashamed. 

Another time he was traveling with sev- 
eral others on important business and 
passed two birds that had fallen from the 
nest. He looked a long time for the nest 
and put the little ones safely back with the 
mother, despite the laughter of his friends. 
Another time he saw a poor old man chop- 
ping up an old hut that was to be split into 
kindling wood. He was to get a dollar for 
this work, with which he meant to buy 
shoes, for he was barefoot although the dav 
was cold. Lincoln told the man to go in 
and warm himself and he swung the axe 
and soon had the hut down and chopped 
into kindling, so that the man had his dol- 
lar and shoes. 

He found two law books once in the bot- 
tom of a barrel of trash and when he began 
to read these he determined to become a 
lawver. 

Once when a clerk in a grocery store he 
found, after he had sold a woman some tea 
that the scales had not worked right and 
so he walked a long distance after her to 
g"ive her what was due. Another time he 
found he had not given a purchaser the full 
amount of change — about six cents — and 
so he took the trouble to take it to her. He 
never was verv rich but always rejoiced in 
knowing that the people called him 
"Honest Abe." He hated swearing and 
bad language. Once, when he was Presi- 
dent, a man was highly recommended for 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



157 



a certain office, but he swore twice in the 
course of an interview. The President 
then opened the door. "I thought the sen- 
ator had sent me a gentleman. I find I am 
mistaken. There is the door, sir. Good- 
evening!" he said. (Tell this story to boys 
who think it manly to swear, at the same 
time telling them the story of the "Glen 
Clary Boys." See any biography, to show 
how brave Lincoln was). 

He became famous in time as a man who 
would never try to defend a guilty man, but 
was always ready to help the weak and un- 
popular if he felt that he was right. He 
would tell the truth even if it kept him from 
being elected to positions he would like. 
Finally he became President of the United 
States, because the people trusted him. 
Then an awful war broke out but he was 
wise and patient and just and gentle, 
though stern if necessary, and at last the 
war ended and then an insane man shot the 
eood President and even his enemies wept 
bitter tears feeling that their best friend 
was gone. Tell of the long funeral train 
from Washington to Springfield. The mil- 
lions of weeping people. Tell how from 
year to year more and more books are 
written, tellinsf of the good President. 
"Honest Abe," "Father Abraham," and 
how this year manv memorials of him have 
been suggested. Some suggest a monu- 
ment, some a public building, some a splen- 
did road that will last for ages and always 
be of use to men. What do you think 
would be a p"ood way to show love for him ? 
He lived and died to make our country bet- 
ter and safer ; our cities better and safer. 
Shall we show with our blocks a beautiful 
monument? Shall we construct with them 
a beautiful library or park or public hall? 
Shall we make a fine road in miniature in 
the sand-box. first with foundation of 
pebbles, then sand, then blocks laid firmlv 
and evenly? Shall we try to keep our city 
beautiful by not throwing paper and skins 
in the street? Shall we work hard in 
school: shall we be quiet and helpful in 
the public libraries, never annoying the 
librarian, but thinking of how Abraham 
Lincoln would have rejoiced to use the 
books that are free to us. Shall we always 
try to keep the laws of library, school, city 
and country, the country that Abraham 
Lincoln loved and worked and died for? 
This erives opportunity for loving work 
with Gifts. 



Read Tom Taylor's poem on Lincoln 
originally published in 1865 in London 
Punch. It can be found in "Literary of 
Poetry and Song." 

POSTMAN. 

If father or mother leaves us to go on a 
long journey how may we know if they 
reach their destination safely? How may 
we let them know that all is going well at 
home? We can write a letter. How send 
it? Country children may take it in person 
to the village post-office and there also re- 
ceive the letter sent by mother. Or they 
may give it to the rural delivery postman 
who will also put the return letter in the 
rural delivery box. 

The city child may put it in the post-box, 
whence it will be taken by the postman to 
the big branch postoffice where it is classi- 
fied, state by state, city by city, and thence 
taken to the main office whence it goes by 
big safe wagons to the train. 

In the central postoffice where the second 
class matter (magazines, etc.) is dis- 
tributed, huge sacks representing the dif- 
ferent States stand on end and a man tosses 
into these the bundles meant for them. 
They are supposed to have had a prelimin- 
ary classification at the publishers', who 
must send them to the postoffice duly 
labelled. 

Speak of the various means of transport- 
ing the mails in different parts of the world. 
In Berlin is a museum, the "Post Museum," 
which shows models of hundreds of vehicles 
and other means used to carry messages. 
Here may be seen models of those who run 
on foot : of two-wheeled and four-wheeled 
carriages; of sledges, etc., camels, mules, 
elephants and other animals, also carrier- 
pigeons. Tell of the pigeons which fly 
hundreds of miles back to their homes and 
because of this "homing instinct" can be 
used to carry messages tied to them. Often 
seen on valentines. 

Inquire of the children some of the im- 
portant qualities needed by the mail-carrier 
— courage, fidelity, punctuality, etc. 

What are our obligations to him? How 
can we help him? By prompt attendance 
at sound of his bell: by patience if mistakes 
are made: bv writing the address clearly 
and fullv on envelope or wrapper. (Here 
is. a point for primary teachers to consider. 
Train your class to write addresses fullv 
and distinctly, both on writing paper and 
envelope. Business people are greatly an- 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



noyed and delayed by careless correspon- 
dents wh ) write without giving address and 
then complain because no reply is given. 
It is never safe to write any letter without 
the address as it saves your friend the 
trouble of looking it up in an address book. 
Also, train, your children to always enclose 
a stamp when writing a letter requiring a 
reply) If wrapping up a package to go 
through the mails we will make it neat and 
compact so as to be easily handled. 

Tell that Abraham Lincoln was once 
postman in the scattered village in which 
he lived — New Salem. 

Apropos of the subject of the "Postman" 
let all teachers read the following extract 
from Postmaster General Meyer's circular 
letter to all United States postmasters sent 
with a view to secure co-operation of the 
public school teachers in instructing chil- 
dren as to the operation of the postal 
service. 

"These instructions should cover such features 
of the service as the delivery of the mails, the 
classification of mail matter, the registry and 
money order system, and particularly the proper 
addressing of letters and the importance of plac- 
ing return cards on envelopes. Postmasters 
should arrange, if possible, to deliver personal talks 
to the pupils on these subjects and should give the 
teachers access to the Postal Guide and the Postal 
Laws and Regulations and render them every 
assistance in securing necessary information." 

GAME. 

i. Draw six ellipses on the floor, thus, 




and Little Folks. How disappointing if 
the man should toss a Pennsylvania bundle 
into a California bag. 

FIRST GIFT. 

1. Place in a row the six colored balls. 
Have ready some postage stamps of dif- 
ferent denominations and let the children 
match the colors. Speak of the value 
represented — one, two, three cents, etc. 

2. Put baskets or boxes on the table and 
toss the balls (magazines) into these. 

SECOND GIFT. 

Let the children choose which part of 
the mail service their box, with its contents, 
will represent — the city mail wagon ; the 
country stage ; the mail train. If the train, 
the box may be the engine ; the cylinder the 
smoke stack, the cubes the mail cars. The 
sphere may be the express-rider's post 
horse that gallops down to meet the train 
and carry the mail through the mountains. 

The sphere, cylinder and cube may also 
be transformed into lamp posts with the 
letter box attachment, while the additional 
cube represents the box for packages and 
magazines. 

THIRD AND FOURTH GIFTS. 

Build mail wagons, trains, postoffice, etc. 
We give pictorial suggestions for series 




with chalk, measuring 1x2 feet and about 
three inches apart. Play these are the 
openings of the mail bags and let the chil- 
dren toss the magazines (bean-bags) into 
them. Label the ellipses New York, 
Chicago, Buffalo, etc. 

2. Let several children stand in a line, 
each extending his arms and clasping his 
hands so as to form with them a circle. 
This represents the mail bag. Let another 
child toss the bean-bags into the circle. 
(The bags will of course fall to the floor). 
Think of all the children in all the different 
cities who are eagerly awaiting St. Nicholas 




3 



3 3-Wagon 

with Fourth Gift, representing (1) Child's 
home; (2) postoffice, with stamp and 
money order windows, of five blocks, and 
mail box of three blocks. (3) Postoffice of 
seven blocks showing especially the plat- 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



159 



form in the rear where all the wagons draw 
up to receive and deposit their loads. 




genes of "Beauty Forms " with Fourth Gift as suggestion for 
memorial in form of fountain, with benches, or music stand. 

FIFTH AND SIXTH GIFTS. 

Build beautiful postoffice structures. An 
essential part of the exterior is the platform 
for the use of the mail brought by the 
wagons. When the fine main postoffice of 
a large city was to be built, its designing 
was put into the hands, we are told, of a 
man who had never before planned a post- 
office. He did not make himself familiar 
with the needed details and did not allow 
for the platform referred to. This neglect 
spoiled the efficiency of the costly structure 
and an inclined roadway had to be made 
to run beneath the building at great incon- 
venience to all concerned. Let the children 
feel that patriotism demands that all such 
public work should be put into the hands 
of competent, honest, faithful people. 

CLAY. 

Mold horses, camels, elephants and other 
animals employed in transporting the mails. 

CARDBOARD MODELING. 

Letter Boxes of Cardboard 

Let each child cut out several oblongs 
measuring 1x4^ inches. Bend at the inch 
lines at right angles and it will be found 
that l / 2 inch -overlaps. Paste this down. 



side, to make a row of letter boxes at the 
postoffice. Upon this row glue another 
row, until enough have been made so that 
each child has a box. Play sending dif- 
ferent ones to get their imaginary letters. 
Were they all distinctly addressed? Tell 
the children about the Dead-letter Office 
at Washington and the great cost to the 
country because people are ignorant or 
careless about the addresses. Only one 
kind of living animal mav be sent through 
the United States mails, and that is a 
Queen Bee. 

Old stamps may be used to represent 
letters and put into the tiny boxes. The 
children may be thus given a color lesson 
and one in recognizing figures. 

The glued together letter boxes may 
afterwards be glued to a common founda- 
tion and used as seed boxes. 

PAPER-CUTTING AND FOLDING. 

Out of ordinary brown paper, cut a piece 
on plan of diagram here shown. Fold on 




Diagram for mail-carrier's knapsack, 

the dotted lines and paste together the 
three straight-edged flaps. The curved one 
forms the top of mail carrier's bag. Attach 
a cord and let the child dramatize the post- 
man who goes through rain and hail and 
snow to bring to us our letters and valen- 
tines. , J'! ■ ! J' 

VALENTINES. 

1. A simple valentine can be made by 
cutting a heart of red paper and attaching 
to the center of this a scrap picture of a 
flower, a dove, etc., by a narrow piece of 
paper folded back and forth several times 
to make a spring, thus : 



Letter Boxes of Cardboard. 

Glue a number of these together, side by 



2. Take a small square of gold or silver 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



paper. Make a fold of 
opposite sides, thus: 



inch from two open envelope; (7) closed envelope; (8) 
sailboat. (See illustrations). To the 
primary grade teacher we would say that 
each of these objects is based upon the folds 
of the one preceding. The envelope can 
be fastened with scrap picture after valen- 
tine is inside. 



This gives an oblong, with two flaps. Upon 
the flaps paste lace paper saved from toilet 
soap boxes or paper doilies. This gives 
two lacy doors. Beneath these paste some 
dainty, appropriate scrap picture. If no 
lace paper is at hand let the children make 
their own of tissue paper. Fold the tissue 
paper several times upon itself and then 
cut tiny holes, triangles, circles, etc. Open 
out, and the effect should be very pretty 
after some skill has been attained. 

Let the children fold envelopes into 
which to put their valentines. The kinder- 
garten "beauty forms" of paper folding 
may be turned into valentines by pasting 
appropriate pictures at center and corners. 

The triangular series II of paper-folding 
co-ordinates well with the postofflc'e sub- 
ject matter. It starts off with the (1) 
square, foundation of postoffice ; (2) the 




Foundation of P. O. 



Shawl or plaid. 





shawl (plaid) worn by the Scotch mail 
carrier; (3) sail made by the sailmaker to 
send the mail boat over the waters ; (4) 
the sailboat; (5) the snow-shoe which helps 








Snowshoe Envelope Envelope Sailboat 

the Canadian speed over the snow; (6) the 



NATURE STUDY IN THE HOME. 

BY THE REV. THORNLEY, M. A. 

Nature Study the Children's Study. 

Nature study is par excellence the chil- 
dren's study. Miss Mason, the founder of 
the Parents' National Educational Union, 
in her book on Home Education (page 58) 
says : 

"Every child has a natural interest in the 
living things about him, which it is the 
business of his parents to encourage; for, 
but few children are equal to holding their 
own in the face of public opinion, and if 
they see that the things which interest them 
are indifferent or disgusting to you their 
pleasure in them vanishes and that chapter 
in the book of Nature is closed to them." 

Parents are beginning to realize this, 
and are anxious to encourage their children 
in these studies. Unfortunately in the days 
of their childhood such knowledge was 
despised, and any attempt to acquire it was 
looked upon as a waste of time. But we 
have now changed all this. We have found 
in Nature Study a most potent instrument 
for the education of our children. For it 
develops the seeing eye, and the hearing 
ear; it satisfied the insatiable curiosity of 
childhood; lays the foundation of Art. in 
an early appreciation of Beauty; and of 
Science in a gradual perception of law, and 
last, but not least, of Religion, in that it 
increases the sense of reverence, wonder, 
and awe. In a beautiful passage our poet 
Browning has well summed up the true 
worth of Nature Study. It occurs in his 
poem of "Kra Lippo Lippi." where the 
cloistered monk, rebelling against that 
false law which bade him shut his eyes 
against the beauties of the outward world, 
after which, with a poet's and painter's 
instinct, he vearned, tells how he both felt 
and saw, 

"The beauty and the wonder and the Power 

The shapes of things, their colours, lights and 

shades 
Changes and surprises,. . . .and, God made it all!" 

I take it then, that there is a great desire 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



161 



to teach children about Nature in all 
classes, from parents, the architypal 
teachers to Education Committees their 
poor substitutes. Each is anxious to do 
something better than has been done in the 
past. 

The Parent's Difficulty. 

I am not unmindful that this generation 
of parents experiences a difficulty which 
will most probably be removed from the 
next. I know that many parents feel handi- 
capped at present by their own defective 
education in Nature knowledge. It is such 
as these whom I am anxious to help in this 
paper. But before I can do this, they must 
dismiss from their minds any idea that it 
is the quantity of knowledge acquired that 
makes a Nature student. It is rather the 
particular habit of mind induced in the act 
of acquiring such knowledge which is of 
the most value to us and our children. For 
this reason it is that the mere reading about 
Nature is of but little value; to watch an 
insect pollinating a flower ; to study the 
arrangement of the buds on the common 
trees; to rear caterpillars into butterflies; 
to watch the little seed growing into the 
perfect plant ; such studies as these have a 
real educational value, they teach to SEE ; 
and seeing is a faculty which this genera- 
tion has shamefully neglected. 

Feeble at the beginning, this faculty of 
"seeing," mav be wonderfully educated, 
and a bountiful harvest of the quiet eye 
reaped at last. Moreover, the power to see 
correctly is one of the most valuable assets 
in our everyday life. 

When children come in from their walk 
they should be asked what they have seen, 
what has excited their interest and curi- 
osity. What made such men as Gilbert 
White, of Selbourne, and Charles Darwin 
so notable was their wonderful power of 
seeing. So Nature Study may be shortly 
defined as the "science of seeing." Its 
great instrument is the EYE. 

A Heresy. 

There is a peculiar heresy abroad that 
some children and some persons are not 
gifted with powers of observation, and so 
Nature Studv is not for such. Surely this 
is absurd. We all know persons who are 
born color blind, or music blind, but did 
anybody ever hear of a normal person who 
was unable to observe? This valuable 
faculty may be shamefully neglected, but 



it cannot be done away with. Anyhow 
children are born observers, and born 
naturalists, and these great and natural 
powers in them only require discreet guid- 
ance and encouragement from you to be- 
come to them a valuable possession and a 
joy forever. 

Books. 

But now to get to work. Let me sav at 
first a few words about "books." And in 
particular about books for parents. The 
right kind of books will help you ; but they 
are not easy to hit upon. I have brought 
with me for distribution a list of books 
which we have to some extent found use- 
ful to both parent and teachers. Some of 
them are not ideal Nature Students' books, 
but they are the best I can find. The list 
is annotated so that parents or teacher can 
the more readily select a suitable book. 

Books are onlv useful for the purpose we 
have in mind when they send us back ag"ain 
to Nature, hungering to know more of her 
wonderful ways and works ; more keen to 
observe and more patient to learn. Books 
are useless when they give us poor sub- 
stitutes for this power of observation or 
tend to stifle it. 

Of course, books of a purely technical 
character, helping us to find out something 
more about the interesting things which 
we have seen in our walks abroad, will 
always have a proper use and value. But 
it is books like dear old Gilbert White's 
Natural Historv of Selborne, or Kingsley's 
Town Geologv, or Warde Fowler's, A 
Year with the Birds, which beget in us a 
powerfid yearning to see for ourselves the 
wonderful and beautiful things they point 
out for us. 

Hosts of books on Nature Study are be- 
ing issued almost everv month; they are 
too often failures as being either mere com- 
pilations, bv those who know but little first- 
hand of their subject; or else thev are filled 
with descriptions of thines which the true 
Nature Student is better left to find out for 
himself. 

Poetry and Songs For Children. 

I should like now to sav a few words 
about suitable poetry and songs for little 
children, in connection with the study of 
Nature. 

Nature Study is of great value in edu- 
cating the imaginative and poetical side of 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



the child's nature. Beautiful descriptions 
of scenery, of the "habits and activities of 
animals; of the beauties of flowers and in- 
sects abound on every side. In this 
pleasant and easy way children may be 
helped to associate right and beautiful 
feeling with what they see in Nature ; and 
will at length discover for themselves that 
much of the best poetry has been inspired 
by the sight of natural phenomena. 

I have not as yet been able to put my 
hands on any one suitable book containing 
selected passages from the best poets 
illustrative of the varied phenomena of 
Nature. But any parent would, I am sure, 
find most interesting employment in study- 
ing poetry with this object ; marking down 
any pieces which she thinks would be help- 
ful to her child in realizing (to use rather 
a trite phrase) the poetic beauties of 
Nature. Fine descriptions of natural 
scenerv, and phenomena, sympathetic 
references to bird and beast, insect and 
flower, and to all the varied moods of 
Nature. One might very easily make a 
truly valuable poetry book for one's child 
in this simple way. It may however be 
helpful to some parents to suggest the 
titles and oublishers of two or three little 
books of songs and poetrv, much used by 
kindergarten teachers with very little chil- 
dren. Here they are: Son^s for Little 
Children. Vols. I and II, bv Eleanor Smith 
(Curwen). The Child's Song and Game 
Book, Parts I and II. by Keatley Moore 
(Sonnenschein). Kindergarten Songs and 
Games by Berry and Michaels. Also 
rhythms and games by Mari Ruef Hofer, 
and the rhymes and songs in the Kinder- 
garten Magazine. 

The Note Book. The Drawing Book. 

A powerful adjunct to the cultivation of 
the seeing faculty in the child is the draw- 
ing book. All children, even little children, 
should be encouraged to draw natural ob- 
jects with brush or pencil. Some children 
will display considerable ability in model- 
ling in clav or plasticine. It is, however, 
important that this exercise should be re- 
garded as a test to find out if the child is 
seeing correctly rather than as an art 
exercise. 

Of equal importance with the drawing 
book is the Diary and Nature Calendar 
which the child should be encouraged to 
make. In the diary the first appearance of 
things will be carefully noted ; the first 
flower seen, the first buds opened, the first 



swallow, the first butterfly, etc., and in 
addition to this anything that has caught 
the interest of the child should find a place 
in it. Brush-work pictures, and selected 
pieces of poetry may also be added until a 
quite facinating little volume is produced. 
I have seen excellent calendars done by 
children in small schools which could be 
made at home under the proper direction of 
the parent. 

Children's Walks. 

From note books and diarys I pass on to 
children's walks. The value to a child of 
a couple of hours spent in the fresh air 
every day is well known to parents. It is 
customary to send the children out in 
charge of a governess or nurse. I would, 
however, advise mother's who are in 
earnest about nature studying to accom- 
pany their children oftener in order to call 
the child's attention to things interesting 
and beautiful; to encourage them to bring 
suitable objects home. They should be pre- 
pared to provide liberally bottles, boxes, 
jars, and other suitable vessels for the pur- 
pose of keeping under observation for a 
short time any of the interesting living 
finds. But these when done with should 
be given their liberty and when possible re- 
stored to a similar place to that in which 
they were found, for in this way the child 
will readily learn reverence and respect for 
life. 

Before the walk commences it is better 
to plan to have some definite aim to pro- 
pose to the children ; for example, that they 
should note how many different kinds of 
flowers they will find in their walk, how 
many different kinds of birds they will see. 
etc., then on the next occasion when lessons 
are resumed 'the note book should be 
brought out and the children encouraged 
to make some notes, or little drawings of 
what they have seen. 

The subject of making collections of any- 
thing that requires killing is fraught with 
many difficulties. I find myself almost in 
two minds about it. Collecting natural 
objects with the necessary mounting and 
labeling has undoubtedly some educational 
value. The difficulty is largely connected 
with the question whether young children 
should be encouraged to put any living 
thing to death. Very young children 
should certainly never be allowed to do 
this. I think we are all quite at one on 
this. Moreover, numerous collections can 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



163 



be made of objects that do not require kill- 
ing: seeds, minerals, empty shells, even 
plants, and many other things. 

With older children more may be 
allowed, but the parent would be wise to 
see that the killing is done under proper 
circumstances. Collections made for pure- 
ly scientilic purposes stand on somewhat 
different grounds, and it is unnecessary to 
enter upon a discussion of these here. 

There are, however, a few habits of chil- 
dren connected with this matter of collect- 
ing natural objects which require watching 
and correcting. They will gather great 
bunches of flowers, and then after a short 
time, wearying of carrying them will fling 
them away by the roadside to wither and 
die in the sun. They will also pluck up 
plants by the roots and do many other im- 
pulsive and careless things. Parents must 
be very watchful to rebuke these faults. 
It is most important that at the beginning 
of a child's life it should be taught the 
utmost reverence in these matters; who can 
say how much of its after life would be in- 
fluenced for good by it. 

Therefore, if your children bring flowers 
home see that they put them in water at 
once; or if it is living catipilars see that 
they are as soon as possible provided with 
proper housing, food and air. 

Museums. 

Parents living in towns, can sometimes 
get a certain amount of help from the local 
museums. The creatures read about in the 
books may be seen as it were in their 
"proper person" in the museums; and 
something of their relative as well as real 
size revealed to children. In my own hum- 
ble opinion, and speaking generally 
museums are disappointing. 1 do not think 
we make the most or the best use of them. 
And children are always more interested 
in living animals than dead ones, for a live 
dog is always better than a dead lion. 
Nevertheless, it would be profitable to take 
a child to the museum for an hour or so 
one morning in the week particularly to see 
something which has been recently a sub- 
ject of interest to the child. 

Keeping Pace. 

And parents must keep pace with the 
children; must try to interest themselves 
in all that properly interests the child. I 
know that many would reply, "We have 
not time for it." But it is well worth mak- 



ing time for. To see our children growing 
up intelligent, keen, and reverential is worth 
the expenditure of any amount of time and 
trouble. Is it not true that too many of 
the young people of these days appear to 
have run through the whole circle of their 
interests before they are properly grown 
up. Blase with satiety; suffering from 
ennui, to them life seems scarcely worth 
living. Nature Study will supply fresh in- 
terests, undying, always fresh, for Nature 
is full of surprises, and has the energy of 
eternal youth. 

The study of Nature too is recreative, it 
is good for the parents, it is antidotal to the 
worry and fret of housekeeping or business. 
It kindles in us the growth of a loftier ideal, 
the outward expression of which will be the 
simpler life and the Garden City, and the 
end Paradise regained. And all this, 
through the little child in our midst. 
Mothers should propose to themselves cer- 
tain courses of readings such as books of 
an elementary character treating of plant 
and animal life. The weekly consumption 
of novels is prodigious, surely a little book 
on Natural History might be intercalated 
now and again. But if not this, mothers 
should be keen to look out for anything 
that will help the children. Good pictures 
from the magazines, suitable poetry. There 
are several weekly and monthly magazines 
almost or entirely devoted to the interest 
of natural history e. g., The Country Side, 
Mr. si,. K. Robinson's little paper, published 
weekly. 

They would also do well to study some 
book drawn up by an expert in teaching 
Nature knowledge to children, like Miss 
Jeanie Mackenzie's, A Nature Programme 
and its Connections, published by Charles 
& Didle. 

But the Parent's National Educational 
Union, will at any time advise its members 
on the best books and methods to attain the 
desired results. 

Children's Pets. 

No address on the subject of Nature 
study in the home would be complete with- 
out a few words about children's pets. By 
all means, if the home allows of it let chil- 
dren have pets. They learn tenderness and 
kindness through them, and the keeping of 
them is an excellent discipline. Some bur- 
den is laid upon parents, however, to see 
that children attend to them properly. 
Otherwise the pets may suffer acutely 



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KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



through neglect. Unflinching terms must" 
be made with the cnild that any repeated 
neglect will result 111 the pets being taken 
away. 1 hen again parents should take 
trouole 10 ascertain whether anything is 
being learnt irom the pets; whether the 
habits of bird or rabbit or dog or cat are 
being properly observed by the child. 
Older cmluren should be asked occasional- 
ly to write an account of their pets; how 
do they spend their day; what differences 
they nave observed between the ways of 
cat and dog; I have known children write 
very clever tetters to pets, in which quite 
close observation of their habits has been 
plain. )l es, 1 am sure pets make a very 
goo 1 subject of our curriculum. Cat and 
dog, canary and parrot, guinea-pigs and 
white mice, and afi the host of farm-yard 
animals, can give a kind of teaching which 
is of great value to our children; and which 
we cannot afford to neglect. 
v It is a common complaint that children 
tire very quickly of their pets. Some chil- 
dren undoubtedly do so; but the child is 
so little taught to observe that much of the 
true interests of these pets is lost to it. A 
change, more or less frequent, possibly an 
exchange of pets might be beneficial in 
some instances. 

There are, however, many other living 
things which will readily interest children 
and ( are full of teaching. Such are for 
example, the germinating of seeds, watch- 
ing the tiny plant unfolding its beautiful 
and interesting structures. Rearing cater- 
pillars into butterflies and moths. Watch- 
ing an aquarium with developing frog 
spawn, and other. living creatures. The life 
history of frog and newt is marvellously 
fascinating, and quite young children find 
endless delight in watching it; learning les- 
sons of life and growth which they will 
never forget. 

But I plead most of all for the country 
walk. The walk's the thing. In these days 
of rush typified by cycle and motor car, the 
country side has become a thing more for 
measuring the terrific rate we can progress 
at by means of the engines which we have 
invented instead of a glorious opportunity 
and the priceless privilege of studying the 
works of the Great Creator, the garments 
of the Invisible which fill his beautiful 
temple the world. 

Age will not sever our love from Nature ; 
but rather will the ties which draw us to 
her be strengthened: becoming of sacra- 



mental significance, so that she becomes to 
us an outward and visible sign of an in- 
finite love enfolding our lives; filling our 
hearts with lofty hopes and high courage; 
till the symbols are replaced by realities; 
and the heart that was in Tune with the 
Universe finds itself in Tune with God and 
Heaven. Such is the outlook and we may 
sing with Browning : 

"Grow old along with me; the best is yet to be 
The last of life, lor which the first was made, 
Our times are in His hand 
Who saith, 'a whole 1 planned,' 
Youth shows but half; trust God; see all, nor 
be afraid." 



MANUAL OF THENATURAL 
METHOD IN READING. 

"I plead therefore for a recognition of the value 
of superficiality as one of the goods per se in this 
field; a knowledge that is all extent without much 
intensity. This is the form in which all knowledge 
begins." G. STANLEY HALL. 

INTRODUCTION. 

At the close of this Course — i. e., at- the 
close of the first year in school when taught 
by the Natural Method — children in the 
New York schools are qualified to take the 
examination in the public libraries which 
entitles them to library cards. They are 
thus launched upon their course as inde- 
pendent readers by one year of study, one 
hour a day, plus whatever supplementary 
reading the school chooses to give. 

The children find the work pleasant and 
natural. 

The teacher, if of the old school of 
thought, must give herself one big wrench 
into the new school. Then all difficulty is 
over. As soon as she can bring herself to 
consider the child as a product of the 
nursery and play-ground, whose interest in 
reading has already connected him with 
books, and whose mental processes in re- 
gard to this subject are already in train, 
she will see the philosophy of beginning 
with the Nursery Method, which is the 
first step in the Natural Method. Having 
entered on this work with this perception, 
her interest and zeal will grow with her ex- 
perience. To find Nature vindicating her- 
self in the healthy growth of the child mind 
under natural processes is a joy surpassing 
any that can come to the teacher of little 
faith who clings to the old mechanisms 
and glories in the old cheap type of 
"results." 

The features that distinguish the Natural 

Copyright, 1908, by Ellen E. K. Warner. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



165 



Method in Reading from any method pub- 
lished prior to 1903, making it revolu- 
tionary, are as ioliows: 

1. it begins with literature, and does not 
at any point otter text made to teach words, 
phonograms or letters. 

2. it proceeds by memorization of its 
earliest text. 

3. it then presents the memorized text in 
script and atierwards in print. 

4. Alter the hfth week it begins Scientific 
\\ ord Study, proceeding by progressive 
analysis until the alphabet is known. 

5. For this purpose it divides all words 
between the initial consonant, simple or 
compound, and the rest of the word, thus 
reducing all words to the two-letter class,- 
so to speak. 

0. Alter the alphabet has been acquired, 
Word Study proceeds (in Book ii) by 
classification ol words in groups by ortho- 
graphic content, thus teaching several 
words in the time it used to require to teach 
one, the type words in each case being 
taken from the day's reading lesson. This 
work proceeds from the easy to the dithcult 
until 111 one year from entering school the 
child has* studied practically the entire 
vocabulary ol child literature, in a third 
term (.Book iiij, this ground is reviewed 
and completed, with closer study and more 
of memorization. 

Nothing at all akin to the Natural 
Method 111 Reading, in spirit or in structure, 
had been published when the Culture Read- 
ers appeared in 1903. All methods that 
have since sprung into being having any of 
these features are to that extent followers 
of the Natural Method in Reading, and 
their success has been found proportionate 
to the fidelity with which they follow the 
method as thus presented in the Culture 
Readers. 

One variation from the course thus pre- 
sented has been to ignore all forms of liter- 
ature except that of romantic narrative. 
This has produced in the children a dreamy 
love for that sort of reading which is of 
high culture value, though unfortunately 
narrowing, and, possibly, having other 
psychic effects not altogether promotive of 
the individual's future interests in this 
work-a-day world. The children love to 
act the story, and never tire of its repeti- 
tions. Its characters and incidents make a 
world of fancy for them in which they revel 
as little poets. This is good for some and 
bad for others. The value of dramatic plays 



in the kindergarten has been underesti- 
mated by "practical" people. It is over- 
estimated when permitted to crowd every- 
thing else out ol a course in reading. Lit- 
erature is larger than romantic narrative, 
and JUihE is larger than literature. 

The Culture Readers contain more than 
the Natural Method in Reading. They are 
built on the theory that a course in reading 
is the most powerful constructive cause 
that can be injected into any effort to culti- 
vate a human being. Such a course may 
make a man a patriot, a poet, an inventor, 
an explorer, or anything it is within his in- 
herited capacity to become. The period of 
specialization does not legitimately begin 
111 nursery, kindergarten or primary school. 
V oung childhood should receive rounded 
development. The core of reading for this 
period should contain all the seed thoughts 
out of which the future self will evolve. As 
near as may be within the covers of a text- 
book, such a core has been offered to the 
primary pupil in The Culture Readers. 

Their key note is ethics. The child's 
ethical nature develops by perceptions, 
sympathies and habits. It develops in all 
the thought and action that make his daily 
life. To stimulate true thought and ethical 
action is the supreme effort of the Culture 
Readers. 

THE AUTHOR. 

USE OF MANUAL. 

The teacher should know the end from 
the beginning. She should read this 
Manual through before beginning the 
work. 

She should follow it carefully from day 
to day, keeping it open before her during 
the first term's work and frequently refer- 
ring to it in subsequent terms for reminder. 
Only an adept in the Method should per- 
mit herself to digress from the instructions 
given. 



THE NATURAL METHOD IN 
READING.* 

PART 1.— FIRST FOUR WEEKS. 

Following the text of the Culture Read- 
ers, Book I, the work of the first four weeks 
is as follows : 

1. Memorize the rhymes presented under 
"First Step," pp. 1 to 17 inclusive. 

* Correspondence with author cordially invited. 
Address in care publishers, D. Appelton & Co., 29- 
35 West 32nd St., New York. 



i66 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



2. Learn to recognize them individually 
in scnpt, as wholes an' 1 in their leading 
words and phrases. 

No particular ordef is required in teach- 
ing the rhymes. 

As many of them as the teacher chooses 
may be given on the first day, appropriately 
three. 

Presentation in script may be begun on 
the second day. 

DEVICES FOR ENHANCING INTEREST. 

f. Preliminary talks, as, for instance, a 
discussior of "the Baby" on first day for 
help in getting acquainted, followed by 
singing ot the "little sleepy song," Rockaby 
Baby. 

2. Singing of all pieces whose melodies 
are given and also of others, as Little Red 
Bird, What Does Little Birdie Say? etc. 
Jack and Jill may be sung to the tune, 
Yankee Doodle. The songs should be 
taught in the time scheduled for Music. 
The lively songs may be used to wake up 
the children on dull days. The softer songs 
may be used to calm them into quiet after 
any unusual excitement. Simple Simon is 
to be sung with mock mournfulness. 

3. Dramatization of pieces presenting 
two or more characters in action. No 
accessories are required for this play. 
Jack and Jill may carry between them an 
imaginary pail of water and really fall down 
at the appropriate point in the recitation. 

(a) The class may recite while a little 
girl and boy act the piece in time with the 
rendition. No pointing for this. 

(b) The teacher may point in silence to 
the words on the board and the actors show 
their knowledge of her progress by falling 
down at the right times respectively. A 
group of backward children will enjoy this 
drill. 

The class will watch intently for correct- 
ly timed action. Nothing holds the interest 
of a class of little children so powerfully as 
to watch a classmate doing some novel 
work, however simple, and nothing is so 
powerful an incentive to study as the pos- 
sibility of being chosen for such work. 
During the first, or "sight-word" stage of 
learning to read, no word is too difficult to 
be taught with ease with the help of this 
personal and dramatic interest. Most of 
the "play work," however, should be done 
outside the reading periods, which should 
be devoted to reading and word study. 

Words are recognized first by their loca- 



tion in the text and afterward by form and 
structure. 

DEVICES FOR FIXING ATTENTION UPON 
WORD FORMS. 

1. Teacher points to words of piece while 
class sings or recites it. The practice of 
pointing must not be permitted to induce 
sing-song or drawling. The pointing must 
carefully time itself to dramatic rendition. 

2. Pupil points to words of piece while 
class recites or sings. Until and unless 
children develop the requisite skill in direct- 
ing the pointer, the teacher must guide the 
hand to keep it in time with dramatic rendi- 
tion. 

3. Children point to certain words in the 
piece as called for. "Where does it say 
mother?" etc. 

4. Teacher points to prominent words in 
text and pupils tell what they are. "What 
does this word say?" etc. 

5. Children point from seats to words on 
board (a) while reading piece, guided by 
teachers pointer; (b) to designated words. 
Lxample: "You may all point to the word 
that says poor. All who are pointing to 
tins word (indicating) are right." To 
enlist physical action awakens attention in 
the dreamy. 

0. Witli a rhyme on the board, write its 
prominent words apart, ask class or in- 
dividuals what they are, and have in- 
dividuals identify them in text. 

7. Explaining that the chalk cannot talk 
so fast as the tongue, pronounce slowly 
while writing. The slow pronunciation 
must be naturally voiced. It will be found 
that the vowel takes inhection and 
emphasis.* 

* There is danger in this device unless the 
teacner has tne scientific progression deeply in 
ruma. it is NaTUkajl at tnis time, and with the 
excuse or tne chalk s slowness, to reveal that word 
lorins are made up of smaller rorms. It would, be 
uiNJN'ATURALi to expect the baby student to re- 
member all the sounds in a long word thus 
analyzed and connect them with tne variable let- 
ter lorms tbat represent tnem and so maice up the 
word. That would be to carry to a wild extreme 
the very theory of teaching against which the 
.Natural Method is opposed with all the force it 
has. To pronounce siowly while writing, especial- 
ly in connection with the work of the hist step, is 
merely to teach the subconsciousness that the 
spoken word is a composite, and that the written 
word is a corresponding composite. It is a subtle 
preparation for the more insistent analysis of 
words that is to come later, ft has no immediate 
and conscious relation to the reading of the verses, 
and must not lead to such further application as 
would form an obstructive habit. The children 
are to SEE LETTERS THROUGH WORDS, and not 
words through letters. While they are looking at 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



167 



the letters they cannot see the word. It is the 
w olios they aie to see while reading. Therefore, 
having pronouncd the word slowly in time with 
tne cnalk, let it stand before the eye in its com- 
pleted wholeness, and do not again break that 
wnoieness until the time comes in the course of a 
more definite study of words as laid down on the 
exercise pages. 

8. Volunteers draw a line under words 
as called for. 

9. Volunteers erase words as called for. 

10. Class calls oft words of entire piece 
as teacher erases, beginning at the end. 
'1 his may be postponed until fifth week. 

11. in the game of deaf and dumb school 
questions are asked and answered in writ- 
ing and pantomine, commands are written, 
etc. "Button my shoe," etc., may be power- 
fully reviewed in this way, the requests be- 
ing executed in make-believe. Most of the 
verbs and verb phrases in the text may be 
similarly impressed. The interest that cen- 
ters in action will be found the most effec- 
tive of all spurs to word learning. Corre- 
late here with the number work. 

DEVICES FOR VARYING PROGRESSIVE DRILL. 

1. After recitation of a piece call a line of 
children to the board. Point to a word and 
send the first who names it to his seat. So 
with another, etc. When only two or three 
are left, call another line to reinforce them. 
So go round class. When only a few are 
left at close of exercise, let each show any 
word he knows. Find something easy 
enough for the last pupil to do. 

2. With a rhyme on board call up a line. 
Give pointers to first two. Call a word. 
The first who finds it wins. Send him to 
seat and give his pointer to the next in 
turn. So go round class. Call it "running 
races." 

3. Characterize demand according to 
meaning of word, as, "Who wants to send 
the Old Woman's children to bed?" "Who 
will catch me a nice little — frog?" etc., 
volunteer erasing the word indicated. 

When the group of incompetents at the 
board during any round-the-class exercise 
grows unwieldy, drop to some simpler de- 
mand, such as, "Show me any word you 
know." No child should be allowed to con- 
tract a feeling of discouragement through 
having it appear that he can do nothing 
at all.* 

EFFECTIVE ECONOMIES. 

The children should watch the words as 
they grow under the chalk. It is wasteful 
to write the lessons while the class is at- 



tending to something else, and to sweep all 
work from the board without a parting 
exercise in word calling. To secure atten- 
tion while producing the script lessons, 
make use of two devices: 

1. When presenting new text, pronounce 
slowlv while writing, using natural intona- 
tions. 

2. When the piece is known, have class 
announce each word as it appears. 

PREPARATION FOR BOOK READING. 

During the first four weeks the following 
preparation should be made for the use of 
books : 

1. Exercises in closing all the fingers of 
the right hand except the pointing finger, 
and extending that. 

2. Exercises in pointing from seats with 
finger to words on board as called for. 

3. Exercises in pointing to objects in the 
room or seen from windows. 

4. Standing exercises in pointing for- 
ward, backward, to the right, to the left, 
north, south, east, west, etc. 

The class should be adept in pointing be- 
fore taking books. 

This work may be done in the period 
scheduled for physical exercise. 



DIDN'T WANT THE JOB. 

During the recent examination of appli- 
cants for the position of mail-carrier, a 
colored boy appeared before the civil ser- 
vice commission. 

"How far is it from this earth to the 
moon?" was the first question asked him. 
"How fah am it from de earf to de moon?" 
he repeated, as he began to reach for his 
hat. "Say, boss, if you's gwine to put me 
on dat route, I doesn't want de job;" and 
with that he left as though he were escap- 
ing from some calamity. — The December 
Circle Magazine. 



*For some time it remained a mystery why cer- 
tain classes that did good work in their other sub- 
jects failed in learning to read by the Natural 
Method. Examination at last revealed that in 
every case some vital principle laid down in the 
Manual had been ignored by the teacher. Two 
points of divergence from the Method covered most 
of the cases: 

1. The importance of timely drill in keeping the 
place by pointing had been slighted, depriving the 
slow children of those earlier visual impressions 
upon which all later work depends; 

2. Teachers had introduced abstract drill not 
provided in the course and so closed the minds of 
the pupils to the main avenues of progress, 




GAMES, PLAYS, STORIES 

RECITATIONS, MEMORY GEMS, ETC. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR SINGING TIME. 

EDYTH J. TURNER, N. Y. P. S. 

When Miss Palmer's note reached me 
stating that the members of the Kindergar- 
ten Union are to direct their thought this 
season toward music and art, I immediately 
wished myself one of you, for these subjects 
are two 1 am especially interested in. As 
"Vocal music in the Kindergarten" is what 
we are to discuss this afternoon, do some 
of you agree with me that the singing is 
at times fearfully and strangely rendered, 
causing one having a sensitive ear to 
twitch:' I recently saw Maxine Elliot in 
her new play "Myself Bettina." In it, she 
returns to the New England farm house, 
after spending some years as a vocal 
student abroad. Wishing to sing she opens 
the old piano, but as her lingers strike the 
notes, such discordant sounds pour forth, 
that she exclaims "Ouch !" Just what I 
have sometimes felt inclined to say in my 
own kindergarten. For, we hear the dreary, 
monotones, the high piercing voice, and 
true mixed with harsh voices altogether, 
making a combination that is far from 
sweet melody. One reason for this is, I 
believe, that no very especial effort is made 
toward helping each child to find his or her 
sweet little voice. We all, no doubt, 
acknowledge it a part of our duty to create 
a love of music in the child, but do we real- 
ize how great a power to do he finds in 
himself, if we have at least a ten minute 
singing time every day? I was greatly 
helped by a visit i made across the river 
last year, attending a session at a model 
school there. What I saw greatly inspired 
me, but not one moment was given to the 
child's voice. 

Some kindergartners think it necessary 
to rush song teaching at the beginning of 
the term, because the day's work goes so 
much more heartily when the children sing 
during morning talk, perhaps while march- 
ing and again during game time. Many 
others realize that this is not essential. I 
have found that it pays to put all the energy 
we can muster on tone and the quality of 
the voice, first and always. 



Many of us deal with tiny foreigners. 
How are we to begin? ±>y using the 
simplest devices, the simplest songs. vV hat 
are these? 

Please picture the little folks bringing 
their chairs and placing them close to, and 
m front of our piano which has a mirror 
above it. This is helpful to the kindergart- 
ner of course, but how interesting to the 
cmld seeing himself a singer ! An old fash- 
ioned stool is used rather than a bench for 
it is necessary to twist and turn about 
readily. Please think of this as the first 
day. 

A few introductory remarks are made as 
to, "Who sings in your family, Ida? What 
do they sing m your house, Kmil? Morris, 
is there any one in your home who does not 
sing, but likes to listen? Can we all sing 
together? What shall we sing?" Then a 
popular street song is suggested, sung m 
nie crude fashion 1 have spoken of in all 
probability, so 1 say, "Children the piano 
will sing tor us, and I think, more sweetly 
than we did." An appealing melody is ex- 
pressively played and the children are asked 
if they like to listen to such soft, quiet 
music as that. (The old piano forte selec- 
tion known as "The Shepherd Boy," is good 
for this purpose as it represents the shep- 
herd's pipes and is delicate). As the chil- 
dren say they like it, it is agreed that we 
have another listening time tomorrow. I 
think we might lay a little more stress upon 
this ear-training. We would be more truly 
following Froebel's teachings if we did so. 
Listening to a high note of the piano, a bass 
note, the pitch pipe, a bell, and if possible 
the fairy-like music that so marvelously 
comes when the moistened finger is pressed 
lightly upon the rim of a thin glass in which 
there is some water. The deafening noise 
of our city streets so kills our sense of quiet 
sounds that ought we not more than once 
or twice a year hold the sea-shell near our 
city baby's ear? Think of the many beau- 
tiful wooing sounds in country life our city 
children rarely hear. The humming birds 
about the Trumpet Vine, the peepers after 
sunset. The voice of the wind as heard in 
the woods. I can remember so well when 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



169 



we children were taken for the first time to spend a summer on a farm being perfectly 
fascinated at milking time. I was so sorry when old Sally would stop while milking, 
to rub her sleeve across her face (a habit she had) for as I confided to an elder, "I 
wanted the pail to fill up, without the music stopping." It was the rhythm of the thing, 
that pleased of course, that alternate swish ng sound. 

But to return to our first song. Laying my hand on a nearby head I say, "the piano 
sang you a song now I know one that I can sing about Tony? and, starting on the 
upper note of a scale I sing, "Little (I) Boy," repeating the words until the lowest 
note is reached. (111.) "Can you all sing this?" I ask. Of course they can because 




S 



P=F^ 



^S 



** 



Little boy little 



ioy 



ink 



boy 



littk- 



boy 



no thought has to be given to the words, and here is our clue, namely to use such 
simple words and expressions that all our thought and that of the child may be put 
upon the notes and quality of tone. Because of this it is a very good plan to sing 
the children's names to them individually, each child returning his own name singing 
it as (II) he received it. (111.) Quickly done it brings about an alertness and concen- 



g 



£ 



=p: 



3 



3 



3 



Mu - riel 



Law 



3r 



Ma - ry Ar - no Jer - ry 

trated attention that is necessary. Besides in this way the kindergartner is given an 

opportunity to study the pitch and quality of each child's voice. This knowledge she 
must have if she is to work intelligently. 

Returning to the words "little boy" that were sung, the children find that they can 

also sing "big boy.'' The same with "Little girl" and "big girl," then alternating "big 

boy and little girl." In the room are "big ladies," so we sing about them, and by 

clever suggestion some child will combine two of the songs making, (III) "big ladies 

and little children." (Ill-) While we are singing the Janitor happens in and I ask 




rr r r I J jgj 1 i . 1 j j 



Big ladies and little children big ladies and little children 



why we cannot sing a song about him, and Max, who was with us last term, exclaims 
''Mr. Black bringing in the sand." (IV) (111.) After hearty applause, for Max has given 




ij-^^T 1 g Up a I j | itt m 



Mister Black bringing the sand, Mister Black bringing the sand 

us a new song to sing, no one helping him, we sing this to the scale. Continuing I say 
to the children : "Would you be surprised if I sang a song about all of you ?" Then 
lightly and softly and somewhat staccato, starting upon a higher note this time, I 
sing. "All the little children sitting in their chairs," the words being repeated in order 




gag I \JJ7J j j|jjjj j 



All the little, children sitting on their, chairs, all the little children sitting on their chairs 



170 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



to complete the scale. "Now who will make 
up a song about me?" Some child follows 
the same line of thought and offers, "Miss 
Turner playing the piano." Everyone is so 
happy over the joy that this creative work 
brings, that it is too loudly sung, so the 
piano shows us how to sing it softly. We 
must depend so much upon imitation in this 
work. All this time the kindergartner 
should be a listener quite as much as a 
director, starting these scale songs upon 
different notes, noting the kind of singers 
she has, their good points and their faults. 
Of course I am relating to you more than 
the first day's work, and I will tell you of 
a few more of these sentence scale songs, 
before I pass on to another device. A little 
girl rushed to me before removing her 
wraps one day last October, so anxious was 
she to tell me of two songs she had made 
up while on her way home. "May we not 
sing them today?" she asked. "One is 
'When Autumn comes the leaves change 
their dresses,' and the other, 'When winter 
time comes the snow falls softly.' " You 
will say, "why those are words she had 
heard in the circle," no doubt, but the point 
is, that she had tested these words in her 
little mind and found that they could be 
sung to the scale. That day as Selma sang- 
them to us, I think nearly every child real- 
ized the pleasure that the power to origin- 
ate gives. When I asked, "how did she 
bring (VI) them to us, in her pockets?" 
"She brought them in her thinking cap," 
exclaimed Morris. "Good," I replied, "we 
can sing that, Morris, you just then gave us 
a song." So we merrily sang it. (111.) (VI) The 
objects about the room, the children's work, 



Miss Turner gave us nuts to take home. 

I can see my face in the glass. 

See the little fairies flying all around. 

Mr. Black has a big fire. 

Mr. Black puts coal on the fire. 

A little squirrel is sitting on a stump. 

I could enumerate any number of these, 
partly or wholly originated by the child. 
Their value rests in quickening the child's 
interest, awakening his power to create and 
memorize, and gives us a simple point of de- 
parture in working with foreign children. 

Now I wish to speak of the monotone 
singer. Have you noticed that boys are 
more apt to be at fault in this respect? It 
seems to me that their voices are usually 
not so well placed as are those of the girls 
of the same age, and that a group of little 
girls' voices are naturally sweeter and of a 
lighter and higher quality. I have used all 
the devices I am capable of thinking of, to 
get these dreary voices higher. We play- 
fully speak of them at times as singing way 
down in the cellar, not like those who send 
their voices high up, as birds fly. One 
day quite in despair it occurred to me to 
try this. "Sydney," I said, "Suppose I was 
walking along the street, going very fast, 
and you were on the other side and saw me 
drop my gloves, and you wanted to call me, 
would -iu not sing out high and clearly, 
'hoo-00 hoo-00' so as to make me hear? 
Let us play that right now." Getting as far 
away as space would permit, I got him to 
imitate the call, then sounded his name and 
a few others on the same high note. He 



9- 



m ( l f ' HI ^tr^r 1 1 nn 1 i,-^ri^ m 



She brought them in 



think 



ing 



cap, ahe brought them in her think - uv cap 



an incident of the day supply the subjects. d i d *■ ° ne has first to hel P these children 

realize that there are hie-her tones, then 
SCALE SONGS. (ORIGINAL). -, ., . . f .. ' . 

persistently work to get them, through 

Three little girls have pretty curls. imitation 

See the rain comes pattering down. The echo device used in this connection 

All the leaves are on the chain. is splendid. While some friends and I were 

The pony and the sheep are looking at picnicing last summer near an abandoned 

quarry on the river Dart in England, I was 

able to get the sweetest returns to my coo-y 

The pumpkin babies are all in a row. callSi Also some that were very amusing 

The pumpkin babies are laughing at me. because so perfectly returned by the 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. I?I 

mysterious voice of the rocky height. (VII) Play echo. Let a child hide. Suggest that 

9- 



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F=^ 




ii 



^ 



-p-^r 



pE 3f_4^:xJ L£| 



Coo 



another with a well-placed voice send the 
piano perhaps. Unless the call is returned 
so the child learns. If you are so fortunate 
the arches that are under the driveways, 
perience it. 

It is a good thing to try sustained sing 
this wav to get a depth and richness of tone. 
is an opportunity for everyone to shine, for 
approving smile now and then. The 
that sings just the same as the fish ped 
ear needs this practice. To imitate deep 
splendidly. Why not just here, select a boy 
ring out a few (VIII) tones higher, and a 



Coo 



y Coo - y 



call to the monotone hidden behind the 
just as it is received, it is not a true echo, 
as to be near Central Park, a stroll through 
will furnish an opportunity for them to ex- 

ing at times. A better chance is given in 
Imitate the various kinds of whistles. Here 
even the worst singers must be given an 
pleasure of finding the note on the piano 
dler's horn may be given to a child whose 
sounding bells gives us a chance to sustain 
to represent the deep peal, another one to 
girl probably, being a third to represent the 



-©- 



dong 



O 

dong 



^221 



21 



dong 



dong 



highest bell. Indicate to them when to ring (sing). Perhaps four bell ringers 
(singers) might be brought into play, or the whole group so divided as to do this. 
Only, we would not attempt this until the end of the term. Then I think it would not 
be too confusing, for during the last few weeks of school last year my children en- 
joyed singing that pretty round, "June Lovely June," one (IX) half of the group 
singing independently of the other. 



^^ 



tyyif 



J ill J-— ^bUQ=£^ 



June, lovely June, now beau- - ti fies the ground the 




song of the cuckoo through the glad earth re - sounds 



It is a playful thing and most helpful in this line, to sing the exclamations that the 
Three Bears make when they return home and find that some one has been meddling. 
'± he father bear's deep, resonant tones ring out on low C for instance, prolonged and 
impressive. The mother bear's remarks are sustained on A in the second space perhaps, 
and the baby bear's lighter high voice, all the words being sung on E in the fourth 
space, give the children a definite idea of difference in quality and pitch they may not 
have (X) so realized before. ' 



-ei- -&- -W-J- I €? -©L 



WIiqs Been sitting in 



my 



-O 



hair 



172 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



i£ 



122 



<g « 



XZ 



Who,* 



Seen sitting 



my 



chair 



m v \rr jj j 



Who's 



>een sitting 



my 



:hair 



Of course, you all sing syllables. We 
have been told that "hoo" is so good in 
imitating a trumpet, for instance, as it 
places the tone as far forward as possible. 
The vowels sung to the scale or any given 
interval give an open tone, and a good 
laugh "ha ha" all the way down the scale 
or several scales successively is very re- 
freshing when it is needed. Sometimes I 
feel that it is to be regretted that we cannot 
permit the children to play upon the piano. 
When there are many children, we surely 
may not, but occasionally at the singing 
time a child may be invited to go and strike 
a note somewhere just over the stool, and 
sing "la" to the sound that comes. Children 
find this more difficult than imitating a 
sound sung to them. 

One of the things we do when learning 
a new song is to "catch words." First the 
piano sings it for us, then the kindergart- 
ner, after this we all hum the tune together, 
then sing tra-la-la, brightly and in rather 
quick time as the melody is played upon 
the piano. Then the children listen again, 
as the song is sung and, as it is finished, 
each child is encouraged to tell what word 
or words he or she kept in mind or 
"caught." It takes considerable control on 
the part of the child to keep from calling 
the word out, at once — and a good bit of 
memorizing to bear it in mind until the con- 
clusion of the song. 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill in her "Outline 
Course for Vacation Schools" gives us 
these definite suggestions: "Sing rather 
high. Pitch should range from E on the 
first line to F on the fifth line. Sing softly 
and lightly but with good accentuation. 
Give preference to songs of moderately 
quick time. Do not attempt too many 
songs. Sing to the children. Do not re- 
quire them to learn all the songs you sing. 
Slumber songs should be sung occasionally 



while the children are resting. This often 
helps in maintaining good discipline." This 
helpful advice we might keep more con- 
tinually in mind. 

Most children have seen the band-leader 
in our city parks directing his men. One 
day when our singing lacked spirit and that 
very accentuation to which Miss Merrill 
alludes, I playfully used a baton standing 
before the children. They enjoyed this and 
responded more readily. So, at another 
time a child was our band master. When 
desiring to get a new melody more 
thoroughly learned, it is a good plan to 
encourage the children to play imaginary 
violins and flutes, as well as table pianos. 

I was privileged while on the other side 
of the Atlantic to spend a Sunday evening 
with a family during which the six children 
and their parents passed the time pleasant- 
ly together. As the hour grew late the 
good father said, "Now we will have our 
good night, -children," whereupon they all 
stood and reverently sang, that sweetly 
peaceful selection from Mendelssohn's 
Elijah, "O Rest in the Lord." As I stood 
there profoundly impressed by what I saw 
and felt, it came to me with renewed force 
that it is to such an end as this that all our 
efforts as kindergartners are turned — the 
beautiful and harmonious unity of family 
life. 



"I'D BE TOO POLITE." 

One day a little boy came to school with 
very dirty hands and the teacher said to 
him : 

"Jamie, I wish you would not come to 
school with your hands soiled that way. 
What would you say if I came to school 
with soiled hands?" 

"I wouldn't say anything," was the 
prompt replv, "I'd be too polite." — New 
York World.' 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



*7: 



STORY. 

By Florence Tristram. 

R. AND MRS. CRANE had been 
JLVJL brought to the farmyard when they 
were only a few days old, but had soon 
become so tame as to follow their master 
about, and to answer the names he gave 
them. They spent most of their time in the 
farmyard, and settled all disputes' and quar- 
rels there. 

"There is no doubt about it," said Mrs. 
Crane, looking proudly round, one day. "But 
when you and I first came to this place we 
found everything in great confusion ; true, we 
were very young, but even then we could see 
that there was no system or regularity here. 
Now, don't you agree with me?" 

"Indeed I do, dear," replied Mr. Crane; 
but he made a point of speaking more loudly 
than his wife, for they were in the middle of 
the farmyard, and he noticed that the cocks 
and hens and other creatures' were listening 
attentively. "We had hard work just at first 
to get everything into proper order, but it's 
wonderful what energy and an attractive per- 
sonality-can do." 

"Bullying, you should say," grunted a pig 
from the sty, not far away. "That is how 
you managed to get your way. You were 
captured and brought here, where your 
strange appearance and foreign airs made 
you seem alarming — to some at least — but 
not to lis, for we pigs' have character, and 
wills of our own. We are not easily fright- 
ened. Besides, we won't be ordered about 
by such as you." 

Mrs. Crane drew herself up and replied : 
"I can assure you that we never wished to 
have anything to do with you. We have al- 
ways given you pigs a wide berth ; you are 
such extremely dirty creatures ! But, please 
understand in future, that we only talk to our 
equals, so don't address yourself to us again, 
unless you wish to receive another snub." 
Then, before the pig could answer, she 
walked off in a stately manner, and, followed 
by her devoted mate, to the other end of the 
farmyard. 

"You have a wonderful way of putting 
people in their places, and saying just the 
right thing," said Mr. Crane. "It's seldom 
you find beauty and brains together, but you've 
got both. You're a wonderful bird !" 

Mrs. Crane smiled a crane-smile, and re- 
plied playfully. "You'll make me quite vain if 
you praise me so much. I don't tell vou all the 
nice things I think about you, but I think them 
all the same." 

"I am sure you do, dear," replied her hus- 
band. "And, as for me, I've never ceased to 
admire you — from the very first time I saw 
you. I shall never forget that moment." 



"Really !" ejaculated Mrs. Crane, in a 
pleased manner. "What was I doing?" 

"You were engaged in swallowing a frog. 
and had a most rapturous look in your eyes. I 
remember even what you said." 

"Dear me ! What a memory you have ! 
What did I say?" asked Mrs. Crane. 

"You turned your eyes up towards the 
skies, and s'aid, 'My beak, but that was a good 
one.' That was exactly what you said." 

"Never! I never in my life used such an 
expression — indeed, I never heard it until now. 
I am certain 'my beak' is quite a slang term, 
and if there's anything in the world that I 
detest, it's slang," said Mrs. Crane. 

"I'm sorry, dear, if I've hurt your feelings' ; 
but you'll excuse me if my memory fails me 
sometimes, for I'm not as young as I was. 
Age and time keep pace together." 

"Please don't talk in that depressing man- 
ner," said Mrs. Crane. "You're not old — you 
only imagine it. Besides, we're both growing 
old together." 

"There's great comfort in that, certainly," 
said Mr. Crane — and the birds looked lovingly 
at each other. 

A fight, between two hens, roused the 
cranes to action, for they felt that thev must 
settle the dispute. It was all about a piece of 
bread. 

"I found.it first," one hen was saying. "It 
was almost hidden in the mud, and then, just 
as I was enjoying it, she came over, and made 
a peck at it." 

"What a story," exclaimed the other hen. 
"It was the other way about. She was the 
thief, for she saw me putting the bread in 
there for safety." 

"The best way to settle this is for me to 
take the bread," said Mrs. Crane. Both hens 
agreed to this, and peace was* restored. 

Meanwhile Mr. Crane was looking after 
Charlie, the horse, who would always start 
before the driver was ready. Today he was 
very impatient to be off, so Mr. Crane said, 
"I'm sorry to see that you have not cured your- 
self of that imoatient habit vet. If you don't 
stand still, I will really be obliged to give you 
a blow with my beak." 

"That's a very light punishment. I'm not 
much afraid of it," returned Charlie. It's' onlv 
a very gentle reminder. I am certain you 
would not hurt me for the world." 

"You are right," was the rejoinder. "I 
love horses dearly, and I feel sorry that anyone 
should ever treat them badly." 

"And that, my friend, is too often the case," 
replied Charlie. "I am kindlv treated, but 
some of my kind must submit to s life of 
misery — beaten, ill-used, or over- worked — as 
many of them are. Thev can say nothing, but 
must bear all ir: silence! How glad I am that 
I'm not a cab hors'e !" 



i 7 4 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



"Why, there is my darling husband. He 
has come back again !" she exclaimed — and 
from that day she recovered her health and 
Spirits. The rest of the inhabitants of the 
farmyard were wiser, and knew that Mrs. 
Crane only saw her own reflection. It was the 
pigs who said it would be better not to tell 
Mrs. Crane the truth, for it gave her pleasure 
to think it was her long lost husband which 
she saw in the glass, even though he seemed to 
have lost the power of doing anything but 
imitating her. 

"What a mimic he has' become ! He copies 
everything I do," she often remarked, and her 
friends looked at each other, but said nothing. 

They have a hard time of it, haven't they?" 
said Mr. Crane. 

"Well, of course, some are treated kindly, 
very kindly," replied Charlie. "Others of them 
are not ; and some yet, sad to relate — some are 
starved, badly treated, and overladen from 
morning till night. In spite of it all, they do 
their best to serve their masters, till death 
comes, and their miserable lives are ended." 

"Dear me ! What a very sad picture." said 
Mr. Crane. "Human beings' are supposed to 
be wonderful creatures, and I wonder they can 
be so unkind. Poor cab-horses ! I think I'll 
fly off to London now, though I'm quite a 
stranger there, and take them some frogs and 
fishes." 

Before Charlie could say how useless Mr. 
Crane's mission would be, he had flown high 
up above the farm buildings, and was" soon 
far away. 

"Alas ! In trying to do this kind deed, it 
seemed Mr. Crane met his death — for he never 
came back to the farmyard again. Someone 
said he had been seen some distance off lying 
on the eround, dead, but nobody breathed a 
word of this to Mrs. Crane, who was plunged 
into the deepest grief at the loss of her hus- 
band. She became more dejected every day. 
At last she was comforted in a strange way. 
There was an old disused mirror which had 
been put out in the yard just lately, and as 
she was passing it one day she caught sight 
of her own reflection. 



WHALE SCHOOL IN. 

No Tardy Scholars Reported at Eastport 
Sea of Learning. 

A school of young whales, according to 
the Eastport, L. L, summer news corre- 
spondent, was a feature of the famous re- 
sort last summer. They were sighted sev- 
eral times and vast crowds were out on the 
beach to watch them at their lessons. 

The school kept from 9 to 12 and 1 to 3 



every day except Saturday and Sunday. 
There were classes for great whales and 
smaller whalelets, and a calfgarten for 
smallest whalecalfs, not over ten feet long. 
There were probably from sixty to eighty 
whales in attendance, and a corps of able 
and efficient instructors gave them the best 
possible drilling in all the subjects that 
make up a polished and educated whale. 

The classes in navigation were a specialty 
of this school. The scholars might be seen 
any fine morning on practice cruises off the 
beach, sailing up and down and following 
the directions of the teachers. 

There was a theoretical course, too, 
which of course the guests at Eastport 
beach could not see, as it was held at the 
bottom of the ocean. The difficult problems 
of trigonometry and navigation were there 
figured out on the sand by the young 
whales with their flippers. 

The under-water classes lasted an hour, 
to give the whales time to come up and 
breathe between classes. 

Half a mile out, the elocution class were 
at work, and it is said that they were spout- 
ing verse from the "Parlor Elocutionist." 

There was an exciting series of games 
one afternoon, after whale school was over. 
Many of the Eastport residents went out in 
motor yachts and rowboats to witness the 
sport. The student body got together after 
the events were over and, floating easily on 
the surface, gave the whale school yell, 
with remarkable spirit and precision. It 
was as follows : 

Squirt, squirt, squirt ; 

Flip, flip, flip ; 

Whale school, whale school, 

Zip, zip, zip! 

A painful incident occurred one morning 
in plain view of the residents of the beach. 
One of the calfgarten class had difficulties 
in saying his alphabet and was publicly 
whaled, weeping copiously all the while. 
There was a great disturbance for a while, 
as the calf had to take ten blows of the 
fluke. As soon as the punishment was over 
the young whale dried its eyes hurriedly on 
the back of its flipper and dived below to 
hide its shame. — New York Times. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



*?5 



NYA-GWA-IH, HOW THE BEAR LOST 
ITS TAIL. 

HARRIET M. CONVERSE. 
Myths and Legends 

Nya-gwa-ih, the bear, who was hunting 
the torest tor his winter store of nuts ana 
honey, had traveled tar trom his home when 
lie met an aged lox who lnlormed him that 
he had just passed the river where he saw 
some strange little animals dive down to 
a burrow beneath the water. He thought 
they were young otters, and had watcned 
tor their return but they had not appeared, 
and ne urged the bear to go with mm and 
endeavor to entice them Irom their hiding 
place. 

The credulous bear, smacking his lips and 
licking out his tongue in anticipation ol a 
feast, hunched himself down to the water 
where upon looking m he saw the reflection 
of his own face, and sat himself down to 
watch for its reappearance. 

Untiringly he waited, as the artful fox 
encouraged. At length it occurred to the 
bear to allure the unknown little creatures 
by hshing for them and the bear was a 
genial hsnerman. He had the patience to 
wait all the day by a stream, and the cun- 
ning to watch breathlessly, fearing to 
shadow the water, but now, alas he had no 
bait! What was he to do:' The artful fox 
suggested that he should swim to a log that 
was floating near, and after he had nxed 
himself hrm, to drop his tail in the water. 
Soon something would seize it, when he 
was to lift it up to the log and whip the 
game over to the shore where he would re- 
main and protect it for him. 

By the persuasions of the wily fox, the 
unsuspecting bear swam out to the log 
where he secured himself and dropped his 
tail into the water, and the tail of the bear 
was broad, and so long it reached near to 
the bottom of the river. 

Soon a something shook the tail, and as 
the bear lifted it up, he saw a wriggling 
little animal, not a bird, nor a fish, but a 
something of flesh very like a young otter, 
and he slung it across the stream to the fox. 
"That is fine!" said the fox. Again and 
again the bear lowered his tail in the water, 
to secure the shoal which seemed to have 
gathered around him. Whenever the tail 
shook, he would throw his game to the fox 
who would urge him on. This continued 



until a gusty north wind which chanced to 
be passing stopped in its wonder and derid- 
ing the bear, blew its cold breath over the 
water. And the river became quiet and its 
waves suddenly stretched out as smooth as 
a blanket. i\lo more could they chase each 
other in their race with the wind nor lap to 
the shore when it thirsted in the sun, for 
the north wind had frozen them down by 
its breath. But the foolish and unheeding 
bear, intent on his game, waited till night. 
JNIo more came the tremulous snipping at 
his tail, no longer his tail grew heaving 
with the wrigglers. The bear, who could 
not see the crafty fox devouring his pile of 
game, exclaimed, "How suddenly the 
wrigglers have stopped biting my tail ! 
What does it mean?" 

The subtle fox caught sniffing and chok- 
ing over a bone, replied : "Something has 
driited against them. Wait till it passes." 
And the good natured bear who in his 
mind was counting the game which he had 
thrown to the shore, saw the night coming, 
and thought of his home to which he knew 
he must hasten. He had his honey and his 
nuts beside his river game to carry, and the 
way was long. As he was hxing himself to 
travel, in his hospitality he invited the fox 
to return with him when they would par- 
take of the feast together; and if the fox 
was willing, he could help carry the game. 
But no answer came to his invitation. 
Again he called to the fox. No answer, and 
he raised himself to jump from the log. 
But his tail was "so heavy." "Some big 
game," gleefully thought he, as he pulled 
stronger. "My! how that game pulls!" 
thought the bear. "Now I will bring it." 
And with a vigorous jump, he made a 
lunge for the shore when lo! his tail was 
left in the water ! The satirical north wind 
had frozen it fast ! And the friendly, advis- 
ing fox! Where was he? Vanished! And 
the game? A pile of half chewed bones on 
the bank! With a sigh and a sneering 
smile, the tailless bear lifted his load 01 
honey and nuts and lumbered along to his 
cave miles away! 

Thus the bear lost his tail and his tailless 
descendants have never been fishermen. 



I think that every mother's son, 

And every father's daughter, 
Should drink at least till twenty-one, 

Just nothing but cold water. 
And after that, they might drink tea, 

But nothing any stronger, 
If all folks would agree with me, 

They'd live a great deal longer. 



176 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



THE WISE MAN OF THE INK WELL. 

BY DORIS WEBB. 

I CAN'T tell you where he lives or how to get 
there, because if I did you'd go and ask him 
questions, and that would make him cross, 
but you can look for him yourself if you like, 
and it's very probably impossible that you may 
find him. I'm talking, of course, about the Wise 
Man of the In k Well, and if he ever reads this 
himself I sincerely hope he won't mind having me 
tell all about how Chester Young went to see him. 
Chester was the youngest Young, but he was not 
so very young at that — not nearly so young as 
he had been seven or eight years before, when he 
was too young to care about being called the 
youngest Young. At that time he didn't mind 
having four brothers older than himself, but at 
the time this story begins it made him feel very 
sad indeed. When his mother's friends said, 
'"Why, you're the baby, aren't you?" he would 
feel quite indignant and make up his mind to 
grow just as fast as he could and catch up with 
Allan, who came next to him. But somehow he 
never seemed to manage it, for when he was five 
and Allen was six na would think, "Now just three 
months more and I'll be six, too," but before he 
got there Allan would jump into seven and leave 
him a whole year beiiind again. 

At last Chester said to himself, "I really must 
find a way to skip a year and not be the youngest 
Young any longer." So he asked ail those he met 
if they had any idea how to skip a year. But, 
although they could skip rope and skip stones and 
skip lessons, none of them had ever tried to skip 
a year, and most of them declared it couldn't be 
aone. At last, however, some one said to him, 
"If you really want to find out go and ask the 
Wise Man of the Ink Well, who knows more about 
everything than anybody else." 

"That's a good idea," said Chester. "How shall 
I find the Wise Man of the Ink Well?" 

"Why," said the friend, "you just go so and so 
and such and such a wheres" (you know I told 
you I couldn't tell you where it was) "and a little 
bit to the west, and then come half a mile back 
again on the same road and, facing the left, walk 
five steps to the right, and there, right on the 
broad seashore, you will find the Ink Well." 

"That's very clear indeed," said Chester, who 
was a clever little boy; "and what shall I do after 
that?"_ 

"First," saj d his friend, "let me warn you not 
to go six steps to the right, because then you'd 
walk into the well." 

"I'll do my best to be careful," said Chester. 

"And then," continued his friend, "if you look 
about you, you will probably see the Wise Man 
of the Ink Well, and if he feels like it he may 
talk to you, and if he doesn't he won't. He prob- 
ably won't." 

Of course that was a little discouraging, but 
still, it was the only suggestion Chester had heard 
as yet, so he thanked his friend and started out 
for the Ink Well at that identical moment. 

He followed all his friend's directions carefully 
and conscientiously, and it wasn't more than two 
minutes over three-quarters of an hour before he 
stood on the edge of the Ink Well on the sandy 
shore. (He had carefully refrained from stepping 
into the Ink Well.) There, by the side of the Ink 
Well, sitting on the sand was an old man who 
looked so intensely wise that Chester knew him at 
once. He was studiously writing in a big book 
and frequently dipping his pen into the well. 

'Good morning," said Chester pleasantly. "Are 
you very busy today?" 



But the Wise Man said absolutely nothing and 
dipped his pen carefully into the well. 

"What a pleasant beach this is!" said Chester. 
"Don't you think so?" 

But the Wise Man kept entirely silent and wrote 
something in his book. 

Chester was beginning to feel a little bit dis- 
couraged, but he decided to try again. 

"I'm Chester Young," he said calmly. "I'm the 
youngest Young, because I'm only eight, and I 
live at" — 

"Dear me, dear me," said the Wise Man; "now 
I have to write that down," and dipping his pen 
into the well he wrote carefully in his book: — 
"He's Chester Young. He's the youngest Young, 
because he's only eight and he lives at" — 

"Whatever made you write that down?" asked 
Chester in surprise. 

"I had to,!' replied the Wise Man calmly. "I'm 
writing down everything I know, and please don't 
tell me anything more or I'll never get finished. 
You see," he continued confidentially, "I got tired 
of carrying around so much knowledge, so I 
started writing down things and then immediately 
forgetting them. I've filled those five hundred and 
seventy-nine volumes," pointing to a huge pile, 
"with things 1 knew, and now I've forgotten them 
all, and you don't know what a relief it is. I've 
trained myself to forget a thing the minute I write 
it down, and I haven't the slightest idea now what 
your name is or how old you are or where you live. 
Only, you see, it will be very convenient to have it 
written here for anybody who wants to find out." 

"How clever!" cried Chester. "I think it's ever 
so much harder to forget than to remember. 

"It takes a great mind," said the Wise Man 
placidly, "and I find it a great comfort. It leaves 
me time to do lots of things. Yesterday I made 
a fountain pen." 

"Oh, I know," said Chester. "Uncle has one. 
It's a pen with ink in it." 

The Wise Man shook his head. "Mine's quite 
different," he said. "It's a real fountain — an ink 
fountain. Shall I turn it on for you?" 

"I'd love to see it," said Chester, "if — if it 
doesn't splatter much." 

"It won't splatter over here,' said the Wise Man. 
"It's right in the middle of the beach and con- 
nected, of course, with the well. Stand back and 
I'll turn it on." He pressed the button in a rock 
as he spoke and out of the middle of the beach 
rose a graceful fountain of ink from a pen stand- 
ing on end. "There!" said the Wise Man, "isn't 
that lovely? It would black your shoes for you in 
a moment! But, of course, I mustn't waste ink," 
and he turned it off again. Chester was so 
charmed and interested in the black sand where 
the fountain had been playing that he stood gazing 
at it some minutes in silence. At last he came to 
himself and said suddenly: — 

"Oh, I want to know, please, how I can skip a 
year, because I don't like being the youngest 
Young." 

"Well, well!" said the Wise Man. "Dear me! 
It's years since any one asked me how to skip a 
year. Of course, it's one of the first things I 
learned in my youth. My father taught me how 
to do it." 

"Oh, I'm so glad!" cried Chester, in delight, 
jumping up and down. 

"Only," continued the Wise Man, "I wrote all 
about it in one of my books, so, of course, I've 
forgotten it." 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



177 



"Which book was it?' asked Chester quickly. 

"I really couldn't say," said the Wise Man, 
"and I haven't indexed them yet, but, of course, 
if you looked over the five hundred and seventy- 
nine volumes you'd be sure to find it. And they're 
very interesting reading. Lots about spelling 
rules, and whole chapters devoted to multiplica- 
tion. You'd be sure to enjoy them." 

"I'm afraid," said Chester sadly, "I haven't 
time. I didn't tell mother I was coming, so I'll 
have to go right home again. I have luncheon at 
one." 

"Quite right," said the Wise Man. "Goodby!" 
A.nd picking up his pen he wrote "He has luncheon 
it one" in his book. 

Chester ran away home as fast as he could, fol- 
lowing his friend's directions backward and trying 
not to feel too disappointed about being the 
youngest Young. 

But when he got near his house Allan came 
racing to meet him. "Oh, Chester!" he called, 
"you're not the youngest Young any more. We've 
got a new sister, and she's a girl, so she won't 
mind being the youngest at all. Aren't you glad. 

And Chester was the gladdest boy in town. 

But there's just one other thing I'd like to tell 
you. You know that black sand made by the foun- 
tain pen of the Wise Man of the Ink Well some- 
times gets tracked way down the beach, and if 
any time when you're digging on the seashore you 
come upon layers of blackish sand you may be 
sure the Wise Man of the Ink Well is not far away. 
— New York Herald. 









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Outline of U. S. History 

SUITABLE FOR THE GRADES. SECOND EDITION NOW READY. 

A SUCCESSFUL TEACHER SAYS: 
The Palmer Co., Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen: — During the passing term, I have used the Kingsley's Outline of United States History with 
my teachers, who were preparing to take the examination for licenses to teach in New' York City. I am glad to say 
that we are satisfied with that book. It is more than a mere outline; it is in itself sufficient for review, without the 
aid of a large text-book. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Yours truly, T. J. McEVOY. 

The above-named book will be'sent postpaid on receipt of 35 cents. 

THE PALMER COMPANY 

50 Bromfield Street, Boston, Mass 



c T^f>Gygx^pici < op@s 



FOR CHRISTMAS 

AWARDED FOUR /"'T"C V TPC< 
GOLD MEDALS WlX 1 & 

Re produ ctionj^the 
Worlds Great 

ONecInT 

EACH FOR. 25 OR MORE S%x8 

SEND TODAY 3 TWO CENT 

STAMPS FOR CATALOGUE 

OF 10 00 MINIATURE 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

THREE PICTURES 
AND A COLORED 
BIRD PICTURE^ 



AWARDED FOUR GOLD ilEDALS. 

SEND TODAY 

25 Cents for 

25 Art Subjectsor 

25 Madonnas or 

25 for Children or 

25 Kittens, Dogs, etc. or 

25 on; Life of Christ or 

$1.00 for any four 

sets or for Art Set 

No. 10 of 100 

Choice pictures. 
Send 50 cents for 10 

Extra Size pictures, 

10X12 

Madonna Booklet. 25c. 
The one-cent pictures are 4 to 6 times the size of this 
Madonna. 

THB PERRY PICTURES CO. 
Box 630 flalden, Mass 



ORDER TO=DAY 













i ftncV 












Price, 25 Cuts 



A Few Valuable Books for Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

We keep in stock many books not found in this list, and supply ANY book on the market at lowest prices. 
Put right in your order the book you want, give us the name of publisher if you can, and we will send it. 

Kindergarten Hand Books Especially for Primary Teachers 

These books give just the 
information desired by pri- 
mary-kindergarten teachers 
The works are all amply ill- 
ustrated and are bound in 
limp cloth. 

The First Gift in Primary 

Schools. By J. H. Shults. With 

several illustrations, songs 

and games, price 15c. 
A Second Gift Story or Miss 

Arden'sWay. By Violet Lynn. 

This volume tells in attract- 
ive story form how teachers 

can use the second gift in 

correlation with the regular 

primary work. Price 25 cents. 

Illustrated. 
The Third Gift in Primary 

Schools. — Building with 

Cubes. By J. H. Shults. 

Written especially for Pri- 
mary teachers, containing 

lesson suggestions and hints 

relative to correlation with 

primary school work. Fully 

illustrated. Limp cloth. 

Price 20c. 
The Fourth Gift in Primary 

School S.— Building with 
Bricks. By J. H. Shults. AJhandbook for the primary teacher 
on the use of this gift in correlation with primary school 
work. The only work of this kind written especially for pri- 
mary teachers. Fully illustrated. Limp cloth, price 20c. 

The Seventh Gift in Primary Schools. — Tablet Laying and 
Parquetry Work By J. H. Shults. With many illustrations 
hints and suggestions, enabling primary teachers to use the 
gift in correlation with their primary school work. Limp 
cloth. Price 20c. 

The Tenth Gift — Stick Laying— In Primary Schools.-- By 
Alice Buckingham. The only book of its kind published in 
America. Contains nearly 200 illustrations with complete 
instructions for the use of the gift in primary schools; price 
25c. 

Eleventh Gift— Ring laying in Primary Schools-Withmany 
illustrations for both ring-laying and ring and stick-laying 
combined. Limp cloth, price 20c. 

The Thirteenth Gift- The Point— In Primary Work. By J. 
H. Shults. Illustrating the work with lentils, corn, peas and 
other seeds. Limp cloth, nrice 15c. 

Peas and Cork Work in Primary Schools. By J. H. Shults. 
Illustrated. Limp cloth, price 15c. 

Reed and Raffia Construction Work in Primary 
Schools. By Mary A. Shults. Fully illustrated. It teaches 
how to use both reeds and raffia in primary schools, with 
children of every grade. Complete instructions for making 
mats, baskets, and many other articles, both from reeds and 
raffia alone, and with a combination of both; price 25c. 








Stories, Games, flusic, Etc. 

All books sent prepaid on receipt of price 
unless the postage is indicated. 

One Hundred New Kindergarten Songs, $1.00 
Cloth. The latest and best. 

Graded Memory Selections 16 

A Christmas Festival Service, paper. . . .25 
By Nora Smith. 

Instrumental Characteristic Rhythms. 

Part I, boards, $1.50; Fart II, paper, 1.00 
By Clara L. Anderson. 

Boston Collection of Kindergarten 

Stories, cloth (0 

Songs and Games for little Ones, net. 1.60 
Postage, 15c. 
By Harriet S. Jenks and Gertrude Walker. 

Song: Stories for the Kindergarten, 

boards l.gn 

By Mildred J. and Patty S. Hill. 

St. N Icholns Songs, boards, net, 1.25 

Postage, 24c. 

The Songs and Moslc of Froebel's 

Mother Play, cloth 1.50 









FINGER 

pLftVS 








Send to us for 
any book pub- 
lished and we'll 
supply it at low- 
est prices. Give 
name of pub- 
lisher, if possi- 
ble and price. 



Timely Games and Songs for the Kin- 
dergarten, paper 00 

By Clare Sawyer Reed. 

In the Child's World, cloth 8.00 

By Emllle Poulaaon. 

Half Hundred Stories (207 pages), cloth .76 
Dozen and Two Kindergarten Songs. 

Paper $ JO 

Louis Pauline Warner. 

Folk and Other Songs for Children 1.00 

Jane Bird Radcllffe-Whltehead. 

Kindergarten Chimes, paper 1.00 

" " boards 1.25 

" " cloth 1.50 

Kate D. Wlggln. 

Little Songs for Little Singer* .28 

W. T. Glffe. 

Motion Songs 25 

Mrs. Boardman. 

Posies from a Child's Garden of Verses. 1.00 

Wm. Arms Fisher. 

Sixty Songs from Mother Goose's Jubilee 1.00 

L. E. Orth. 

Song Echoes from Child Land 2.00 

Miss Harriet S. Jenks and Mrs. Mabel Rust. 
Songs of Nature 60 

E. U. Emerson and K. L. Brown. 

Songs of Sunshine 1.00 

Stories in Song 75 

Thirty Songs for Children .50 

Master St. Elmo 1.00 

Postage, 12 cents. 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Musical Poems 1.00 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Flower Ballads, cloth 1.00 

" " paper .50 

Mrs. C. S. Senour. 

Callsthenlc Songs, cloth. * 85 

By Flora Parsons. 

Finger Plays, cloth • 1.25 

By Emllle Poulsson. 

The Story Hour, cloth 1.00 

By Kate Douglas Wiggln. 

Myths and Mother Plays, cloth 1.00 

By Sara Wiltse. 

Flower Ballads, paper, .50; cloth 1.00 

By Caro 8. Senour. 

riiscellaneons 

Commentary on Froebel's Mother Play. .$1.25 
By J. Denton Snider. 

The Psychology of Froebel's Play Gifts, 1.25 

By J. Denton Snider. 
Mottoes and Commentaries of Froebel's 

Mother Play 1.00 

Translated by Susan E. Blow. 

Outline of a Year's Work In the Kin- 
dergarten .60 

By Anna Deveraux. 

Blackboard Designs, paper .00 

By Margaret B. Webb. 

Education by Plays and Games .50 

By G. E. Johnson. 

The Study of Children, cloth 1.00 

By Frances Warner. 

Nursery Ethics, cloth l.Ou 

By Florence WInterburn. 
The Color Primer. Price. Teachers' Edi- 
tion. .10; Pupils' Edition 05 

The Color Primer Is Issued In a paper 
cover. The teachers' edition. Including as a 
part of Itself the pupils' edition, has 80 
pages and the pupils' edition alone 24 
pages. 
Water Colors In the Schoolroom. Price, 

boards 25 

By Milton Bradley. 
This Is a practical handbook on the use 
of Water Colors 

An artistic book, illustrated with twelve 
colored plates. ' 



Address II orders to 



American Kindergarten Supply House 

276-278-280 River Street. Manistee, Mich. 



A BAKER'S DOZEN FOR 



CITY CHILDREN 

New Book of Kindergarten Songs 

By ISABEL VALENTINE and LILEON CLAXTON 

Two Practical Kindergartners of the New York City Public School System 

With introduction by JENNY B. MERRIL, Supervisor of Kinder 
gartens, New York City Public Schools. 



THIRTEEN SONGS WRITTEN a | a result of years of teaching 
THIRTFFN SONCiS that have been thoroughly tried and 

I I him LLI > ^>Wi TVJ^> PROVEN IMMENSELY SUCCESSFUL. 
THIRTEEN SONGS EXPRESSIVE OF THE CHILD'S own everyday 
THIRTEEN SONGS READILY DRAMATIZED FROM THE CHILDREN'S 

THTRTFFN ^sONPtS that city kindergartners must have and 

lllllVlLjLjn OWINVjO OTHER KINDERGARTNERS SHOULD HAVE 

THTRTFFN SONf,S bright, cheery, new. with smooth flowing 
i i nrv i LjLi1> wjwnvjkj harmonies and simplicity of rythyma. 

The thirteen songs are clearlv printed on good paper and bound with strong linen mak- 
ing^a very attractive and durable book, just the thing for an EASTER GIFT. 



Price 50 Cents 



Add 5c extra for Postage 
If ordered sent by mail. 



We will send the KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE for one" 
yearandacopy of "A BAKER'S DOZEN FOR CITY CHILDREN," 
$1.55 prepaid, to any address in the United States on receipt of $1.10 

£ (Canadian or Foriegn subscribers add 20 cents or 40 cents respec- 

*^* tively, for postage.) You may use this offer to renew your sub- 

Si 00 scriptionif you like. 



NOTE: 



This offer may not appear again, so attend to it today. Address 

The Kindergarten-Magazine Co. 

59 West 96th. Street, NEW YORK. 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCIES OF AMERICA 

Every progressive teacher who desires promotion should take op the matter with some wide-awake Teachers' Agency. Beyond 
the scope of a teacher's personal acquaintance there is not much hope of advancing unaided. Some agencies have positions wait- 
ing for experienced teachers and all should be able to advise you to your advantage. If you contemplate moving to a distant sec* 
tion, let some agency secure you a position before you go. Any of the following will doubtless send particulars in reply to postal: 

Positions- -for Teachers 



TTPT A'^T- TPT? ^. ^ e k ave & reat difficulty in 

J- XLxA.v^jrj.XI/rvO supplying the demand for 
strong Primary Teachers. Wages will please you. 

Write U5 

Owen Pacific Coast Teacher's Agency 

Mcrtlnnville, Oregan. 



THE EMPIRE 



TEACHERS' AGENCY 
». B. COOK, Mauser 

Syracuse, N.iY. 
wc not help yo*J 

An Agency with agents. 



LOCATES TOER6ARTEN TEACHERS 

Because of the scarcity of candidates we will 
register any kindergarten teacher and accept 
registration fee later, after we place you. 

We als» extend time in payment of com- 
mission. 

Write To-day. Send Photo 

We have placed hundreds of others, » Why may 

Empire Teachers" Agency, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 



OUR 15th YEAR BOOK Bfr MMfffe iThe HAZARD TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Weslers State*, and what we are doing in»e«t- ( 317 Kasota Building. - MINNEAPOLIS. MINN. 
ttSSSSZ M^m&p! WriCS '-««« 615 Empire State Building. SPOKANE. WASH. 
p ffice . 1224 Railway Exchange - DENVER. COLO . 



SAINTS EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE 



NBNBY SABIN teey Mt» Saasaa ELBRIDQB N. SAB1N 

Daria* fast year ptaesdtsachsrsln So eaantlee in lews, and In Minnesota, North and S» 

Batata, Nsfcraaka. Colorado. Wyoming Utah, ldah«, IHeBtana, Washington and Ore 

KM. Addrass. HENUT BABIM, rianhattan Balldlaf, Dm Moines, Iowa. 



Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Clerk, 



Pioneer Teachers* Agency, 

Will help yon get a new or better position, whether you are a Teacher, 
Book-keeper, or Stenographer. Enroll now for fall vacancies In schools. 

The demand for good teachers in all the Western and Southern States Is far 
greater than the supply. 

Write for application blanks and full particulars. 



ROME 



TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Teachers wanted far good positions In all parts of the United States 
Rafistration fas holds goo* until we secure a position for you. 

W. X. Crielor, Rome, Now YorK 



Primary Teachers Wanted 



Taeaaafae m»% 
tBaaa wttk aanso nasi Ian 

" M»B ~ 



•wa u. nromvroH , 

IB' AGaarCT, BTB W« 



M MsrsatMfJaBi to 



Teachers' 
Agency 



1. Adarits %* neaiaerahis only the hetser else* af teacher* 

registration fee returned te other e at ease. 

2. Retuma fee if its Berries is not eatiaf acrory . 

§. Makea specialty ef placing aseaasera ia tfee MiidM) 
I States and in the West — largest •stories paid «fccre> 

2s eoadncted hy experienced edncatora and aaaaaai 



tar 

° mr S Has had phenominal e< 
Latest 

Wow 



BeeUet' 



line Use peat year. 
' ia the time to register. 



ifeSE 



naeradiar 



S oad for ear ear Booklet. 
Address, 497-330 Peurteaath Arena*. 

Beat. P. JMINBAPOLIS. nlMBV 



If you want a position on the Pacific 
Coast or in Montana or Idaho, it will 
pay you to register with the 

Pacific Teachers' Agency 

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 

Send for Manual and Registration 
blank. Address 

B. W. BRINTNALL, Manager, 
523 New York Block, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Teach in the 
Sunny South 

This section offer* better in- 
ducements to aspiring teacher*, 
than any other, and teacher* are 
In great demand. If yoa want • 
good position for next school year 
yon can secare It in this field. Per 
fall information write 

CLAUDE J. BELI* 

Naahrllle, Ten*. 

Proprietor the Bell Teaaaann* 

Ageney. 

GO SOUTH 

Many Teachers Wantoj 



An Agency that 
Recommend* In 15 Southern State* 
Ala.. Ark., Fla., Ga., Ky., Md., 
Mies., Mo., N. C, S. C.. Tenn.. 

Tex., W. Va. 
Also conducts a 

Special Florida Teacher*' Agency 
Supplies Teachers for UnlYeraitica, 
Colleges, Private, Normal, High, 
and Grade Schools; Special Teach- 
er* of Commercial Branches, Man- 
ual Training, Domestic Science, 
Art, Drawing, Music, Elocution, 
Physical Culture, Athletic*. 
Deals In School Property 

Calls come from School Official*. 
Recommends all the year round. 
Register now. Best chance* com* 

early. 
SOUTHERN EDUCATIONAL RE- 
VIEW TEACHERS AOENCT 
CHATTANOOGA, TENN. 



THE CLARK TEACHERS' AGENCIES 



Bend for OUR PLATFORM, giving- foil lnforanaliou auu u«e 
teachers and school officers. 




INDEX TO CONTENTS 




Nature Study in the First Four Grades, W. T. B. S. Imlay, 


180 


The Intermediate School, - - Bridget M, F. CauMeld. 


182 


Letters to a Young Kindergartner Harrietta Melissa Mills, 


188 


Devolopment of Personality in Children, Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 


190 


i The I. K. U. and the N. E. A. 


191 


What Shall the Children Read, 


193 


Education in China, - - - 


194 


A Playhouse, - - • Hypatia Hooper. 


195 


Program Suggestions for March - Bertha Johnston 


197 


The Wind, a poem ..-.-.- 


203 


The Use of Kindergarten Material - 


204 


GAU-WI-DI-NE and GO-HAY, Winter 




and Spring. - . Harr ... 


210 


Teasles— Keep Out ....... 


212 


Copyright, 1908, by J. H. Shults. 





Volume XXI, No. 6. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



•KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 
WE ARE HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for Catalogue. 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 80=82 Wabash Avenue., Chicago, 111. 




THE 



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PIANO 



THE 

WORLD 

RENOWNED 




The many points 
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were never better 
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It is built to sat- 
isfy the most cul- 
tivated tastes : : 



The advantage 
of such a piano 
appeals at once 
to the discrimi- 
nating intelli- 
gence of the 
leading artists. 



SOHMER &> CO. 



WAREROOMS -COB. 5th AVE. AND 22nd St. 



NEW YORK 



Lakeside Classics 

AND 

Books for Supplementary 
Reading 

Please send for descriptive list of Selec- 
tions from English and American au- 
thors and for stories prepared for all 
grades from third to last year in High 
School. 132 numbers in Lakeside 
series at prices from a cents to 35 cents, 
depending on amount of material and 
style of binding;— any book sent post- 
paid on receipt of price. 

Ainsworth & Company 

377-388 Wabash Avenue 

CHICAGO, ILL 



An Unusual and Extraordinary Opportunity! 

rnPP SAMPLE OFFER 

1 HlWLi 18 OAY* ONLY @ 



Beanttfnl Bright Sp&rkllog Fuaons 



$5 Barnatto Diamond Ring 



of, the most exacting:, ploaset the moat fastid- 
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diamond. As ainenns of in traducing thin 
marvelous and wonderful ncintil latino o*m t 
and securing as many new friends »i quickly 
as possible, we are making a special induce* 
nient for the new year. We want you to wear 
this beautiful Ring, thin mastttrpitc* of man's 
handicraft, this simulation that sparkles with 
all the beauty, and flashes with all the fire of 

*>/L GENUINE DIAMOND • 

pt the first water. We. want you to show it to 

?'our friends and take orders for us. at it sells 
taelf— sells at sight— and makes 100% Profit 
for you, absolutely without effort on your part. 

We want good, honest representatives everywhere, in every lo- 
cality, city or country, in fact. Id every country throughout the worlJ, both m*a> 
and woratB, who will not t*tl or pawn tbt Barnatto Simulation Diamond* 
under the protons* that thoy ate Gonulno Gemi. If you want to wear a ilaio* 
letjon diamond, to tb* ordinary observer almost like unco a gom of the puree* 
ray oorono, a fitting eubatituto for tbo genuine; or If yeu want ttaak* bshi, 
don't wait— ACT TODAY, at this adTtrtliemtst may not appoar.aor thin nnot- 
lordlnary opportunity occur, again. Fill out tbt coupe* Me* 
i, flrttterrtd. 




The Barnatto Diamond Co. Wriu ••*• ■*■• of p» ow -» »*»• 

yon saw this t4. 

Olrard Bldg., Chicafo. *^__ 

Sin:— PUato ttad Frtt, Sample Offer, King, Earrlngt, Stud m tfcarf 
(Stick) Pin, eataloru*. 

Nam* ...*». 

R.f.D.R.N* Street 

TerwtUr City • 



P.O.B0X. 



State. 



pREE! 

1 Kinde 



PRIM ART TEACHERS 

will be Interested to know 
that we put up » 

Kindergarten Material 

• Especially for primary schools and wll I 
send with our catalogue FREE Instruction* 
for using the material In primary schools. 
Address J. H. SHULTS, fUnUtee. Mich. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Massachusetts Training Schools 

BOSTON 

Miss Laura Fisher's 

TRAINING SCHOOL FOR 

KINDERGARTNERS 

Normal Course, 2 years. 

Post-Graduate Course. 

Special Course. 

For circulars addresss 
292 Marlborough St., BOSTON, MASS. 



Kindergarten Training School 

82 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars addresss 
MISS LUCY HARRIS SYMONDS. 



MISS ANNIE COOLIDGE RUST'S 

Froebel School of Kinder- 
garten Normal Classes 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Regular Two Years' Course. 

Post-Graduate Course. Special Courses. 



MISS RUST, PIERCE BLDG., 

Copley Square. 

BOSTON 

Perry Kindergarten Normal 
School 

MRS. ANNIE MOSELEY PERRY, 
Principal, 



18 Huntington Ave., 



BOSTON, MASS. 



New York Training Schools 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

134 Newbury Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

Regular Two Tears' Course. 

Special One Year Course for graduate 
students. 

Students' Home at the Marenholz. 

For circulars address 

LCCY WHEELOCK. 

BOSTON 

The Garland 
Kindergarten Training School 

Normal Course, two years. 
Home-making Course, one year. 
MRS. MARGARET J. STANNARD, 
Principal. 

19 Chestnut Street, Boston. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training Schools 

Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

SPRINGFIELD— LONGMEADOW, MASS. 



The Kraus Seminary for 
Kindergartners 

REGULAR AND EXTENSION 
COURSES. 

MRS. MARIA KRAUS-BOELTE 

Hotel San Remo, Central Park West 

75th Street, - NEW YORK CITY 



THE ELLMAN SCHOOL 
Kindergarten Normal Class 

POST-GRADUATE CLASSES. 

Twenty-fifth Year. 

167 W. 57th Street, NEW YORK CITY 

Opposite Carnegrie Hall. 



Miss Jenny Hunter's 
Kindergarten Training School 

15 West 127th St., NEW YORK CITY. 

Two Years' Course, Connecting Class and 
Primary Methods. 

ADDRESS 
2079 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF THE 

Buffalo Kindergarten Assoc'n. 

Two Years' Course. 
For particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
86 Delaware Avenue, - Buffalo, N. Y. 

Connecticut Training Schools 

BRIDGEPORT 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

FOR 

KINDERGARTNERS 

IN AFFILIATION WITH 

The New York Froebel Normal 

Will open its eighth year September 18. 
For circulars, information, etc., address 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal 

179 West Avenue, 
BRIDGEPORT, - - CONN. 

The Fannie A. Smith 

Froebel Kindergarten 

and Training School 

Good Kindergarten teachers have no 
trouble in securing well-paying positions. 
In fact, we have found the demand for 
our graduates greater than we can sup- 
ply. One and two years' course. 

For Catalogue, address 

FANNIE A. SMITH, Principal, 
Lafayette Street, BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



ADELPHI COLLEGE 

Lafayette Avenue, St. James and Clifton Places. BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 

Normal School for Kindergartners 

Two Years' Course. Acklross Prof. Anna E. Harvey, Supt 



Established 1896 



The New York 

Froebel Normal 

KINDERGARTEN and PRIMARY TRAINING 



College Preparatory. Teachers' Academic. Music 



E. LYELL EARL, Ph. D., Principal. 

HARR1ETTE M. MILLS, Head of Department of Kindergarten Training. 

MARIE RUEF HOFEK, Department of Music. 



Eleventh Year opens Wednesday, Sept. 18, 1907 
Write for circulars. Address, 

59 West 96th Street, New York. N. Y. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Michigan Training Schools 



Grand Rapids 
Kindergarten Training School 



Winter and Summer Terms. 
Oct. 1st, 1908, to June 1st, 1909. 
July 1st to August 21st, 1909. 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal. 
MAT L. OG1LBT, Registrar. 

Shepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



Maine Training Schools 

iVIiss Norton's Training School 
for Kindergartners 

PORTLAND MAINE. 

Two Years' Course. 

For circulars addresss 

15 Dow Street, - PORTLAND, ME. 

Miss Abby N. Norton 

Ohio Training Schools 

OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 



Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



Indiana Training Schools 



Kindergarten Training 

Exceptional advantages — daily practice. 
Lectures from Professors of Oberlin Col- 
lege and privilege of Elective Courses ir 
the College at special rates. Charge? 
moderate. Graduates readily find posi- 
tions. 

For Catalogue address Secretary 
OBERLIN KINBERGARDEN ASSOCIA- 
TION, 
Drawer K, Oberlin, Ohio. 



CLEVELAND KINDERGARTEN 
TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with the 
CHICAGO KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 



(Founded in 1894) 
Course of study under direction of Eliza- 
beth Harrison, covers two years in Cleve- 
land, leading to senior and normal courses 
in the Chicago Kindergarten Course. 

MISS NETTA FARIS. Principal. 
MRS. W. R. WARNER, Manager. 



The Teachers' College 
of Indianapolis 

For the Training of Kindergartners and 
Primary Teachers. 

Regular Course two years. Preparatory 
Course one year. Post-Graduate Course 
for Normal Teachers, one year. Primary 
training a part of the regular work. 

Classes formed in September and Feb- 
ruary. 

90 Free Scholarships Granted 

Each Year. 

Special Primary Class in May and June. 
Send for Catalogue. 

Mrs. Eliza A. B laker. Pres. 

THE WILLIAM N. JACKSON MEMOR- 
IAL INSTITUTE, 

23d and Alabama Streets. 



The Richmond Training School 
for Kindergartners 

14 West Main Street. 
DRAWING, SINGING, PHYSICAL CUL- 
TURE. 

ALICE N. PARKER, Frincipai. 

Two years in course. Froebel's theory 
and practice. Also a third year course 
for graduates. 

SPECIAL LECTURES. 



Kentucky Training Schools 



TRAINING SCHOOL OF THE 

Louisville Free Kindergarten 
Association 

Louisville, Ky. 

FACULTY: 
Miss Mary Hill, Supervisor 
Mrs. Robert D. Allen. Senior Critic and 

Training Teacher. 
Miss Alexina G. Booth. History and Phil- 
osophy of Education. 
Miss Jane Akin. Primary Sunday School 

Methods. 
Miss Allene Seaton, Manual Work. 
Miss Frances Ingram, Nature Study. 
Miss Anna Moore, Primary Methods. 
Miss Margaret Byers, Art Work. 



New Jersey Training Schools 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Years' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. J. 



OHIO COLUMBUS 

Kindergarten Normal Training School 

-EIGHTEENTH YEAR BEOINS SEPTEMBER 25, 1907 



171b and Bread 
Streets 



Froebelian Philosophy. Gifts. Occupation. Stories. Ga 

Psychology and Nature Work taught at Ohio State Uni' 

For information, ad.lresi 



s, Music and Drawing 
'Slty— two years' course 
i iz/idetii N Samuel. I 



Illinois Training Schools 
Kindergarten Training School 



Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 

Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 

For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich, 
ave., Chicago. 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

at CHICAGO COMMONS, 180 Grand Ave. 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mis Amelia Hofer, Principal. 

THIRTEENTH YEAR. 

Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement. Fine equipment. For 
circulars and information write to 

MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

180 Grand Ave., Chicago. 



Chicago Froebel Association 

Training Class for Kindergartners. 

(Established 1876.) 

Two Years' Course. Special Courses un- 
der Professors of University of Chicago 
receive University credits. For circulars 
apply to 

MRS. ALICE H. PUTNAM, or MISS M. 
L. SHELDON, Associate Principals, 

1008 Fine Arts Building, Chicago, 111. 



CHICAGO 

[DER6ARTEN 

INSTITUTE 

Gertrude House, 40 Scott Street 



Regular Course— Two Years. 
Post-graduate Course — One Year. 
Supplementary Course — One Year. 
Non-professional Home Making 

Course — One Year. 

University Credits 
Residence for students at Gertrude 

House. 



DIRECTORS 

Miss CAROLINE C. CRON1SE 
Mrs. MARY B. PAGE 
Mrs. ETHEL ROE L1NDGREN 
Miss FRANCES E.. NEWTON 

Send for Circulars 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Pennsylvania Training Schools 



Miss Hart's 

Training School 
for Kindergartners 

Re-opened Oct. 1st, 19#, at 1615 
Walnut Street, Philadelphia. The 
work will include Junior, Senior 
Graduate and Normal Trainers 
Courses, and a Model Kindergar- 
ten. For particulars address 

Miss Caroline M. C. Hart, 
The' Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



The Philadelphia Training 
School for Kindergartners 

Keopens October 2, 1908. 
Junior, Senior and Special Classes. 
Model Kindergarten. 

Address 

MRS. M. L. VAN KIRK. Principal, 

1333 Pine Street, - Philadelphia, Pa. 



California Training Schools 



Pittsburgh and Allegheny 
Kindergarten College 

ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

Regular Course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. 
Seventeenth year begins Sept. 30, 1908 
For Catalogue, address 
Mrs. William McCracken, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avenue, PITTSBURGH, PA 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING CLASS 

State Accredited List. 

Seventeeth Year opens September, 1907. 
Address 

Miss Grace Everett Barnard, 

1374 Franklin Street, OAKLAND, CAL. 



Wisconsin Training Schools 



Milwaukee State Normal 
School 

Kindergartem Training Department. 

Two Tears' Course for graduates of 
four-years' high schools. Faculty of 
twenty-five. Special advantages. Tuition 
free to residents of Wisconsin; 540 per 
year to others. School opens the first 
Tuesday in September. 

Send for Catalogue to 
NINA C. VANDEWALKER, Director. 



Washington Training Schools 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Columbia Kindergarten 
Training School 

2115 California Ave., cor. Connecticut Av. 

Certificate, Diploma and Normal Course 
Principals: 

SARA KATHARINE LIPPINCOTT, 
SUSAN CHADICK BAKER. 



Virginia Training Schools 

The Richmond Training School 

for Kindergartners 

Richmond, Va. 

Alice N. Baker, Principal. 

Two years' course and Post 

Graduate course. 

For further information apply to 

14 W. Main Street. 

Georgia Training Schools 



Atlanta Kindergarten Norma! 
School 

Two Tears' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
639 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 

Normal Training School 

of the 

KATE BALDWIN FREE KINDERGAR 

TEN ASSOCIATION. 

(Established 1899) 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal or 
the Training School and Supervisor 

of Kindergartens. 
Application for entrance to the Train 
ing Schools should be made to Miss M. K 
Sasnett, Corresponding Secretary, 

117 Bolton St., EAST SAVANNAH, GA 



If your Training School is not represent 
ed la these columns, kindly send us you 
copy, and let us put it among the other; 
Aside rom the advertising value, botb 
your pupils and your graduates will It- 
pleased to see your training school have a 
place among the others of America. 



1874 — Kindergarten Normal Instituti is — i 908 

1516 Colombia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



Repton School 

Tarry tow n=on=Hudson, New York 
A School for young boys between the ages of 7 and 14. A few of 
our special advantages are: 

Specially designed, modern buildings, costing over $ 100.000.00. Numbers are limited 
to Forty, giving an average of Five boys in a class, thus ensuring every boy, practicaily in 
dividualtuition 

A Physica Instructor, qualified in Europe, attends to the Swedish and other exer- 
icses, under the supervision ot the School Physician, who prescribes the exercise for each boy 

A resident nurse, and hospital building. 

Fee for the school year $400.00— $500.00. 

Apply to THE HEADMASTER. 



Reeds, Raffia, Splints, Braided Straw, Matting and General Construction Material 



Postage at the rate of 16c per pound must 
In all cases be added to these prices when 
goods are to be sect by mall. 

COLORED RAFFIA (Florist Fiber). 
Colors: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, 
Violet, Brown and Black. 

Per pound Net, $0.40 

Per 14-pound Net, .25 

Per 14-pound , Net, .15 

14-lb. bunch, assorted colors IS 

PLAIN RAFFIA (Florist Fiber). 

Per 2 ounces 06 

Per 34-pound .10 

Per %-pound 15 

Per pound 20 

Per pound, 5-pound lots 15 




REEDS. 
Our reed is ail put up in POUND PACK- 
AGES OF EACH SIZE, and we do not sell 
part of a package except at an advance 
of 5c per package. 

No. 1, fine, per pound 1.00 

No. 2, medium, per pound 05 

No. S, medium coarse, per pound...... .75 

No. 4, coarse, per pound 75 

No. 5, coarser, per pound .50 

No. 6, coarser, per pound .50 

LOOMS. 

Todd Adjustable — No. Al, no needle. . . .15 

Postage, 18c. 

Todd Adjustable— Perfection $0.30 

Postage, 33c. 

Todd Adjustable — No. 2 75 

Little Gem— No. 1, 9x12 25 

Little Gem— No. 2, 7x9% 25 

Faribault, hammock attachment 85 

Other Looms Furnished. 
Above should be ordered by express. 
MOUNTING BOARD. 

Good quality, 8-ply mounting board, colors, 
dark green, steel blue, black, per sheet, .08 

Kodack Mounts, colors as above, per sht.. .04 
Both above are 22x28 inches, but will be cut 
in H or % sheets at lc per sheet extra, or free 
in lots of 12 sheets at a time. 

Bristol, in colors, 22x28, per sheet $0.05 

Heavy Manila, 22y 2 x28% .02 

Straw Board, 22x28 02 

Postage on a single sheet of above, 4c, to 
which must be added postage on the packing for 
same, as follows: If cut in quarters and rolled, 
lc per sheet, 4c per doz. sheets. If sent full 
size and rolled, 5c per sheet, 8c per doz. sheets. 
Full sheets, packed flat, per sheet, 30c. Per 
dozen sheets, 35c. State how preferred. 

Japanese Manila, 20x30 01 

Leatherette, 20x25 05 

Cardboard Modeling Paper, 18x24 02 

Postage on above, 1 sheet, 2c; per doz., 17c 

Coated Paper, 20x24 04 

Engine Colored Paper, 20x24 .03 

GUt and Silver Paper, 20x24 .05 

Postage on above, 1 sheet, 2c; 1 doz., 8c 

Oak Tag for Construction Work, 8x12, 
dozen sheets .08 

Postage, 10 cents. 
Oak Tag for Construction Work, 8%x 
10%, per dozen .04 

Postage, 9 cents. 

Oak Tag for Construction Work, 7%x 
9%, per dozen .05 

Postage, 9 cents. 
Colors — Dark Green. Yellow, Turquoise- 
Carpet Warp, per skein 15 

Add 12c for postage 




ZEPHYR 





Favibaulfc 


Loom 














n Tj 


1 


II 















,FavibaaltVoo*w 




Hswvn\o«K 



ftktach 



Macreme Cord, per ball Net, .12 

Add 4c for postage. 

Rubber Balls, 2-lnch, plain, per doz 60 

Postage, each, 4c, per doz., 37c. 

Rubber Balls, 2-ineh, plain, per doz.. . .60 

Postage, each, 4c; per doz., 37c 

Rubber Balls, 3-lnch, plain, each 15 

Add 6c for postage. 

Rubber Balls, 4%-inch, plain, each 25 

Rubber Balls, 4%-inch, red, each 85 

Add 7c for postage for either above. 

B ra«s Paper Fasteners, per 100 20 

Conductor's Punch .80 

Add 4c for postage on either above. 

Copper Wire, per spool 20 

Iron Wire, per spool 10 

Add 7c for postage on either above. 
Following sent postpaid^on receipt of price : 

Germantown Yarn, skein 12 

Single Zephyr, per lap 08 

Seine Needles, wood, each 15c; doz.... 1.50 

Toy Knitter, per dozen 50 

Brown's Pictures, each. .%c, lc, 3c and .05 

Silver and Gilt Stars, gummed, per 100 .10 

Order the following by freight or express. 

Schute Weaving Discs, 4-lnch, doz 15 

Schute Weaving Discs, 6-inch, doz 25 

Schute Weaving Discs, 12-inch, doz 50 

The Multiple Perforator 3.00 

Orwig Punch 2.50 

Modeling Clay — 5Jb. bricks 25 

Modeling Clay Flour — 5-lb boxes 25 

Modeling Ciay — by the barrel 8.00 




WHITE BRAIDED STRAW. 

Per yard $0.02 

Postage, lc. 
Per piece, 120 yards 50 

Postage, per piece, 15c. 

COLORED BRAIDED STRAW. 

Half- inch wide. In colors, as follows: Nile 
Green, Red, Pink, Yale Blue, Bright Green 
and Ecru. 

Per yard 

Per piece, 120 yards 



Postage, same as for white braided straw 




Indian Ash Splints and Fillers. 

15c. per ounce; $1.20 per pound. Assorted 

colors. Postage, on ribbon and packing 

2c. per ounce. 20c per pound, 

We also keep in stock Wood Ribbon, Sweet 
Grass, T. K. Matting, Ash Splints for basket 
handles, Basket Bottoms, etc. Send for sam- 
ples or circulars and prices. 

We furnish everything on the market in 
the line of construction material at lowest 
pricAs. 



Address all orders'to 





Multiple Perforator 




Orwig Perforator 





03 

.60 RAPHIA FRAMES 



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American Kindergarten Supply House 

276-278=280 River Street, Manistee, Mich. 



15l)£ 3iin6er^arten-"primarY ^tta gamine 



VOL. XXI— MARCH, 1909— NO. 6 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 



Devoted to the Child and to the Unity of Educational 

Theory and Practice from the Kindergarten 

Through the University. 

Editorial Rooms, 59 West 96tli Street, New York, N. T. 

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

E. Lyell Earle, Ph. D Managing Editor 

J«nny B. Merrill, Ph. D., Supervisor Kindergartens, 

Manhattan, The Bronx and Richmond 

Harrtette M. Mills New York Froebel Normal 

Mari Kiief Hofer Teachers' College 

and N. Y.F.N. . 
Bertha Johnston New York Froebel Normal 

Special Articles 

All communications pertaining to subscriptions and advertising 
or other business relating to the magazine should be addressed 
to the nichigan office, J, H. Shults, Business flanager, Manistee, 
nichigan. All other communications to E. Lyell Earle, Managing 
Editor, 59 W. 96th St., New York City. 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine is published on the 
first of each month, except July and August, from 278 River 
Street, Manistee, Mich. 

The Subscription price is $1.00 per year, payable in advance. 
Single copies, 15c. 

Postage Is Prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions In 
the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, 
and Mexico. For Canada add 20« and fer all other countries 
In the Postal Union add 40c for postage. 

Notice of Expiration is sent, but it is assumed that a con- 
tinuance of the subscription is desired until notice of discon- 
tinuance is received. When sending notice of change of ad- 
dress, both the old and new addresses must be given. 

Remittances should be sent by draft, Express Order or 
Money Order, payable to The Kindergarten Magazine Com- 
pany. If a local check is sent, it must include 10c exchange. 



NATURE STUDY IN THE FIRST 
FOUR YEARS. 

W. T. B. S. IMLAY, Principal. 

The relative value of each study in the 
curriculum of our elementary schools 
should be estimated according to its help- 
fulness in developing and rounding out the 
child; in fitting him to take his place among 
men and in doing the best his abilities will 
allow. Therefore, the training of the 
child's mental powers means more than the 
developing in him an ability to memorize 
facts. The subject matter presented with 
this end in view should differ materially 
from that by which we simply wish to make 
the pupil the possessor of facts for the sake 
of familiarizing him with a given subject. 

Bearing this in mind, we find in nature 
a subject which, in the highest degree, 
affords an opportunity to develop the child's 
powers of observation. It trains his eye 
to see the things that are about him: to 
note varied conditions, contrasts and 
similarities. It also aids in developing the 
habit of patiently waiting for results, as 
well as enabling him to correctly reason, 
and, through noting the orderly procedure 



of nature's ways, the relation of cause and 
effect is seen. 

Nor do we stop here, for the eye being 
trained to see, the tongue at the same time 
should be trained to accurately tell what is 
seen. It may be said that this is ideal. Our 
answer is that, whether ideal or not, it is 
possible to do all this and much more if 
the study of nature is taken up enthusiasti- 
cally and patiently, allowing the child, 
under the teacher's direction, to become the 
discoverer of facts and conditions. 

To do this the teacher must become a 
student of nature. Not alone of its text 
books, but of its varied moods as found in 
stream and meadow, in sunshine and rain, 
under adverse as well as favorable condi- 
tions. 

She must be a lover of children, watch- 
ing the gradual unfolding of each child's 
mind and by adapting her aid to its peculiar 
requirements she shows him how to gather 
knowledge. 

She must spend her time in preparing 
for her work rather than in correcting the 
errors made by the pupils. 

She must be able to adapt herself to con- 
ditions and environment, not forcing the 
uncommon nor strange upon the children; 
she must lead them step by step from the 
familiar to the unknown. 

She must lose sight of self and her own 
knowledge, as, with firm hand, she leads 
the children unconsciously along the path 
she has marked out to the objects she 
wishes them to discover. Then, being an 
interested listener to tales of discovery, she 
sees the effectiveness of her work. 

She must be an expert questioner, fram- 
ing her queries in such a manner that time 
is not wasted, nor the point lost. She must 
never tell that which a pupil can find out 
for himself. 

She must direct where to go and what 
the pupil is to seek. 

METHOD. 

But the query may be raised, How is this 
to be done with all that is required in the 
short time at our disposal? 

First, by correlation with language, mak- 
ing language and nature study hand- 
maidens. 

Second, by taking it up incidentally for 
home work and bringing facts from out- 
side to the classroom to be there discussed. 



i8o 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



Observational nature study in its earliest 
stages must be done objectively, wherein 
the child from the object itself finds out 
facts. These facts are still further fastened 
by picture and story. The general condi- 
tions being the same, yet with details dif- 
ferent, the child's horizon is broadened. He 
is thus led from a study of the object to a 
study of the subject. Here he gathers in- 
formation from others relative to a given 
thing, and as he finds that there is much 
information which he must depend upon 
others to give him, he sees that he is but 
a part of a great whole. 

While the primary purpose of this study 
should be the development of the child, we 
must not lose sight of the fact that we are 
to make it the introduction to formal 
geography. That observing natural 
phenomenon will lead us to understand 
something about the physical conditions of 
the earth and how man is affected thereby. 
While we are gathering scientific facts we 
should keep in mind that we are not study- 
ing a science. Neither are we fitting chil- 
dren to be analytical discerners and re- 
corders of conditions and things beyond 
them. All that we ask is that they be able 
to classify when they see relations, to 
observe conditions, to realize that time is 
a great element in changing features, and, 
above all, to talk intelligently upon what 
they have seen and know. 

The following scheme for the first four 
years of school life is merely suggestive. 
It is offered simply as a frame about which 
may be built the structure best adapted to 
the school a teacher may be in. Varied to 
suit the individual preference and needs, if 
followed, this course will prove helpful in 
showing how much a child may do. 

FIRST YEAR. 

Have pupils observe 
WEATHER CONDITIONS. 

Kind of day — clear, cold, stormy, etc. 
THE SUN. 

Where it seems to rise. 

Where it seems to set. 

Where it is at noon. 

Where it never is. 

What it does. 

Its shape as we see it. Compare it with other 
objects. 
COLOR OF SKY. 

Sun, clouds. 
FAMILIAR FLOWERS. 
WHAT FAMILIAR ANIMALS DO. 
PLANTS — WHAT THEY NEED TO KEEP THEM 

ALIVE. 

Air, soil, water, sunshine, 



v/ATER. 

Give its uses. 

Have nature poems learned. Use pictures to 
fasten the nature facts presented as well as to 
show other related facts in nature. 

Encourage pupils to collect and preserve the 
pictures of nature facts presented. 

Combine all Nature Work with Language. 

SECOND YEAR. 

ENCOURAGE PERSONAL OBSERVATION. 

HAVE PUPILS TEST FACTS. 

HAVE PUPILS OBSERVE FAMILIAR ANIMALS. 

What the animal does; how he lives. 

Habits of animals compared. 

Families of animals illustrated by pictures. 

PLANTS — WHAT IS NECESSARY TO SUSTAIN 
LIFE? 

Light, heat, air, soil, water. 

PARTS NECESSARY FOR LIFE. 

Root, stem, leaves. 

PARTS NECESSARY TO REPRODUCE OTHER 
PLANTS. 

Bud, flower, fruit, seed. 
PLANTS MAY BE 
Very large — trees. 
Large or bushy — shrub. 
Small — herb. 

Have pupils watch germination of seeds. 
Compare plants as to parts. 

HAVE PUPILS OBSERVE THE WEATHER. 

Kind of day. 
Direction of the wind. 

HAVE PUPILS OBSERVE THE SUN. 

Where it rises now as compared with where it 
rose two or three months ago. 

Where it sets now as compared with where it 
set two or three months ago. 

What has been caused by this? 

HAVE PUPILS OBSERVE WHAT WATER DOES 

(Take this up on rainy days). 
Falls, flows, collects. 

DEVELOP, APPLY, and HAVE LEARNED what 

is a 

Puddle, pond, lake, ocean, stream, river? 

Develop idea that water gives form to land. 

Apply and have learned what is an island, 
peninsula. 

Have nature forms learned and talked about. 

Use pictures to fasten facts presented and to 
show related facts. 

Encourage pupils to collect and preserve pictures 
of nature facts and to talk accurately about them. 

Correlate all Nature with Language. 

THIRD YEAR. 

Prior to this time the object has principally been 
studied, but now we begin to have the pupils study 
the subject as well. This may be done by 

STUDYING OBJECTS. 

GATHERING EXPERIENCE OR OBSERVATIONS 
OF OTHER PEOPLE. 

The children who have knowledge thus become 
the instructors of those that have none or but 
little. The teacher must always bear in mind that 
she is the diiector and suggester, the pupil being 
the gatherer and learner. 

There must be constant review of the work of 
lower grades. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



I8l 



ANIMALS. 
BIRDS. 

How they are distinguished from other animals. 
FAMILIES OR CLASSES. 

Perchers, waders, swimmers, scratchers, birds of 
prey, runners, climbers. THEIR HABITS AND 
CHARACTERISTICS IN OUTLINE. 

Insects AND LOWER FORMS OF ANIMAL LIFE. 
Peculiarities and habits in outline. No attempt 
made to study analytically. 

PLANTS. 

Planting of seeds and watching germination. 
STUDY OF ROOTS. 

Kinds — Fleshy and fibrous. 

Parts — Crown, root, and rootlet. 

Uses of each part. 
PICTURES OF OBJECTS. 

Roots used as food. 

STEMS. 
Parts and their uses. 

LEAVES. 

Parts and their uses. 

ARTICLES OP FOOD obtained from the different 
parts of plants. 

USEFUL ARTICLES obtained from the different 
parts of plants. 

The different ways in which plants grow 
exogens, endogens. 
THINGS THAT HAVE LIFE COMPARED WITH 

THOSE THAT HAVE NO LIFE. 

MINERALS. 

Soil, what it is. 

Rocks, and what becomes of them. 
Sand, 
Clay, 
Slate, 
What they are. The?r uses. 

LAND AND WATER FORMS. 

Develop by moulding board; observe on rainy 
days. 
COLLECTED WATER. 

Puddle, pond, lake, ocean. 
PARTS OF COLLECTED BODIES OF WATER. 

Bay, gulf, sea. 
FLOWING WATER. 

Stream, river. 
CONNECTING WATER. 

Strait. 

LAND FORMS. 

Island, peninsula, cape, hill, mountain, isthmus. 
Have pupils draw and color land and water 
forms. 

Develop horizon, zenith. 

DIRECTION. 

Of places from school. 
Of important places from each other. 
Routes followed by children in going from home 
to school. 

Points of compass taught. 

Nature poems taught and disclosed. 

HOW TO TEACH DIRECTION. 

Place paper on desk, with top towards the north. 
While the paper is lying on the desk, mark in 
their respective places on the paper the points of 
eompass — north, east, south, and west. Take the 
paper from the desk and hold before you. Develop 



the fact that the change of position does not change 
the actual direction marked on the paper while on 
the desk. Have pupils tell where the north or 
east really is; where it is to be represented on the 
paper. Develop the fact that the paper represents 
direction on the surface of the desk. When this 
has been done, hang paper on wall and call atten- 
ion to actual and indicated direction. Place paper 
over a map and call attention to the same. 

FOURTH YEAR. 

The work of lower grades reviewed. 

ANIMALS. 
Mammals; characteristics. 

PLANTS. 

Classified. 
LAND AND WATER FORMS. 

Some map, say of Long Island, Manhattan 
Island, or Brox Borough may be used to illustrate 
forms. Pupil to recognize by name as well as to 
indicate when the form is named. Direction of 
one form from another shown on map. 

The form of the earth SHOWN by the globe. 

LAND AND WATER FORMS SHOWN on the 
globe. 

DIRECTION of one water form from another 
shown on the globe. 

NIGHT AND MOON. 

Have pupils observe the difference in the appear- 
ance of the sky at night from what it is in the 
day. 

Have pupils observe the different positions ol 
the moon. The change in the shape of the moon 
is to be noticed. 

Do not try to explain causes, but simply have the 
children notice the facts 

PEOPLE. 

How people live. 

Some reasons for the different manner of living. 

WHAT PEOPLE DO TO GAIN A LIVING. 

Work the soil. (Agriculture.) 
Make things from that which is obtained from 
the soil. (Manufacture.) 
Buy and sell. (Commerce.) 
Dig for minerals. (Mining.) 
Cut forest trees. (Lumbering.) 
Fish. 

PRODUCTS. 

Animal, 

Vegetable, 

Mineral, 
Where obtained? How obtained? 

The surface characteristics shown and explained 
by physical maps. 

USE EXACT GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS. 

Use globe to show differences between sphere and 
hemisphere; between hemisphere and continent. 

Use globe or map to show difference between 
continent and grand division. 

CONTINENTS. 

Eastern and Western. 

GRAND DIVISION. 

North America, South America, Eurasia, and 
Africa. 

Show (do not expect the pupils to understand 
or memorize) how the earth is heated. 

This will include the revolution of the earth 
on its axis about the sun. 



l82 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



THE INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL. 

Reviewing the various stages' and pur- 
poses of education — religious and cultural 
to about 1300, utilitarian in the church and 
in the art and crafts for the next four or 
five centuries, when a return to the cultural 
aim but with a broader field of material and 
method, we find that our twentieth century 
has brought us to a new educational era — 
to a renascence in the art of teaching. The 
process, like the processes of nature and 
art, and government, has been one of 
evolution. The great underlying force in 
the development of our American system 
has been the economic and political condi- 
tion of the country, directed and controlled 
by the self-conscious power and sense of 
responsibility of the common people, act- 
ing through their unit of government, the 
state. Looking into the "little red school 
house" of a few generations ago, we find 
the beginnings of every step in the most 
elaborate system of today; even a course 
in university training was given to the 
bright pupil who walked through the fields 
with the school master or who by the light 
of the resinous pine-knot delved to the 
depths in mathematics or law, or philos- 
ophy, or climbed to the heights in literature 
or science or religion. 

Constructing upon such a foundation, 
then, with heed to the demands of the mass 
of the people as well as to their best 
development in industry, morality, content- 
ment and enlightenment, the organizer of 
a state unit of education must meet the 
questions. 

1. What are the demands? 

2. To what extent are they met by the 
district schools? 

3. How, with greatest efficiency plus 
greatest economy, may they be met now? 

The first two questions are well an- 
swered in The History of the Massa- 
chusetts School System — Martin, but the 
third must be answered by each state and 
bv each large city, and even by each good- 
sized town with full consideration given to 
its social, ethical and industrial past and 
future. It is the question of today in our 
educational unrest. It brings to our con- 
sideration, to be viewed in relation one to 
another, 

1. Studies, absolute value; relative 
value. 

2. Pupils, as varying in age ; as vary- 
ing in capacity for knowledge. 



3. Pupils as varying -in interests, tem- 
peraments, native ability. 

Because of the form of our government 
which gives the maximum of power to the 
masses of the people, the importance of our 
elementary education is proportionate to 
its greater extensiveness, and in New York 
City but fifty-six per cent of those who 
enter the elementary school, apply for ad- 
mission to the high schools, and of the 
fifty-six per cent, fifty-two per cent leave 
during the first year. The problem of the 
elementary school has, therefore, to do 
with over seventy-two per cent of the total 
school population. 

Though the most important, this step in 
the educative process is the most difficult 
because Of the age of the pupils, and the 
difference of aim, interest and ability. Two 
ends must be kept in view, first retrospec- 
tive, "How meet the demands of the com- 
munity?" and, second, prospective "How 
fit these demands in training for efficient 
citizenship?" Of the latter aim we may 
make two divisions, intellectual, including 
the intelligent understanding of physical 
needs, and ethical. 

In these directions the Commissioners 
and Superintendents of Education in the 
city of New York have made wonderful 
progress during the last ten years in mat- 
ters of both economy and efficiency. The 
consolidation of schools under one head 
has made for unity and uniformity, and the 
"Departmental System," in increasing 
specialization has increased knowledge and 
skill on the teachers' part, and on the 
pupils', knowledge, power and character- 
building. 

From the departmental system, to meet 
the conditions in the more congested dis- 
tricts, has evolved the Intermediate, or 
what might be more properly termed the 
Pre-Academic school, in which are gath- 
ered, under one principal, a person of 
superior professional and administrative 
ability, all the seventh and eighth year 
pupils of the district. The first saving is 
in the reduction of the number of classes 
in the last two years — say from forty 
classes with registers ranging from twenty- 
five to fifty, to thirty classes with registers 
of forty, a good working number. The 
consequent relief in cases of part-time 
classes in the lower grades is self-evident. 
The plan of instruction is departmental, 
with, of course, greater specialization on 
the teacher's part, the healthy and friendly 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



183 



friction among teachers and classes that study card and (b) a teacher's schedule of 

makes for improvement and progress, and classes. 

a maximum of special equipment such as These two teachers' schedules show two 

apparatus for science, history and ways of dividing the day. The division 

geography, domestic science, gymnastics into fifteen periods of twenty minutes each 

and shop-work. In the ordinary school serves several purposes. First the inflex- 



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with from four to eight classes of the 
seventh and eighth years, an expenditure 
for such equipment would not be justifi- 
able, because, out of twenty-five hours, it 
would be used but four to eight hours per 
week. 

The time divisions are similar to those 
of the high school, as will be shown in 
the following diagrams for (a) a pupil's 



ible time division of forty minutes, be the 
subject history or gymnastics, need not be 

*Plus half of boys' class, the other half of which 
is in the shop. 

**Should be used for distribution of library 
bftoks, inspection of blank-books, drill in spelling 
or in any way for best interest of the class in 
the opinion of its official teacher. 

***In an Intermediate school only half the 
pupils can assemble at one time. 



1 84 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



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enforced. Instead a half class may remain 
in the shop or in the kitchen eighty min- 
utes; either two periods of forty minutes 
or one period of eighty minutes may be 
given to Manual Training. Shorter study 
periods give the children opportunity for 
the supervision and direction of several in- 
structors and for specialized assistance in 
study. A short and frequent period for 
gymnastics is surely a gain upon physical 
exercises which tend to fatigue before forty 
minutes have passed, and a daily music 
lesson of twenty minutes is a better agent 
for tone development, correct method and 
physical response in singing than a less 
frequent longer period. It is well, when 
possible to double classes in study and in 
music — in the first for economy, and for 
free periods for teachers, and for accustom- 
ing pupils, gradually to the methods of the 
high school; in the second for the better 
results of the larger chorus, and the mutual 
improvement on part-singing when the 
choruses are mixed, (i. e., boys and girls). 
None of these things could well be done in 
the seventh and eighth year grades of the 
usual school register. 

When there are large numbers of pupils 
of one grade or type, segregation for the 
various reasons can best be accomplished, 
and flexibility of courses, methods and 
grading facilitated and increased. The 
pupils of thinking ability or those whose 



education will continue beyond the elemen- 
tary school may be grouped together and 
given those studies which will function in 
secondary education, with the teacher's 
aim and view beyond the point at which 
the children leave school. The maximum 
of homogeneity in a class will give teachers 
greater and more effective opportunity for 
the cultivation of school morality, self- 
reliance, self-confidence, recognition of a 
place for and a value in the ability of the 
concrete thinker. It will also increase 
opportunity for meeting and providing for 
individual differences, in attitude to les- 
sons, to school rules as well as to interests 
and abilities. 

Those pupils whose formal schooling 
ends with the eighth year, such grouping 
should have provided with a realization of 
their ability, as related to their interests, a 
specialized direction of independent 
thought, which will enable them to fit into 
new situations in the lines of activity they 
have chosen. 

Of the individual differences those deter- 
mined upon the basis of native ability and 
capacity for working are most deserving 
of special provision. The Intermediate 
school, is able to make a special class for 
the six per cent of the pupils of plus-normal 
ability, by making transfers from the ya 
grades in about the fourth week of the 
school term. These pupils' programmes 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



185 



would not be different from those of other 
classes, but the teacher's plans for speed 
and correlation would receive particular 
attention with the aim of finishing in a 
year and a half the work of two years or 
four grades. Individual differences in 
teachers would be considered in the assign- 
ments to such classes, enthusiasm and 
initiative being prerequisites. Where such 
a plan has been tried the promotion or re- 
naming of the class is an event of greatest 
interest to every pupil in the school and 
therefore functions for increase of school 
spirit, the plan might be carried to the 
greater length of allowing individual 
pupils— foreigners or out of town pupils of 
advanced age, or any whose study had 
covered a slightly different course — to 
finish the seventh and eighth years in one 
year. The flexibility of grading desirable 
for a small part of our children might be 
effected in this way. Work of a similar 
kind should be done for the slower pupils 
and hold-overs. 

Much has been written during the last 
decade and several experiments have been 
made in industrial and commercial train- 
ing in the secondary schools. Such train- 
ing has a very important place in the last 
two years of the present elementary 
schools, for reasons similar to those which 
give it a place in the high schools, and 
could as easily be carried on. Under an 
elective system a course in German might 
be adapted, as in many schools at the 
present time, to the needs of those pupils 
whose education will be continued in high 
school. For such pupils as are fitted for 
commercial work the two hundred minutes 



assigned for a foreign language might be 
spent more profitably in the study of book- 
keeping, stenography and typewriting. 
Arithmetic and civics could be so modified 
that they would best serve the aims of 
these pupils. Other pupils whose interests 
and capacity would best be trained for 
mechanical pursuits would elect to give 
this time to working in metal, sheet-iron, 
and the principles of industries which could 
be presented and understood most sys- 
tematically, and economically at this age. 
The pupils, under efficient instruction 
would be lead to sense the joy of produc- 
tion, to appreciate the dignity of manual 
labor and to combine a cultural mentality 
with mechanical skill. Only in an inter- 
mediate school of reasonable size, one thou- 
sand or more pupils, could this problem be 
economically and adequately dealt with. 

Among the problems presented to the 
organizer of an intermediate school, 
records and discipline are prominent. This 
is met very simply by making each teacher 
the ''official teacher" of a given section, and 
responsible for its attendance, punctuality 
and behavior. Each class would have a 
"section book" in which to record the at- 
tendance and conduct of the class in each 
room. Following is a diagram of a day's 
record in such a book, for fifteen twenty 
minute periods : 

Pupils whose names are entered for 
neglect or annoyance report to the official 
teacher for punishment, and as the method 
makes a square in the matter of respons- 
ibility it is effective in diffusing the in- 
fluence of a strong teacher, and assists the 
weak. The section-book is carried by the 



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i86 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



class president, for the Intermediate school 
affords one of the best opportunities for 
the development of student government 
plans at their best. Another plan is to have 
an attendance card carried by the class 
president. Conduct would be marked A., 



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B., C. or D. at the end of each month by 
all teachers, and the lowest mark used, or 
the marks averaged. Both plans work 
with marked success in two intermediate 
schools in New York. 



John Jo 



Feb.. 



Mar. 



April 



May. 



X 

B+ 



B 

B+ 

B+ 



B 
B+ 



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Brf- 
B+ 
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For the purpose of keeping records of 
pupils' marks, the following scheme is 
effective, though perhaps open to criticism 
because of excessive book-keeping. The 
teachers of the various subjects send to the 
official teacher, by the second of each 
month, estimates of pupils' work for the 



month previous, including a mark in cor- 
related subjects. The diagram will show 
how this is best accomplished. 
(See preceding illustration) 
From such a record the Record Teacher 
may transcribe the marks upon a card 
which will be a record of the pupil's stand- 
ing during his time in the intermediate 
grades. 

(See table on following page) 

This card should remain with the Prin- 
cipal or with each successive Record 
Teacher, going with the pupil through 
school. From it the monthly report card, 
stating averages and deficients is made, and 
sent to the parents. 



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Among the objections that have been 
raised to the departmental system, and 
therefore to the Intermediate school is 
that of lack of correlation. A safe-guard 
against this is horizontal as well as vertical 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



John Jones 

Bom Jan.l, 1894 


Grade 7 AB 1 

Term ending Ju., 1908 


Grade 7 BB 2 


Grade 7 BB 2 


Grade 8 AB 


Grade 8 BB 




d 

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Reading 
























































Written C. 
Oral Comp. 
Spelling 
Penmanship 
History 
Geography 
S cience 
Dr awing 
Shop 
Cooking 
Gymnastics 
German 
Music 
Effort 
Proficiency 
Time* Late 
Days Absent 
Conduct 























































































































































































































































































































































assignments in the placing of teachers. On 
the teachers' schedules shown it will be 
seen that this is done in the case of the 
English work. Each class goes to the 
teacher for English eighty minutes per day 
and the sub-divisions are left to the in- 
dividual teachers, or to the teachers on a 
given grade to be settled in conference. 
This provides for the greatest possible cor- 
relation in the branches of English, Litera- 
ture, Composition, Grammar, Spelling and 
Dictation. It allows for considerable 
flexibility in the time assignments, keeping 
in accord with the Course of Study, and 
makes provision for the individualism of 
both teacher and class. Moreover it opens 
up the correlation of literature with com- 
position and rhetoric and prepares him for 
the methods of the high school. 



Another means for correlating and co- 
ordinating studies is to allow teachers to 
hold grade conferences, or when there are 
several teachers of the same subject for a 
grade, let them hold subject conferences. 
These should be attended by teachers of 
grades immediately above and immediately 
below, so that articulation and consequent 
economy of time and energy may result. 
Subject conferences may be made of two 
kinds — absolute and relative. At the first 
the subject matter would be discussed, 
unified and planned in point of time. At 
the second the subject matter would be 
considered in relation to other subjects. 
Requiring all teachers to give marks in 
oral composition, etc., will aid in this mat- 
ter also. Unity in school legislation will 
be effected and experiments advantageous- 



[88 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



ly made if teachers of certain class groups, 
meeting in conference, decide upon means 
of class management, always of course with 
power of approval or veto left to the Prin- 
cipal. 

Among the many virtues of the Inter- 
mediate school, the possibilities of furnish- 
ing the maximum of social activity, or- 
ganized and directed, is most important. 
It is of incalculable value in the training of 
character, and here in the pre-academic 
grades reaches the great majority of chil- 
dren whose school life ends at fourteen or 
fifteen. In a school of a thousand seventh 
and eighth year pupils, it is possible to 
organize a Glee Club of at least two hun- 
dred, various athletic clubs according to 
the interests and capacities of the pupils, 
crafts clubs, literary clubs, an employment 
bureau, a newspaper staff, history clubs 
and several other dependent upon the in- 
genuity of the teacher and the character of 
the children. Teachers are always ready to 
give extra time, energy and strength to 
such activities. In 1904 when P. S. 62 was 
organized under Principal John S. Roberts, 
the Intermediate school was an experiment. 
Success attended it from the beginning as 
it has attended the two which have since 
had fair trial. These are P. S. 24, Man- 
hattan, under Principal J. A. Waters, and 
P. S. 42, Bronx, under Principal Wm. P. 
McCarthy. Visits to any of these schools 
will repay not the educator only, but any 
person interested in the future of our 
country and society. 

As the schools become more active in 
their duty to the community through 
Alumni Associations, Lectures, Parents' 
Meetings and the like, the importance and 
desirability of the pre-academic school 
will be more fully recognized. It is 
one more step toward the perfection of 
efficiency and economy due to Dr. Wm. 
Maxwell's direction of our municipal school 
system. It has paved the way in New 
York for the more logical plan of time 
division in the students' school life given 
by Mr. Harms (Harvard University): 

Primary 3 years 6 — 9 years 

Grammar 3 years 9 — 12 years 

Secondary 6 years 12 — 18 years 

Tertiary 6 years 18—24 years 

The curriculum for nine or twelve years would divide as 
follows: In the first six years emphasis would be placed 
upon the school crafts, the essentials with the beginnings 
ot cultural interest n the fouith year. After the sixth 
year the emphasis should be upon the cultural subjects, 
and a dual system, academic and technical should be 
developed. The latter would serve the needs of the 



great number whose jeducation is completed with the 
tourteenth or fifteenth year, and who demand and should 
receive an education of immediate practical benefit, 
which at the same time makes for power to understand 
and to grow. The City Club, advocating reorganization 
along these lines, are pointing the next step in our edu- 
cational evolution. 

BRIDGET M. F. CAULFIELD. 



*LETTERS TO A YOUNG KINDER- 
GARTNER. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF MARCHING AND 
RHYTHMS. 

My dear Young Kindergartner : It is 
not surprising that the music of your kin- 
dergarten is, as you say a constant source 
of disappointment to you. No single 
aspect of kindergarten work has been sub- 
ject to so much experimentation. Devices 
and schemes for improving kindergarten 
music are set forth, many ot which are at- 
tractive and sufficiently alluring, and which, 
while they may be successful in the hands 
Of the originators, are most disheartening 
to the young kindergartner who seeks the 
solution of her difficulties by such means. 
However, do not lay all the failures of 
these schemes to the tact that your musical 
achievements are most ordinary. The dif- 
ficulties are often inherent in the schemes. 
Into the realm of kindergarten music we 
are prone to rush with the latest device and 
notion, where we should proceed slowly 
and reflectively. 

In my last letter I indicated how instru- 
mental music may be made a unifying 
agency of the morning circle and also how 
it may aid in securing that attitude of mind 
and heart which is necessary if prayer and 
hymn are to be characterized by the spirit 
ol worship. Herein music is used for its 
most fundamental influence — to awaken 
and nurture feelings and emotions for 
which music, in turn, furnishes the most 
fitting means of expression. This primary 
function of music, it is important for you 
to grasp; but it should not blind you to 
other significant influences of which we 
may well consider three; namely, the phy- 
sical, intellectual, and moral. Granting 
that music influences child life in this three 
fold fashion, the necessity for careful or- 
ganization becomes imperative. 

Let me present two negative situations 
often seen in kindergarten. Marching is 
a daily exercise. In many kindergartens 
its continuity is mechanical ;and deadening 

*A11 rights reserved. 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



189 



rather than progressive and vital. First 
there is the march where the children move 
hand in hand in a kind of kindergarten 
lock-step led by the teacher who often 
marches backward that she may exercise 
control over the group. Such a march is 
held by the one in charge to meet the de- 
mands for physical relaxation. Followed 
faithfully it becomes the dreariest of all 
exercises, the reaction being in perfect re- 
sponse to the dre ar, daily monotony of 
the piano. 

Again, in place of the lock-step the 
teacher leads a march and after a few min- 
utes the entire group puts on imaginary 
soldier caps, knapsacks, epaulets and 
swords; they wave imaginary flags, first 
with the right hand, then with the left, then 
with both hands, when, suddenly the chil- 
dren break into helter skelter running, 
skipping, sliding; they walk like turkeys, 
waddle like ducks, tramp like horses, jump 
like rabbits, fly like birds, and all the while 
the piano is giving forth the unremitting 
strains of some popular two step. 

These procedures are an offense against 
child nurture. The first is stultifying in 
its effects, while the other is injurious 
physically, mentally, and morally. In the 
case where miscellaneous activities are re- 
quired while the children are marching, let 
me be quite clear. The ability to co- 
ordinate and readjust motor responses to 
such markedly differing activities requires 
a physical control seldom seen in the kin- 
dergarten child; and when one musical 
form is used for widely divergent activities, 
an intellectual stimulus is lacking, while a 
subtle untruthfulness, a lack of sincerity, is 
present, even though ignored. 

In contrast with this let us consider the 
development of marching and rhythms 
under the strict guidance of the rule "sim- 
ple before complex;" or, in other words, as 
evolving in a progression that is vital — a 
progression which calls for increasing 
physical control, a growing alertness of in- 
tellectual power to grasp ideas, and an in- 
creasing earnestness and fidelity of expres- 
sion which is truthfulness. 

Organization will not begin then, with 
marching, since it is well along in the scale 
of "controlled activity. It will begin with 
the characteristic free activities of child- 
hood. Every normal child of five years 
knows how to walk, run, skip, and how to 
take the hop-skip movement. These 
activities have been acquired outside the 



kindergarten, first, from pure joy in move- 
ment, and second, in response to some 
definite purpose such as going on errands 
for mother. In the kindergarten they are 
to pass under conscious control in response 
to appropriate rhythms. 

One may well begin wth the skipping 
movement since in this the child is the least 
self-conscious and the element of spon- 
taneity, or abandon, is the dominant note. 
If the room is small, seat one group which 
may profitably watch and be ready to re- 
peat the activities. You may begin with 
one child, taking then another until the 
entire group is skipping in perfect abandon. 
Often this can be accomplished without the 
use of piano. Soon the suggestion to join 
hands will be made and skipping around 
the ring and reversing to skip the other 
way will give a pleasant variation to the 
exercise. Or, partners will be chosen, thus 
bringing the moment of readiness for the 
introduction of the song "I wish dear little 
playmate you'd skip with me today," or, 
Remicke's "A Partner So Merry." Thus, 
song and rhythm may come to the children 
as the best possible expression of a situa- 
tion rich in physical, intellectual and social 
nurture. The skipping activities once 
fairly begun, their progression and varia- 
tion may keep pace with the growing con- 
trol of the children. 

Running activities may in time be subject 
to much delightful extension and variation 
— swiftly, heavily, softly, on tiptoe — until 
they merge into tag games, racing games, 
and feats of skill. Walking may give point 
of departure for many exercises; walking 
sedately as in going to church; hurriedly 
as if going to the store for mother; easily 
and gracefully, as on pleasure bent. Just 
here, Miss Poulsson's "L,ittle Boy's Walk" 
will be suggestive. It will give the point 
of departure for an excursion to practice 
walking and "seeing things," which, in 
turn, will afford suggestion for many 
activities which express thought content. 

The habit once established of making 
the familiar movements of skipping, run- 
ning and walking in response to appro- 
priate rhythms from the piano, it is easy to 
begin the ordered, constrained activity of 
marching. Here, again, begin with the 
simplest form, which is measured stepping. 
For this, Schumann's "Soldiers March" 
may be used, or perhaps better still the 
"Dessauer March" played with light 
staccato touch thereby securing the de- 



IgQ 



KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE. 



sired reaction. Further it is desirable to 
march while you march, introducing varia- 
tions such as fast, slow, changing the direc- 
tion of the march, etc., noting and correct- 
ing defective carrying of head, shoulders 
and arms. The calisthenic march, so popu- 
lar in some kindergartens, belongs to a 
more advanced stage of development. 

It is well to relieve the tension of march- 
ing by forming a circle in which one may 
direct activities which exercise every 
muscle of the body. Here too, one may 
provide opportunities for th